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End of WWII - Path of the Cold War

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Lecture over the end of World War II and the start of the Cold War; discusses formation of UN, NATO, Warsaw Pact; Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan and nuclear proliferation beginning (MAD)

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End of WWII - Path of the Cold War

  1. 1. End of The WarPath of the Cold War
  2. 2. ObjectivesIdentify locations in Africa.Describe events that highlighted the Cold War.
  3. 3. VocabularyUnited Nations: International organization to provide basis forinternational law, security, human rights and economic development.Iron Curtain: Line of ideologic conflict and geographic boundaryseparating Communist control in Europe; in a speech by WinstonChurchill.Marshall Plan: Plan by Sec. of State George Marshall to provide financialsupport to war torn nations of Europe not affiliated with Communism.Truman Doctrine: Doctrine by Pres. Truman to pledge economic andmilitary support to prevent spread of Communism.NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Alliance of democraticnations in North America and Europe in opposition to SovietCommunism.Warsaw Pact: Alliance of Soviet controlled nations in Eastern Europe inopposition to NATO.
  4. 4. End of World War II
  5. 5. End of World War IIFebruary, 1945 - Yalta Conference- Stalin (USSR), Churchill (UK),Roosevelt (US) Plan for the end of the war - 4 occupied zones in Germany and in Berlin
  6. 6. End of World War IIFebruary, 1945 - Yalta Conference- Stalin (USSR), Churchill (UK),Roosevelt (US) Plan for the end of the war - 4 occupied zones in Germany and in BerlinJuly/August, 1945 - PotsdamConference - Stalin (USSR),Churchill (UK), Truman (US) Discussions on the fate of Eastern Europe; vague discussion of Atomic Bomb
  7. 7. End of World War IIFebruary, 1945 - Yalta Conference- Stalin (USSR), Churchill (UK),Roosevelt (US) Plan for the end of the war - 4 occupied zones in Germany and in BerlinJuly/August, 1945 - PotsdamConference - Stalin (USSR),Churchill (UK), Truman (US) Discussions on the fate of Eastern Europe; vague discussion of Atomic Bomb
  8. 8. United Nations (UN)
  9. 9. United Nations (UN)Realization of Atlantic Charter signed before the war
  10. 10. United Nations (UN)Realization of Atlantic Charter signed before the warOctober, 1945 - 51 nations
  11. 11. United Nations (UN)Realization of Atlantic Charter signed before the warOctober, 1945 - 51 nationsSecurity council - 15 nations: charged with maintainingpeace and security throughout the world - TEETH Permanent members - 5 countries: China, France, UK, USSR & US; veto power
  12. 12. United Nations (UN)Realization of Atlantic Charter signed before the warOctober, 1945 - 51 nationsSecurity council - 15 nations: charged with maintainingpeace and security throughout the world - TEETH Permanent members - 5 countries: China, France, UK, USSR & US; veto powerGoal was to provide means for response to aggressionand hostility; undo mistakes of the League of Nations
  13. 13. USSR: Need for Security
  14. 14. USSR: Need for Security Soviet Union said at Yalta and Potsdam that they would do what they could to ensure their safety
  15. 15. USSR: Need for Security Soviet Union said at Yalta and Potsdam that they would do what they could to ensure their safety WWI & WWII - Germany invaded through Poland and Eastern Europe
  16. 16. USSR: Need for Security Soviet Union said at Yalta and Potsdam that they would do what they could to ensure their safety WWI & WWII - Germany invaded through Poland and Eastern Europe After WWII - USSR left troops in countries they ‘liberated’ from Germans
  17. 17. USSR: Need for Security Soviet Union said at Yalta and Potsdam that they would do what they could to ensure their safety WWI & WWII - Germany invaded through Poland and Eastern Europe After WWII - USSR left troops in countries they ‘liberated’ from Germans Influenced local governments and created satellite communist governments in Eastern Europe
  18. 18. USSR: Need for Security Soviet Union said at Yalta and Potsdam that they would do what they could to ensure their safety WWI & WWII - Germany invaded through Poland and Eastern Europe After WWII - USSR left troops in countries they ‘liberated’ from Germans Influenced local governments and created satellite communist governments in Eastern Europe
  19. 19. UK/US: Need for Containment
  20. 20. UK/US: Need for ContainmentWest believed that Sovietaggression would lead to possiblethreat to spread
  21. 21. UK/US: Need for ContainmentWest believed that Sovietaggression would lead to possiblethreat to spreadChurchill described line of Sovietinfluence an “Iron Curtain” “...all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow. "
  22. 22. UK/US: Need for ContainmentWest believed that Sovietaggression would lead to possiblethreat to spreadChurchill described line of Sovietinfluence an “Iron Curtain” “...all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow. "
  23. 23. Berlin Blockade/Airlift
  24. 24. Berlin Blockade/Airlift
  25. 25. Berlin Blockade/Airlift Germany was split into 4 occupied zones: US, UK, France & USSR
  26. 26. Berlin Blockade/Airlift Germany was split into 4 occupied zones: US, UK, France & USSR Berlin located in USSR sector
  27. 27. Berlin Blockade/Airlift Germany was split into 4 occupied zones: US, UK, France & USSR Berlin located in USSR sector 1948: USSR blocks off all support to Berlin to try and force Western countries to release control over Berlin
  28. 28. Berlin Blockade/Airlift Germany was split into 4 occupied zones: US, UK, France & USSR Berlin located in USSR sector 1948: USSR blocks off all support to Berlin to try and force Western countries to release control over BerlinWestern countries airlift supplies in to Berlin for support 277,000 flights; 2.3 million tons of supplies, every 3 min.
  29. 29. Berlin Blockade/Airlift Germany was split into 4 occupied zones: US, UK, France & USSR Berlin located in USSR sector 1948: USSR blocks off all support to Berlin to try and force Western countries to release control over BerlinWestern countries airlift supplies in to Berlin for support 277,000 flights; 2.3 million tons of supplies, every 3 min.1949: Blockade ends; USSR gives up - BAD BLOOD ➙Berlin Wall
  30. 30. NATO/Warsaw Pact
  31. 31. NATO/Warsaw PactTensions over Berlin and East Europe led to alliancesbeing formed
  32. 32. NATO/Warsaw PactTensions over Berlin and East Europe led to alliancesbeing formed1949: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) -Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, UnitedKingdom, United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy,Norway, Denmark, and Iceland
  33. 33. NATO/Warsaw PactTensions over Berlin and East Europe led to alliancesbeing formed1949: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) -Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, UnitedKingdom, United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy,Norway, Denmark, and Iceland1955: Warsaw Pact - USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland,East Germany, Romania and Albania
  34. 34. The Marshall Plan
  35. 35. The Marshall PlanPlan by Sec. of State GeorgeMarshall from 1946-49 Also called European Recovery Program
  36. 36. The Marshall PlanPlan by Sec. of State GeorgeMarshall from 1946-49 Also called European Recovery ProgramEurope had been left massivelydamaged by World War II
  37. 37. The Marshall PlanPlan by Sec. of State GeorgeMarshall from 1946-49 Also called European Recovery ProgramEurope had been left massivelydamaged by World War IIUS would pump millions ofdollars into rebuilding Also means of containing Communist spread US spent $1.2 billion
  38. 38. The Marshall PlanPlan by Sec. of State GeorgeMarshall from 1946-49 Also called European Recovery ProgramEurope had been left massivelydamaged by World War IIUS would pump millions ofdollars into rebuilding Also means of containing Communist spread US spent $1.2 billion
  39. 39. The Truman Doctrinehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmQD_W8Pcxg
  40. 40. The Truman Doctrinehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmQD_W8Pcxg Became official policy of US to provide economic and military aid to any country trying to resist Soviet influence
  41. 41. The Truman Doctrinehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmQD_W8Pcxg Became official policy of US to provide economic and military aid to any country trying to resist Soviet influence Started in Turkey and Greece
  42. 42. The Truman Doctrinehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmQD_W8Pcxg Became official policy of US to provide economic and military aid to any country trying to resist Soviet influence Started in Turkey and Greece HOT War potential
  43. 43. The Truman Doctrinehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmQD_W8Pcxg Became official policy of US to provide economic and military aid to any country trying to resist Soviet influence Started in Turkey and Greece HOT War potential .... but we had a Cold War. Why?
  44. 44. Development of Nuclear Weapons
  45. 45. Development of Nuclear Weapons1945 - US only country in the world with atomic weapons Continuing research and development - not only one
  46. 46. Development of Nuclear Weapons1945 - US only country in the world with atomic weapons Continuing research and development - not only one1949 - USSR builds atomic weapon
  47. 47. Development of Nuclear Weapons1945 - US only country in the world with atomic weapons Continuing research and development - not only one1949 - USSR builds atomic weapon1950 - US builds bigger and better weapon -Thermonuclear device - Hydrogen Bomb CONTINUED ESCALATION
  48. 48. Development of Nuclear Weapons1945 - US only country in the world with atomic weapons Continuing research and development - not only one1949 - USSR builds atomic weapon1950 - US builds bigger and better weapon -Thermonuclear device - Hydrogen Bomb CONTINUED ESCALATIONUSSR matches development and arms race begins MAD = Mutually Assured Destruction Knowing that hot conflict would lead to such an exchange and death kept the war a Cold War

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