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Trouble In Europe 1931-1941


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Trouble In Europe 1931-1941

  1. 1. A World in Flames <ul><li>Trouble in Europe and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>1931-1941 </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Rise of Dictators <ul><li>Mussolini, Hitler, Stalin </li></ul>
  3. 3. Il Duce Benito Mussolini <ul><li>Mussolini founded Italy’s Fascist Party in 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Was a former schoolmaster and journalist </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fascist Ideology <ul><li>Aggressive Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Nation more important than individual </li></ul><ul><li>Dictator needed to lead country and impose order </li></ul><ul><li>A nation became great by expanding its territory and building up its military </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Communist ideology </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mussolini takes charge <ul><li>Appointed premier in 1922 </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to return Italy to greatness of Ancient Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed Italian democracy, established dictatorship </li></ul>
  6. 6. Joseph Stalin <ul><li>Became dictator of U.S.S.R. in 1926 </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Communist ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialized the U.S.S.R. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for the murder of 10,000,000 peasants who opposed his policies </li></ul><ul><li>Took whatever steps necessary to hold power </li></ul>
  7. 7. Der Fuhrer Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler <ul><li>Served in German army during WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Infuriated by German defeat and Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Hated victorious Allied countries </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hitler’s rise to power <ul><li>Arrested in 1923 during attempted coup </li></ul><ul><li>Writes Mein Kampf (My Struggle) while in prison </li></ul><ul><li>Supporter of Germans as “master race” </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to unify all German speakers under one government </li></ul><ul><li>Blamed Jews for world’s problems </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hitler becomes German dictator <ul><li>His Nazi party gains popularity in 1932 due to German economic collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed chancellor and </li></ul><ul><li>given dictatorial powers in 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>Established secret police and rebuilds German army in violation of Treaty of Versailles </li></ul>
  10. 10. Japanese Imperialism <ul><li>Japanese economy was in ruins in early 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in idea of Japanese domination of East Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Japan invades Chinese province of Manchuria in 1931 </li></ul><ul><li>Military leaders seized power with goal of expanding Japanese empire </li></ul>
  11. 11. American Neutrality <ul><li>The U.S. chose isolationism for two main reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>*European countries failure to repay WWI debts </li></ul><ul><li>**Accusations that the U.S. had entered WWI in order to enrich defense contractors </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality Act passed in 1935 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Spanish Civil War <ul><li>Communists and Fascists fight Civil War in Spain in 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Fascist dictator Franco is victorious </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. remains neutral and does not send arms to either side </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Rome-Berlin Axis <ul><li>Hitler and Mussolini hook up in 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan agrees to pact with Germany to fight Communism </li></ul>
  14. 14. U.S. Neutrality Act of 1937 <ul><li>Prevents U.S. from selling weapons to any country at war </li></ul><ul><li>Anything purchased by foreign countries from U.S. had to be paid for in cash and carried away by purchasing country </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think the U.S. insisted on this “cash-carry” policy? </li></ul>
  15. 15. FDR and internationalism <ul><li>FDR believed trade with foreign countries was vital and that the U.S. should try and create world peace </li></ul><ul><li>He feared that neutrality was a dangerous path to travel but gave in to public sentiment </li></ul><ul><li>When Japan invaded China in 1937, FDR agreed to sell weapons to China </li></ul><ul><li>FDR suspected more trouble was coming </li></ul>
  16. 16. Hitler starts making trouble <ul><li>Hitler is determined to unify all German speakers under German rule </li></ul><ul><li>German army invades Austria in 1938 (Anschluss) </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler then demands part of Czechoslovakia inhabited by German speakers </li></ul>
  17. 17. Munich Conference September 1938 <ul><li>Britain, France, Italy and Germany meet to discuss Hitler’s demands </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and France give in to Hitler and Czechoslovakia must give up the Sudetenland </li></ul><ul><li>Appeasement was the policy of giving in to demands to preserve peace </li></ul><ul><li>Why could appeasement be a dangerous policy? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Hitler’s next demand? Poland! <ul><li>Hitler insisted that Poland return the port of Danzig to Germany, which had been German until WWI </li></ul><ul><li>England and France told Hitler that if he invaded Poland they would go to war against Germany </li></ul><ul><li>In May, 1939, the German army prepares to invade Poland </li></ul>
  19. 19. Nazi-Soviet non-Aggression Pact <ul><li>In August 1939, Germany and the U.S.S.R. agree to remain at peace with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Germany and the U.S.S.R. also agree to divide Poland between themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler looking to make sure the Soviets do not interfere with his plans for Poland and the rest of Europe </li></ul>
  20. 20. WWII begins <ul><li>On September 1, 1939, Germany invades Poland and Britain and France declare war on Germany </li></ul><ul><li>German blitzkrieg (“lightning war”) tactics were highly effective </li></ul><ul><li>German tanks and airplanes supported German soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Poland fell by October </li></ul>
  21. 21. Who’s Next? <ul><li>While Britain and France waited in France, Hitler made his next move </li></ul><ul><li>Norway and Denmark fell to the German army by April 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>The German army then attacked the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, trapping the British and French in Belgium </li></ul>
  22. 22. Miracle at Dunkirk <ul><li>British and French troops were trapped at the port town of Dunkirk, France </li></ul><ul><li>For some reason Hitler chose not to attack, allowing the 338,000 British and French troops to escape to England, but without their equipment </li></ul><ul><li>In June 1940, the French surrendered to Germany </li></ul>
  23. 23. Winston Churchill inspires the British <ul><li>Churchill refused to consider surrendering to the Nazis and declared that the British would fight to the very end to defend their country </li></ul><ul><li>In mid 1940, the German air force began bombing Britain </li></ul><ul><li>British use of radar allowed their pilots to destroy many German planes </li></ul><ul><li>In October 1940, Hitler cancelled the invasion of Britain, as the U.S. continued to stay out of the fighting </li></ul>