Men and Money
• When William of Orange overthrew King James II,
he began a war with France of immense cost.
• To keep up with France, England had to strengthen
their army and their defense system.
• They fought the Nine Years War.
• Because of their increased military power,
Parliament raised taxes and England became one
of the most heavily taxed nations.
• England got themselves into a great deal of debt at
• Overall, because of the changes in military and
taxation, a new form of sovereignty emerged in
which the crown could not use excess power
without the approval of Parliament.
Colonial and Indian War
• The increased military and taxation did
not benefit the colonialists at all.
• The mainland colonies were attacked by
New France and were considered less
• The book tells a story of a woman named
Hannah Dustin who was captured and
escaped and in doing so she and 2 other
escapees killed and scalped their
captures, including woman and children.
• The English and French made peace in
1697, however the Iroquois who fought
with them remained fighting against
other tribes of Indians.
• Trade became more and more complex over time during
the eighteenth century, because they created a
complicated trading system using bills of exchange and
keeping track of everything.
• Wheat exports grew in importance. During the
eighteenth century, the ratio of wheat grown to wheat
needed to feed all of the people there was not good, and
it provided less wheat for them to trade with others.
• The free colonists obviously benefited more from the
increase in trade, because the slaves did not get to
benefit from the fruits of their labor, which is sad.
• Because of the increases in trade, the free colonists had
more income to spend on other things that they
• The development of the new system of trade and of the
bills of exchange benefited the system a great deal.
• Although there was a great deal of prosperity,
they were also those who were poor and suffered
from hardships around the 1750s and 1760s.
• There was unemployment and struggle amongst
the colonists. A gap began to form between those
who suffered from low to no income, and those
who wee successful such as lawyers, merchants
and government officials.
• The land available was minimal due to the fact
that a great majority of it was already “owned” by
the tribes of Indians that had lived there first.
This made it difficult for young people to have
places of their own, or to produce goods of their
• There were also struggles with the land and such
because of the tough environment that the
settlers were not use to when they came. They
had a great deal of adjusting to do.
The Great Plains
Horses and Guns
• Although horses are shown as symbols of what the Indians
rode around on in pretty much every modern day
depiction of Indians, horses weren't actually around until
much later, and Indians adapted to them after the were
introduced by the Hispanics.
• Horses came to benefit those who lived in those areas
greatly, especially those who hunter buffalo for a living.
The ability to travel on horseback sped up the process
greatly as opposed to having to travel strictly on the
ground because that method took a great deal of time and
• With the increase of ability to hunt buffalo efficiently,
came an increase in money and product for those people.
• Guns were also introduced and became beneficial both for
a method of hunting and also for protection.
• These improvements benefited the people living there
The Great Plains
The Bourbon Reforms
• In the 1770s and 1780s, New Mexico was reformed and rescued by Spanish officials
who were appointed to implement reforms at the expense of the church.
• The reformers wanted to adopt a policy that treated the native people with
respect, generosity and cunning.
• Reform took awhile to begin to work. It took strong leaders such as Teodoro de
Croix and Bernardo de Galvez to mold things into the way the reformers wanted it.
• They resettles Apache Indians and helped them by giving them rations of food
and other products, and helping to teach them some of the ways that they did
• Although it was not as successful as planned, the new reforms did help a bit.
• Worried about losing power, the Spanish
crown ordered the colonization of California
in order to keep control of the border that
California shares with Mexico. It was divided
into tow parts. Alta California and Baja
• Alta California was more complex and bigger
than Baja California. In 1768 there were about
300,000 natives in Alta California.
• It was a culturally diverse land, as it contained
a great number of different tribes. They grew
many different native foods there.
• The tribes had active and strong Shaman but
weak Chiefs. This meant that a great deal of
their beliefs lay in what they learned from the
land, visions, and dreams.
• The hunters had great power, and sometimes
there was fighting.
• The Spanish were very into their beliefs and what
was important to them. Some of those things were
the Catholic Faith, the Castilian language, and
obedience to the king.
• Of course they felt the need to spread the language
of their faith to others wherever they went, and this
did not exclude those in the new land.
• Their plan was to attract the Natives to their faith,
and then once they had their attention, they would
teach them all that they felt the Natives needed to
• Though some of the natives did convert, they also
held on to their traditions and beliefs from their own
• The Natives had a way with their own plants and
animals, as they have lived and grown up in that
environment, and the colonists were intrigued.