Population- 15,981,000 (2005)
292,256 sq. miles
Form of government- democracy
1960’s was led by president Eduardo Frei,
1970 Salvador Allende, implemented social
Made money which caused inflation, ordered
dairy workers to take over, when they did all
cows died so no dairy products were sold, led
to loss in income.
People went on strike due to shortage of food
economy = bad!
Pinochet took over after Allende was bombed
Advisors from university of Chicago( aka
General Gustavo Leigh Guzmán, Admiral José
Toribio Merino, and General César Mendoza
Brought down inflation from 1000% to 10%
( known as mini miracle to Latin Americans)
Suppression of political activity parties like
socialist, Marxist..etc. congressed dissolved and
constitution all suspended
Responsible for 3,197 murders
Approximately 30,000 tortured
Operation condor- secret police that
coordinated the repression of groups/
individuals against the government.
War ended due to Plebiscite, Pinochet was not
allowed to run for presidency anymore
Plebiscite- is a direct vote in which an entire
electorate is asked to either accept or reject a
Economy grew way better due to the ideals of the
“Chicago boys” which are still used today
Chile has one of best economies in Latin America
World’s largest producer of copper.
Facts About Perú
- Perú has two capitals which are Lima and Cuzco.
- There are two capitals because Cuzco, the capital of the Inca Empire
has historical and cultural importance while Lima is important because
in 1821 the independence of Perú was claimed there.
- The population of Perú is 29,248,943 (Factbook).
- Perú has had many dictatorships.
-The last one was during the years 1968-1980.
-In the 1950s through 1965 Perú had a higher rate of economic
increase which exceeded the average of Latin America. Even
though the Peruvian economy grew immense poverty and
inequality also persisted.
Perú Before the Dirty War
-In the 1950s and the early 1960s the economy of Perú grew by
increasing the products that they exported.
-The most famous exports include guano, silver, and gold.
- In the 1960s however Perú adopted a new policy, Import
substitution industrialization (ISI) which was common in the
rest of Latin America. This policy means that products would
be produced within the country, in this case in Perú.
Dictatorship under General Alvarado
- However since 1965 the economy of Perú has had more problems.
- General Juan Velasco Alvarado overthrew the elected President Fernando
Belaunde Terry of the Popular Action Party (AP).
- Some of the reforms that General Alvarado did include: agrarian reform
programs, nationalizing the fishmeal industry, some petroleum and mining
companies, as well as several banks.
End of the Dictatorship
- Since he was unable to effectively manage the economy, and his
health was continuously worsening, General Francisco Morales
Bermudez took over in 1975.
- The dictatorship ended in 1980.
- During the 1980s the economy of Peru was unstable due to the
leftover problems from the Military Government.
Guerrillas in Perú
- In 1960-1965 there was a Guerrilla Movement in Perú
- Some of the motives behind the movement were because a small
percentage of the country owned over 50% of the land.
- One such problem was El Niño which caused flooding in certain
areas of the country and terrible droughts in other parts which
greatly damaged the successful fishing industry in Peru.
-El Nino is a weather catastrophe that occurs every 5-7 years.