SOUTH AMERICANCOUNTRIESSocial Studies for 9th E.G.B.Teacher: Mauricio Torres
SOUTH • It includes 10 countries as followsAMERICA
ARGENTINA • Capital: Buenos Aires • President: Cristina Fernandez • Independence: May 25th 1810 • Population: 40 million (aprox.) • Currency: Peso Argentine Republic, is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires. It is the eighth-largest country in the world by land area and the largest among Spanish- speaking nations.
ARGENTINA • Facts: – A recognized middle power, Argentina is Latin Americas third- largest economy. – Argentina is a founding member of the United Nations. Rioplatense Spanish Preliminary research has shown that Rioplatense Spanish, and particularly the speech of the city of Buenos Aires, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian dialects and differ markedly from the patterns of other forms of Spanish. Argentina, and particularly Buenos Aires, had huge numbers of Italian immigrant settlers since the 19th century. The researchers note that the development of this dialect is a relatively recent phenomenon, developing since the beginning of the 20th century and the main wave of Southern Italian immigration.
BOLIVIA • Capital: Sucre • President: Evo Morales • Independence: August 6, 1825 • Population: 10 million (aprox.) • Currency: Boliviano Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country in central South America
BOLIVIA • Facts: – Named after Simón Bolivar. – Has the only native american President in the World Resourceful Nation Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum.
BRAZIL • Capital: Brasilia • President: Dilma Rouseff • Independence: September 7 1822 • Population: 192 million (aprox.) • Currency: Real Federative Republic of Brazil, is the world’s fifth largest country. It shares borders with all of the South American countries except for Ecuador and Chile. It became a Kingdom in the 1800s and afterwards an independent Republic.
BRAZIL • Facts: – One of the fastest growing major economies. – Five times world champions (football). A Latin Kingdom Brazil was a colony of Portugal until 1815, when it was elevated to the rank of kingdom and the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was formed. The colonial bond was in fact broken in 1808, when the capital of the Portuguese colonial empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, after Napoleon invaded Portugal. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the formation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system.
CHILE • Capital: Santiago • President: Sebastian Pinera • Independence: Feb 12, 1818 • Population: million (aprox.) • Currency: Peso Republic of Chile , is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south
CHILE • Facts: – Chilean territory includes Easter Island – Renounced world producer of copper. A Booming Economy Today, Chile is one of South Americas most stable and prosperous nations and a recognized middle power. It leads Latin American nations in human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, economic freedom, low perception of corruption and state of peace.
COLOMBIA • Capital: Bogotá • President: Juan Manuel Santos • Independence: July 29, 1810 • Population: 46 million (aprox.) • Currency: Peso Republic of Colombia , the world’s leading coffee producer and one of South America’s cultural centers.
COLOMBIA • Facts: – Has the second largest population of any Spanish-speaking country in the world. – Shakira, Juanes, Sofia Vergara, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Juan Pablo Montoya and Carlos Vives are all Colombian.Violent HistoryTensions between political parties have frequently erupted into violence, most notably in the ThousandDays War (1899–1902) and La Violencia, beginning in 1948. Since the 1960s, government forces, left-winginsurgents and right-wing paramilitaries have been engaged in the continents longest-running armedconflict. Fueled by the cocaine trade, this escalated dramatically in the 1980s.
PARAGUAY • Capital: Asunción • President: Fernando Lugo • Independence: May 14, 1811 • Population: 6.3 million (aprox.) • Currency: Guarani Republic of Paraguay, is a landlocked country in South America. . Due to its central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de América, or the Heart of America.
PARAGUAY • Facts: – When the flag is turned around, the coat of arms is different from the one in front. – They fought a war against Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay in the 1800s. The country was devastated and its effects are still felt today. Guarani Rules The official languages are Spanish and Guaraní, both being widely spoken in the country, with around 92% of the general population speaking Spanish and 98% speaking Guaraní. Most of the population are mestizos.
PERU • Capital: Lima • President: Ollanta Humala • Independence: July 28, 1824 • Population: 29.4 million (aprox.) • Currency: Nuevo Sol Republic of Peru, its territory was home to ancient cultures, spanning from the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre- Columbian America.
PERU • Facts: – Famous for the cuisine – Macchu Picchu: one of the most visited sites on earth. Different environments Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes Mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin.
URUGUAY • Capital: Montevideo • President: Jose Mújica • Independence: August 25, 1825 • Population: 3.3 million (aprox.) • Currency: Uruguayan Peso Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is one of the most economically developed countries in South America, and the first by human development in Latin America, when inequality is factored in.
• Facts:URUGUAY – It is home to 3.3 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area. An estimated 88% of the population are of European ancestry. – Uruguay is reimbursed by the UN for the majority of its military spending, because the majority of its military is deployed as UN peacekeepers. Strong Economy Uruguay and Bolivia were the only countries in the Americas which did not go into recession (2 consecutive quarters of retraction) as a result of the Late-2000s financial crisis. In 2009, Uruguay became the first nation in the world to provide every school child with a free laptop and internet.
VENEZUELA • Capital: Caracas • President: Hugo Chávez • Independence: July 5, 1811 • Population: 27 million (aprox.) • Currency: Bolívar Fuerte Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, has been one of the worlds leading exporters of oil and has the largest oil reserves. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues.
VENEZUELA • Facts: – Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America; the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north, especially in the capital, Caracas. Biodiversity Venezuela is considered a state with extremely high biodiversity, with habitats ranging from the Andes mountains in the west to the Amazon Basin rainforest in the south, via extensive llanos plains and Caribbean coast in the center and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.
AND OFCOURSE… •ECUADOR (which we already know)