<ul><li>In February 1938, Adolf Hitler threatened to invade Austria unless Austrian Nazis were given important government posts. </li></ul><ul><li>In March 1938, Hitler announced the unification, of Austria and Germany . </li></ul>German Unification
<ul><li>Hitler claimed the Sudetenland (an area of Czechoslovakia with a large German-speaking population). </li></ul><ul><li>Czechs strongly resisted Germany’s demand for the Sudetenland. </li></ul>Hitler gets Greedy
Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with. How does Europe and the League of Nations respond to these aggressions? Appeasement : The Munich Agreement, 1938 British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (If we give Hitler a cookie, Czechoslovakia, he will calm down and stop invading people!)
Czechoslovakia Becomes Part of the Third Reich: 1939 <ul><li>What is going on with this woman? </li></ul><ul><li>Is she happy or sad about Czechoslovakia being handed over to the Germans in the Munich Agreement? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is she giving the Nazi salute? </li></ul>
The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, 1939 Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop & Molotov
<ul><li>Hitler does not want to fight another 2 front war </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to keep Russia at bay </li></ul><ul><li>Russia is hoping to stay out of war completely </li></ul><ul><li>Trusts Hitler, big mistake </li></ul>Non-Aggression Pact
Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939 Blitzkrieg [“Lightening War”] Where is THIS arrow coming from?!? First look at the Invasion Arrows… What do they tell you?
“ Blitzkrieg” <ul><li>In German blitzkrieg means “lightning war”. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler used blitzkrieg during his invasion of Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>Blitzkrieg included surprise attacks, rapid advances into enemy territory, and massive air attacks that struck and shocked the enemy. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany achieved most of its victories in World War II with the Blitzkrieg tactic. </li></ul>
What to do? <ul><li>Britain and France declare they WILL have war with Germany if the Germans don’t withdraw Right NOW! (Who does this sound like?) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany does not withdraw. In fact, they ignore the British and refuse to answer them. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain declares war on September 3 rd , 1939. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately Britain and France are not ready to fight. They must raise, equip, train and position their armies. That takes time….. </li></ul>
And Then….. The Phony War: <ul><li>Not much happens between invasion of Poland (Sept 1939) and April 1940. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone wonders if Hitler has finally had enough “cookies”. France re-enforces the Maginot Line and some ships get sink in the Atlantic. </li></ul>Hitler and Mussolini- Just Good Friends
Maginot Line <ul><li>Then…. Lightning Strikes again! </li></ul>
“ Blitzkrieg: German soldiers being parachuted into Holland - May 10, 1940”
Mussolini and Hitler <ul><li>June 1940, Italy declares war on Great Britain and France </li></ul>
Blitzkrieg, 1940 Hitler, His army was trained , experienced and well supplied with advanced weapons and machines, attacks everywhere at once! April 9 th - Norway and Denmark May 10 th – Belgium and the Netherlands May 13 th - France
Destruction in France <ul><li>Civilian centers burned to the ground! </li></ul><ul><li>Jews, Gypsies, and others rounded up to be sent back to Germany for execution! </li></ul><ul><li>Maginot Line completely ignored! </li></ul><ul><li>The combined French, British, and Belgian Armies on the run! </li></ul>
<ul><li>Allied soldiers chased all the way to the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Every seaworthy vessel in England mobilized for the rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler almost wins the day that June, but enough soldiers are rescued to keep fighting the war. </li></ul>Dunkirk Evacuated June 4, 1940
Miracle at Dunkirk <ul><li>The event at Dunkirk is called a miracle because the retreating allies had lost hope and then the British pulled through for them and rescued 338,000 men. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Many people think that what happened at Dunkirk was a miracle, but factors of it were a disaster. </li></ul><ul><li>The evacuation had been going on for 5 days before the public knew; the troops had to leave behind all heavy artillery, most of which Hitler collected and studied to help him make life more difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of some platoons were evacuated whilst the rest of their platoon were still fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>As Churchill observed: “ Wars are not won by evacuations.” </li></ul>Miracle or not...
June 22, 1940 <ul><li>On June 22, 1940 France signs an armistice with Germany in occupied France. </li></ul><ul><li>An armistice is a cease fire or a truce. </li></ul><ul><li>The Franco-German Armistice divided France into two zones. One zone was under German military occupation and the other was under French control. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1942 Germans occupied all of France </li></ul>
Hitler meets with Gen. Petain of France as France begins armistice talks
A Divided France Henri Petain Leads the new Vichy government. He means to save as much of France as possible. “ Vichy France becomes the lapdog of Hitler and Germany. They do what they are told.
The French Resistance The Free French General Charles DeGaulle Neither Free nor actually in France, DeGaulle leads the Resistance (from England), making spies and saboteurs out of everyday Frenchmen and women. The citizens, still in France, smuggle in supplies from the Allies and disrupt the Germans whenever and wherever possible. E. What would we call a small group of people attacking an unpopular government and blowing things up with small home made weapons today? So, what makes these people different?
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis : The Tripartite Pact September, 1940
<ul><li>* Hitler thought that Britain would negotiate peace after France surrendered. </li></ul><ul><li>* He did not anticipate the bravery of the British people and their prime minister, Winston Churchill. </li></ul><ul><li>On June 4, 1940, Churchill delivered a defiant speech that rallied the British people and alerted the United States to Britain’s plight. </li></ul>Britain Remains Defiant
<ul><li>To invade Britain, Germany had to defeat the British air force. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Battle of Britain, the German air force, the Luftwaffe , launched an all-out air battle to destroy the British Royal Air Force. </li></ul><ul><li>After German bombers bombed London, the British responded by bombing Berlin, Germany. </li></ul>The bombing of Britain Battle of Britain
<ul><li>The Royal Air Force was greatly outnumbered by the Luftwaffe (German air force) </li></ul><ul><li>the British had radar stations and were able to detect incoming German aircraft and direct British fighters to intercept them. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler is forced to give up </li></ul>Britain does not give up