Latin America In 19 Sentury


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Latin America In 19 Sentury

  1. 1. Latin America in the 19th Century
 Part 3 of the Midterm Arash Saysan
  2. 2. The Latin American Independence Movements P1

  3. 3. The Latin American Independence Movements P2 •  September 15th Mexican Independence Day (El Grito), Cry for Independency •  Right of man, Independency •  French Revolution, Raising of Independency Idea and having democratic nation. •  Simon Bolivar achieved the power had a thought of Democracy and equality •  Invented Spain by Bonaparte •  Idea of the Unity of Spanish America not just the Independency By Bolivar, not Indian Nor European. •  3 Years of War and Fighting •  Argentine Army against British 1806 and 1807 •  Commander of genius Jose de san martin in Argentina army
  4. 4. Latin America at Mid-Century P1 •  Many political changes to Latin America after Independency. •  “Santander at the head of the government of Gran Colombia, O'Higgins in Chile, the Andrada brothers in Brazil, and the men who founded the Mexican republic at the departure of Iturbide shared many of the same ambitions.” •  Many Improvement almost everywhere. •  Approach to religious, social and economic balance. •  Not good economy , Considerable amount of resources at their consume. •  Balance was reached between imports and exports. •  “Latin Americans scaled down their expectations in a mood of greater realism.” •  Changing the mood of Latin America. •  increase of value and quantity of Latin American exports.
  5. 5. Latin America at Mid-Century P2 •  Substantial expansion of trade from 1840 to 1870. •  Latin America's economy grow. •  Provide competitively Because of low production costs. •  Economic growth because of increasing speed of trades with steam navigation and new export industries, for example on live cattle exports. •  The expansion of export trade necessarily had an impact on other activities within Latin America. Like business for brokers, insurers, shippers, other commercial middlemen and railway construction.
  6. 6. The influence of Britain on Latin American during this period P1 •  George Canning, the British Foreign Secretary. •  Latin America economic development and their political security. •  George Canning negotiations with Mexico, Gran Colombia and Buenos Aires for commercial treaties. •  Solid basis for Britain's trade with the new nations. •  Canning's success in advancing Britain's economic interests during the period of Latin American independence. •  Breaking the domination of the Spanish and Portuguese empires and promoting Britain's influence against its commercial rivals, particularly the French.
  7. 7. The influence of Britain on Latin American during this period P2
 •  Britain's economic interests at its highest in 1870s and the early 1890s. •  Large investments in government loans, railways, public utilities, commercial banks, meat- packing plants, and land in Argentina. •  British big investments in Mexico, Peru, Chile and Uruguay. •  By the middle of the twentieth century Britain's influence reduced. •  First and Second world wars big factors in limitation of British influence. •  “World wars transformed Britain from a substantial international creditor into a debtor, making it impossible for the City of London to regain its prewar eminence in the supply of overseas finance.”
  8. 8. Latin American Wars of the 19th Century P1 •  Many Causes for wars in Latin America. •  the race war, the ideology of independence, the controversy of separation versus union, boundary disputes, territorial conquests, caudilloism, resource wars, intraclass struggles, interventions caused by capitalism, and religious wars •  Race war between the privileged white planters and the less privileged affranchis. •  Political, Economic, and Social Frustrations. •  “The American Revolution (1775-1783), which had had the support of Spain, and the French Revolution (1789-1799) provided models. These influenced some of the privileged of the New World, the two most important being Simon Bolivar of New Granada and Miguel”
  9. 9. Latin American Wars of the 19th Century P2 •  Professed political ideologies, Idea of federation. •  War of the Pacific (1879-83) between Chile against Peru and Bolivia, was the arbitrary taxation and duties imposed by Bolivia upon Chilean-owned nitrate firms. •  Who favored a monarchy, and liberals, who wanted a republic, led to wars. •  The most bloody were the French intervention in Mexico (1861-67) in support of the Mexican Conservatives and the Brazilian Civil War of 1893-94. •  “The wars had brought trade to a standstill almost everywhere. Although many Latin American nations won their independence by 1824, few were politically cohesive. For decades regionalism and factionalism dominated.”
  10. 10. Mexico during this period P1 •  The Spanish monarchy in 1804, against Catholic Church, made many colonists and priests, and induced many clergy to begin to support the idea of independence. •  “By the beginning of the 19th century, criollo resentment against the peninsulares and the government of New Spain had seriously weakened the link between the colony and the parent country.” •  “The immediate crisis that moved Mexico to take the final steps toward independence came as a result of the Napoleonic invasion of Spain. In 1808 French troops of Napoleon I flooded into Spain, and the Spanish royal family was lured to France, where it passed the Spanish crown into Napoleon’s hands. He then gave it to his brother. The people of Madrid began a revolt that spread throughout Spain.”
  11. 11. Mexico during this period P2
 •  Ideas of the Enlightenment, launched a revolt that aimed to free Mexico from the oppression of the Spanish colonial government by father Miguel Hidalgo Costilla in 1810. •  Immediate abolition of slavery and an end to taxes imposed upon Native Americans in 1810 •  “Hidalgo recruited an army of at about 80,000 troops and enjoyed some initial military success.” •  “José María Morelos y Pavón. Like Hidalgo, he called for racial and social equality in Mexico” •  Morelos was a better military leader. Under Morelos, the rebel forces captured considerable territory, including the city of Acapulco, and declared Mexican independence at the Congress of Chilpancingo in 1813. •  “The Spanish revolution of 1820 altered the rebellion in Mexico.”