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  1. 1. Unit XII WWII!!
  2. 2. I. The Beginning
  3. 3. A. Young Hitler1. Born in Austria, aspired artist2. Spent his youth as a tramp in Vienna3. The outbreak of World War I as his liberation4. After the war, he joins German Workers’ Party – National Socialist Workers’ Party (Nazi) (1920) – Refused to accept November (1918) Resolution
  4. 4. B. Nazis1. Munich putsch (November 1923) – Hitler imprisoned – Dictates Mein Kampf2. Portrays himself as savior of German people3. ‘Nazi elections - Nazis polled 6.6 percent of the vote (1924)4. Joseph Goebbels, propaganda5. Nazi supporters a. Small property holders, rural middle classes b. Elitist civil servants6. 1930 election – Nazis win 107 of 577 seats in Reichstag – No party gained majority
  5. 5. C. Chancellor1. Appointed Chancellor by Hindenberg (1/ 1933)2. Reichstag set on fire by Dutch anarchist (February 27, 1933)3. Hitler suspends civil rights4. New elections (March 5, 1933) – Hitler granted unlimited power - four years – Hitler proclaims Third Reich
  6. 6. D. Third Reich• 1 party state enforced by Propaganda• Opposition - Storm troopers (SA)—maintain party discipline, Eliminated on Night of Long Knives (June 30, 1934)• Schutzstaffel (SS) a. Most dreaded arm of Nazi terror, by Heinrich Himmler b. Fought political, racial enemies4. Support – Played off communism, language of pride – Hitler = symbol of strong, revitalized Germany (Führer cult) i. Charismatic ii. Gave people what they wanted c. Recovery of German national glory5. National recovery – Sealed Germany off from rest of world – Unemployment dropped from 6 million to 200,000 – Outlawed trade unions – Popular organizations cut across class lines - Hitler Youth
  7. 7. E. Racial Purity • Inherited 19th century opinions • Anti-Semitism a. Jews as outsiders b. Dreyfus Affair c. Pogroms d. “International Jewish conspiracy” • Racial laws exclude Jews from public office (April 1933) • Nuremberg Decrees (1935) - Deprived Jews of citizenship (determined by bloodline) • Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) (November 1938)
  8. 8. IV. The War
  9. 9. A. Prewar1. Peace settlement - Created more problems2. League of Nations as alliance of victors against vanquished3. No binding standards created for peace&security4. Kellog-Briand Pact (1928)—outlawing war5. Great Depression intensified economic nationalism6. Depression as last blow to Weimar Germany7. Decline of Japanese exports = Invasion of Manchuria (1931)8. Mussolini invades Ethiopia (1935)9. Ideologies a. Violent nationalism b. Glorifying nation, destiny c. Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany = “Axis” (later joined by Japan) d. Fascist regimes in Yugoslavia, Hungary, Romania
  10. 10. B. Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)1. A weak Republican government2. Right-wing officers rebel - Francisco Franco (r. 1936–1975)3. Hitler, Mussolini send in troops, test new weapons4. Soviets back Republicans5. Britain, France failed to act6. Hitler’s lessons a. Britain, France, Soviet Union have a hard time containing fascism b. Britain, France would do anything to avoid another war
  11. 11. C. German Space1. Germany out of League of Nations (1933)2. Disarmament provisions of Versailles voided(1935)3. Goal = Unification of all Germans4. Reoccupies the Rhineland (1936)5. Annexation of Austria (1938)6. Hitler wants to take Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)7. Neville Chamberlain a. After Sudetenland, Hitler will want no more b. Germany could not afford long war c. Eastern Europe low in British priorities8. Munich: September 29, 1938 a. Daladier (France), Chamberlain, Mussolini,&Hitler meet b. Chamberlain proclaims “peace in our time” c. Germany invades Czechoslovakia (March 1939) d. Appeasement fails9. Stalin’s response a. Feared Western deal w/ Hitler b. Nazi-Soviet non-aggression (August 1939) c. Stalin promised ½ Poland
  12. 12. D. “Peace” Continues1. Avoiding another war2. 1930s as “a low, dishonest decade” (W. H. Auden, 1939)3. Outbreak of world war unthinkable4. British, American arguments = Germany was mistreated5. Fascist states stop Soviet communism6. The League of Nations a. Japanese invasion of China i. “Rape of Nanjing” (1937) ii. League expressed shock, did nothing b. Mussolini invades Ethiopia (1935) i. Avenging defeat of 1896 ii. League imposed sanctions, did not enforce them
  13. 13. E. Poland Invaded1. Hitler demands abolition of Polish Corridor2. Poland stood firm but Hitler attacked (September 1, 1939)3. Britain, France send warning to Germany4. Britain&France declare war (September 3, 1939)5. The Blitzkrieg (“lightning war”)6. Soviet troops invade from the east7. Poland falls in four weeks
  14. 14. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/media_nm.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005137&MediaId=337
  15. 15. F. Move to West1. Scandinavia—Germans take Denmark, one day (Spring 1940)2. Germans through Belgium toward France (May 10, 1939)3. France a. French army overwhelmed by Germans b. French army poorly organized c. French refugees flee south d. Dunkirk—300,000 British, French troops evacuated to England e. Germans reach Paris (June 18, 1939) f. French surrender (June 18, 1939) i. Germans occupy northern France ii. Southern France falls under Vichy regime under Marshall Pétain g. Free French movement resist, grows w/ war
  16. 16. G. Battle of Britain1. The Battle of Britain (July 1940–June 1941) a. 40,000 civilians dead b. Stalemate in the air c. British resistance2. Winston Churchill (1940–1945, 1951–1955) a. Talented, arrogant b. Language, personal diplomacy c. Convinced FDR to break w/ American neutrality - Lend-Lease
  17. 17. H. Global War1. Battle of the Atlantic a. German submarines (“wolf packs”) b. British development of sonar, aerial reconnaissance, break German codes2. North Africa - Protect the Suez a. British humiliate Italian invasion in Libya - Germany to intervene b. Afrika Korps&Erwin Rommel successful at first c. Rommel’s invasion of Egypt defeated at El Alamein (1942) d. United States lands in French territories of Algeria&Morocco3. Conference at Casablanca - Allies discuss course of war4. Japan a. Attack Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941), British protectorate Malaya b. Singapore falls (12/1941), Philippines invaded, press on to Burma5. American navy a. Rapid production schedule b. Chester Nimitz, William Halsey = victories
  18. 18. I. Germany on a Roll1. Germany takes Yugoslavia (1940) - Croatian puppet state2. Romania, Hungary, & Bulgaria side w/ Germany3. Greece falls4. Russia&Ukraine a. Ethnically inferior Slavs & Jews, governed by communists = bad b. Nazi-Soviet Pact matter of convenience for Hitler5. Operation Barbarossa—invasion Soviet Union (6/22/41) a. Stalin’s purges rid Russia’s most capable commanders b. Germans take thousands of prisoners6. War against Soviets pitted one ideology against another7. Hitler diverts his attack from Moscow to industrial south8. Nazi “New Order”9. Patchwork affair a. Military governments (Poland&Ukraine) b. Collaborators (France), Fascists (Hungary)10. Empire fed Germany, maintain morale/support11. Countries paid taxes, food, industrial production, manpower
  19. 19. J. Puppets1. Norway/Netherlands - party of Nazis governed, resistance2. France a. Collaboration = survival tactics to active Nazi support b. Isolation/deportation of French Jews c. Communist – Smuggling, guerrillas, saboteurs d. Free French under Charles de Gaulle3. Yugoslavia a. Fascist Croats against most Serbs b. Josip Broz (Tito) leader of Yugoslav resistance c. Communist guerilla army d. Gained support of Allies e. Moral issues facing occupied countries f. Enemies of the Nazis—“undesirables”
  20. 20. K. Holocaust1. Hitler had already outlined his war against subhuman - Jews, Gypsies,&Slavs2. Himmler removes people (Fall 1939)3. Poles&Jews deported from German lands4. Special death squads shoot Jews in the streets5. Planned (1938–1941) - Forced emigration, Deportation to Madagascar6. More than 5 million military prisoners marched to camps7. Warsaw&Lodz ghetto—death&terror8. Plans for mass killings in death camps, ghettos are sealed, Poison gas vans9. Extermination involved knowledge, cooperation of many not directly involved10. What of other governments? a. Vichy France required Jews to wear special identification b. Italians participated less actively c. Hungarian government dragged its feet when it came to deportation– Rebellions at Auschwitz&Treblinka– Warsaw ghetto uprising (1943)– Human costs, 4.1–5.7 million Jews killed
  21. 21. L. Allies Turn1.Nazi enters USSR, Siege of Leningrad2.Eastern Front a)War to save the Russian motherland b)Victory during the “General Winter,” recovery of Soviet army c)Turning point—1943, German all-out assault on Stalingrad d)Bitter house-to-house fighting w/ Soviet snipers, Stalingrad destroyed e)January 1943: German surrender3.Ukraine back to Soviet, Romania out of war, wins in Yugoslavia&Czechoslovakia4.Western Front • Stalin pressured Allies to open second front in West • Allied invasion of Sicily - Mussolini surrenders (Summer, 1943) • Normandy (6/6/44), Liberation of Paris (8//44), Battle of the Bulge (12/44) • Allies cross Rhine (4/45), Soviets enter Berlin (4/21/45) • Hitler - suicide bunker (4/30/45), German unconditional surrender (5/7/45)
  22. 22. M. End of War1.War demanded massive resources&national commitment2.Germany&Japan: robbed local areas of resources3.United States, Britain,&Soviet Union4.Propaganda campaigns encouraged production5.Germany was less efficient6.Pet projects of Nazis expended time&money7.Targets included industry8.British = retribution9.Americans = grind down Germany10.Dresden fire-bombing – terrorize civilians?11.Race to build the bomb - Manhattan Project12.VJ Day 8/15/1945