American Colonies


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American Colonies

  1. 1. American Colonies Part III By: Sara Rawson
  2. 2. Revolutions Men and Money • When William of Orange overthrew King James II, he began a war with France of immense cost. • To keep up with France, England had to strengthen their army and their defense system. • They fought the Nine Years War. • Because of their increased military power, Parliament raised taxes and England became one of the most heavily taxed nations. • England got themselves into a great deal of debt at this time. • Overall, because of the changes in military and taxation, a new form of sovereignty emerged in which the crown could not use excess power without the approval of Parliament.
  3. 3. Revolutions Colonial and Indian War • The increased military and taxation did not benefit the colonialists at all. • The mainland colonies were attacked by New France and were considered less valuable. • The book tells a story of a woman named Hannah Dustin who was captured and escaped and in doing so she and 2 other escapees killed and scalped their captures, including woman and children. • The English and French made peace in 1697, however the Iroquois who fought with them remained fighting against other tribes of Indians.
  4. 4. The Atlantic Trade • Trade became more and more complex over time during the eighteenth century, because they created a complicated trading system using bills of exchange and keeping track of everything. • Wheat exports grew in importance. During the eighteenth century, the ratio of wheat grown to wheat needed to feed all of the people there was not good, and it provided less wheat for them to trade with others. • The free colonists obviously benefited more from the increase in trade, because the slaves did not get to benefit from the fruits of their labor, which is sad. • Because of the increases in trade, the free colonists had more income to spend on other things that they needed. • The development of the new system of trade and of the bills of exchange benefited the system a great deal.
  5. 5. The Atlantic Poverty • Although there was a great deal of prosperity, they were also those who were poor and suffered from hardships around the 1750s and 1760s. • There was unemployment and struggle amongst the colonists. A gap began to form between those who suffered from low to no income, and those who wee successful such as lawyers, merchants and government officials. • The land available was minimal due to the fact that a great majority of it was already “owned” by the tribes of Indians that had lived there first. This made it difficult for young people to have places of their own, or to produce goods of their own. • There were also struggles with the land and such because of the tough environment that the settlers were not use to when they came. They had a great deal of adjusting to do.
  6. 6. The Great Plains Horses and Guns • Although horses are shown as symbols of what the Indians rode around on in pretty much every modern day depiction of Indians, horses weren't actually around until much later, and Indians adapted to them after the were introduced by the Hispanics. • Horses came to benefit those who lived in those areas greatly, especially those who hunter buffalo for a living. The ability to travel on horseback sped up the process greatly as opposed to having to travel strictly on the ground because that method took a great deal of time and energy. • With the increase of ability to hunt buffalo efficiently, came an increase in money and product for those people. • Guns were also introduced and became beneficial both for a method of hunting and also for protection. • These improvements benefited the people living there greatly.
  7. 7. The Great Plains The Bourbon Reforms • In the 1770s and 1780s, New Mexico was reformed and rescued by Spanish officials who were appointed to implement reforms at the expense of the church. • The reformers wanted to adopt a policy that treated the native people with respect, generosity and cunning. • Reform took awhile to begin to work. It took strong leaders such as Teodoro de Croix and Bernardo de Galvez to mold things into the way the reformers wanted it. • They resettles Apache Indians and helped them by giving them rations of food and other products, and helping to teach them some of the ways that they did things. • Although it was not as successful as planned, the new reforms did help a bit.
  8. 8. The Pacific Alta California • Worried about losing power, the Spanish crown ordered the colonization of California in order to keep control of the border that California shares with Mexico. It was divided into tow parts. Alta California and Baja California. • Alta California was more complex and bigger than Baja California. In 1768 there were about 300,000 natives in Alta California. • It was a culturally diverse land, as it contained a great number of different tribes. They grew many different native foods there. • The tribes had active and strong Shaman but weak Chiefs. This meant that a great deal of their beliefs lay in what they learned from the land, visions, and dreams. • The hunters had great power, and sometimes there was fighting.
  9. 9. The Pacific Missions • The Spanish were very into their beliefs and what was important to them. Some of those things were the Catholic Faith, the Castilian language, and obedience to the king. • Of course they felt the need to spread the language of their faith to others wherever they went, and this did not exclude those in the new land. • Their plan was to attract the Natives to their faith, and then once they had their attention, they would teach them all that they felt the Natives needed to know. • Though some of the natives did convert, they also held on to their traditions and beliefs from their own culture. • The Natives had a way with their own plants and animals, as they have lived and grown up in that environment, and the colonists were intrigued.