Latin America in the 19th Century
Part 3 of the Midterm
The Latin American Independence Movements P1
The Latin American Independence Movements P2
• September 15th Mexican Independence Day (El Grito), Cry for Independency
• Right of man, Independency
• French Revolution, Raising of Independency Idea and having democratic nation.
• Simon Bolivar achieved the power had a thought of Democracy and equality
• Invented Spain by Bonaparte
• Idea of the Unity of Spanish America not just the Independency By Bolivar, not Indian
• 3 Years of War and Fighting
• Argentine Army against British 1806 and 1807
• Commander of genius Jose de san martin in Argentina army
Latin America at Mid-Century P1
• Many political changes to Latin America after Independency.
• “Santander at the head of the government of Gran Colombia, O'Higgins in Chile, the Andrada brothers in Brazil,
and the men who founded the Mexican republic at the departure of Iturbide shared many of the same ambitions.”
• Many Improvement almost everywhere.
• Approach to religious, social and economic balance.
• Not good economy , Considerable amount of resources at their consume.
• Balance was reached between imports and exports.
• “Latin Americans scaled down their expectations in a mood of greater realism.”
• Changing the mood of Latin America.
• increase of value and quantity of Latin American exports.
Latin America at Mid-Century P2
• Substantial expansion of trade from 1840 to 1870.
• Latin America's economy grow.
• Provide competitively Because of low production costs.
• Economic growth because of increasing speed of trades with steam navigation and new export industries, for
example on live cattle exports.
• The expansion of export trade necessarily had an impact on other activities within Latin America. Like business
for brokers, insurers, shippers, other commercial middlemen and railway construction.
The influence of Britain on Latin American during this period P1
• George Canning, the British Foreign Secretary.
• Latin America economic development and their political security.
• George Canning negotiations with Mexico, Gran Colombia and Buenos
Aires for commercial treaties.
• Solid basis for Britain's trade with the new nations.
• Canning's success in advancing Britain's economic interests during the
period of Latin American independence.
• Breaking the domination of the Spanish and Portuguese empires and
promoting Britain's influence against its commercial rivals, particularly the
The influence of Britain on Latin American during this period P2
• Britain's economic interests at its highest in 1870s and the early 1890s.
• Large investments in government loans, railways, public utilities,
commercial banks, meat- packing plants, and land in Argentina.
• British big investments in Mexico, Peru, Chile and Uruguay.
• By the middle of the twentieth century Britain's influence reduced.
• First and Second world wars big factors in limitation of British influence.
• “World wars transformed Britain from a substantial international
creditor into a debtor, making it impossible for the City of London to
regain its prewar eminence in the supply of overseas finance.”
Latin American Wars of the 19th Century P1
• Many Causes for wars in Latin America.
• the race war, the ideology of independence, the
controversy of separation versus union, boundary
disputes, territorial conquests, caudilloism,
resource wars, intraclass struggles, interventions
caused by capitalism, and religious wars
• Race war between the privileged white planters
and the less privileged affranchis.
• Political, Economic, and Social Frustrations.
• “The American Revolution (1775-1783), which
had had the support of Spain, and the French
Revolution (1789-1799) provided models. These
influenced some of the privileged of the New
World, the two most important being Simon
Bolivar of New Granada and Miguel”
Latin American Wars of the 19th Century P2
• Professed political ideologies, Idea of federation.
• War of the Pacific (1879-83) between Chile against Peru
and Bolivia, was the arbitrary taxation and duties
imposed by Bolivia upon Chilean-owned nitrate firms.
• Who favored a monarchy, and liberals, who wanted a
republic, led to wars.
• The most bloody were the French intervention in
Mexico (1861-67) in support of the Mexican
Conservatives and the Brazilian Civil War of 1893-94.
• “The wars had brought trade to a standstill almost
everywhere. Although many Latin American nations
won their independence by 1824, few were politically
cohesive. For decades regionalism and factionalism
Mexico during this period P1
• The Spanish monarchy in 1804, against Catholic Church, made many colonists and priests, and induced many
clergy to begin to support the idea of independence.
• “By the beginning of the 19th century, criollo resentment against the peninsulares and the government of New
Spain had seriously weakened the link between the colony and the parent country.”
• “The immediate crisis that moved Mexico to take the final steps toward independence came as a result of the
Napoleonic invasion of Spain. In 1808 French troops of Napoleon I flooded into Spain, and the Spanish royal
family was lured to France, where it passed the Spanish crown into Napoleon’s hands. He then gave it to his
brother. The people of Madrid began a revolt that spread throughout Spain.”
Mexico during this period P2
• Ideas of the Enlightenment, launched a revolt that aimed to free
Mexico from the oppression of the Spanish colonial government
by father Miguel Hidalgo Costilla in 1810.
• Immediate abolition of slavery and an end to taxes imposed
upon Native Americans in 1810
• “Hidalgo recruited an army of at about 80,000 troops and
enjoyed some initial military success.”
• “José María Morelos y Pavón. Like Hidalgo, he called for racial
and social equality in Mexico”
• Morelos was a better military leader. Under Morelos, the rebel
forces captured considerable territory, including the city of
Acapulco, and declared Mexican independence at the Congress
of Chilpancingo in 1813.
• “The Spanish revolution of 1820 altered the rebellion in