U.S. History Ch. 11


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U.S. History Ch. 11

  1. 1. The Rise of Dictators. Chapter Eleven. <ul><li>Three countries turned to fascism after W.W.I. </li></ul><ul><li>They were Italy, Germany, and Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Fascism is: </li></ul><ul><li>The state is more important than the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding the countries territories by war or other means. </li></ul>
  2. 2. More on Fascism… <ul><li>3. Need for a strong dictator. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Anti-communist. </li></ul><ul><li>5. No human rights! </li></ul><ul><li>Major fascists leaders are Bento Mussolini, Adolph Hitler, and Japanese militarists lead by the army and Gen. Tojo. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Isolationism. <ul><li>U.S. stays out of other countries affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Still burned by W.W.I. </li></ul><ul><li>Nye Committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality Act of 1935. NO arms sales to countries at war. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality Act of 1937. All non-military sales to countries at war for CASH only. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Roosevelt and Internationalism. <ul><li>Roosevelt was NOT an isolationist. </li></ul><ul><li>He believed in international trade and cooperation to solve the world’s problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt promised neutrality though, because that’s what most Americans wanted. </li></ul>
  5. 5. “Appeasement.” <ul><li>Germany seized/annexed Austria and Hungry, and without firing a shot. 1937. </li></ul><ul><li>Munich Crisis. Hitler claimed the “Sudetenland” a German speaking part of Czechoslovakia. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain, France, and Russia promised to help the Czech’s if attacked. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Munich Conference-1938. <ul><li>England, France, Russia not ready OR willing to go to war over Czechoslovakia. </li></ul><ul><li>Munich Pact sold out the Czech’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain: “Peace in our time.” </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t really happen. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Danzig and Polish Corridor-1938. <ul><li>After Munich, Hitler Demanded the port </li></ul><ul><li>of Danzig. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler also wanted a land Corridor to get there and back. </li></ul><ul><li>Danzig had been taken away from Germany after WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany and East Prussia were separated for good reason! See map! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Appeasement Failed. <ul><li>Britain and France tell Hitler that if they invade Poland, it means war. </li></ul><ul><li>Where’s Russia? </li></ul><ul><li>Secret non-Aggression Pact signed between Stalin and Hitler. </li></ul><ul><li>They BOTH decide to invade Poland and divided it. </li></ul><ul><li>This was NOT in Soviet history books! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Blitzkrieg on Poland.1939. <ul><li>Germany invades from the west and Soviet Union invades from East. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans use new kind of military tactic called “Blitzkrieg. </li></ul><ul><li>Today it’s called “Combined Arms.” </li></ul><ul><li>Poland didn’t have much of a chance. </li></ul><ul><li>W.W.II had now started. </li></ul>
  10. 10. “Bore War” or “Phony War.” <ul><li>England had no ability to attack Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>France had a defensive strategy to protect herself. </li></ul><ul><li>The Maginot Line: This was a massive string of connected forts along German border. </li></ul><ul><li>It took over ten years and billions of Francs to build. </li></ul>
  11. 11. While England and France Waited…. <ul><li>Hitler invaded and conquered these countries in short order: </li></ul><ul><li>Norway, Demark, and Sweden. These countries gave Germany access to the seas. </li></ul><ul><li>With the above countries under control, Hitler invaded France. 1940. </li></ul><ul><li>France, the mightiest land army in the world, fell within six weeks! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why Attack France? In Mein Kamf, Hitler wrote that Germany needed “Lebensraum” or breathing space to grow as a country. By invading the Soviet Union, Germany gets that space AND the Ukraine, the “Bread Basket” of the Soviet Union and Europe.
  13. 13. O.K. So why attack France? France was THE major military threat to Germany. IF Germany attacked the Soviet Union first, then France would join the Soviet Union. Another two front war for Germany; a repeat of W.W.I. fiasco! Hitler thought that the Soviet Union would be a military push over.
  14. 14. Why the French Failed. <ul><li>Germans didn’t attack heart of Maginot Line. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans attacked through lightly defended, forested, and mountainous Ardennes. </li></ul><ul><li>French thought the area impossible to move an army through. </li></ul><ul><li>OOOPS, GERMANS DID! </li></ul><ul><li>French army pointed in wrong direction! </li></ul><ul><li>France used her tanks wrong. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why did capturing Paris defeat the French so fast? It’s their capitol. Plus ALMOST all roads and railroads go through the city. Control Paris, and you control most of the countries transportation. Which American city is like Paris? Chicago.
  16. 16. Miracle at Dunkirk. <ul><li>Germans had much of the French and British army trapped at Dunkirk sea port. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler ordered a stop to the German army. </li></ul><ul><li>No one knows why. </li></ul><ul><li>During the lull, the British were able to evacuate 338,000 troops. </li></ul><ul><li>All their weapons had to be left behind. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Britain Stands Alone! <ul><li>Hitler thought that Britain would sign a peace treaty to end the war. WRONG! </li></ul><ul><li>Winston Churchill the new P.M. was a fighter. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler made plans to invade England. </li></ul><ul><li>How was invading England more difficult from the other countries? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Battle of Britain. “Britain's Greatest Hour.” <ul><li>Luftwaffe must destroy Royal Air Force. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany MUST control the skies in order to protect invasion fleet from formidable British navy. </li></ul><ul><li>Luftwaffe began attacking English airfields trying to destroy their air force. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Britain Outnumbered and Out Gunned-1940. <ul><li>When the BB first started England had these problems: </li></ul><ul><li>An army without weapons-Lost at Dunkirk. </li></ul><ul><li>No allies. </li></ul><ul><li>U-Boats sinking Brit ships faster than they could be built. </li></ul><ul><li>In an air war outnumbered 3-1 in planes. </li></ul>
  20. 20. How did Britain Win? <ul><li>Hitler changed targets from airfields to cities. </li></ul><ul><li>England had radar, a new technology. A force multiplier. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spitfire was a great fighter, EQUAL to the ME 109. </li></ul><ul><li>ME 109’s could only stay over England and fight for about fifteen minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Many 109’s were lost due to running out of fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Why was winning the Battle of Britain so important? <ul><li>Would be the place America would turn into a massive arms depot to invade France. </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed Hitler’s invasion of Soviet Union by several months. </li></ul><ul><li>General Mud and General Rain would fatefully destroy Hitler’s army over time. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Holocaust. <ul><li>Nazi ideology of Mein Kamf: </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis killed, tortured, and persecuted people with disabilities, Gypsies, homosexuals, Slavic peoples(Russians), and Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe, there already existed anti-Semitic prejudice and discrimination of Jews. (Alfred Dreyfuss.) </li></ul><ul><li>They were a Middle-Man minority. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler tapped these prejudices for political purposes. Hitler also blamed Jews for Germany losing W.W.I. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Nuremberg Laws-1935. <ul><li>Took citizenship away from Jewish Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>Banned marriages between a Jew and non-Jew. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A Jew is a person with at least one Jewish grand parent.” </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibited Jews from public office/government employment or voting. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Nuremburg Laws Continued… <ul><li>Forbade employing Jewish female servants under age of 35. </li></ul><ul><li>Compelled Jews with German sounding names to change to “Jewish” sounding names. </li></ul><ul><li>Passports marked with a “J.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jews banned from practicing law, medicine, acting, teaching, journalists, farming, and owning a business. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Kristallnacht “Night of Broken Glass.” 1938. <ul><li>Jewish refugee shot and killed German diplomat in Paris over Jewish persecution. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler ordered reprisals. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Jewish violence broke out through out Germany and Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Police FORBIDDEN to help Jews. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Jewish Refugees. <ul><li>Many Jews tried to flee Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler would only allow them to leave with four dollars! </li></ul><ul><li>Most countries, including the United States, would not take them. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Jews in Germany trapped. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Final Solution. <ul><li>Wannsee Conference-1942. </li></ul><ul><li>How to kill as many Jews and other “Undesirables” as efficiently as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration/Extermination camps. </li></ul><ul><li>Camp inmates worked to near death and starvation, then gassed to death. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Death Camps Set-Up All over Europe. <ul><li>Jews and others were sent to camps from any area occupied by Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the most infamous are Treblinka, Buchenwald, and Auschwitz. </li></ul><ul><li>Auschwitz could kill 12,000 people a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis tried make consumer products from the dead. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Final Solution Continued… <ul><li>Germans had informers within the occupied countries to help the S.S. find Jews. Look at page 555. </li></ul><ul><li>How many people did your textbook say were killed at the Death Camps in total? </li></ul><ul><li>“Holocaust Deniers” exist today. </li></ul>
  30. 30. How Could the Holocaust Happen? <ul><li>Although this Nazi GENOCIDE was the worst and most organized in world history, genocide and mass slaughter is common even today. </li></ul><ul><li>Stanley Milgram Experiment. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Genocide in the Last 100 Years.
  32. 32. Genocide Continued… 220,000 Charles Taylor (Liberia, 1989-1996) ? Mobutu Sese Seko (Zaire, 1965-97) 300,000 Benito Mussolini (Ethiopia, 1936; Yugoslavia, WWII) 300,000 Yahya Khan (Bangladesh, 1970-1971) 150,000 Michel Micombero (Burundi, 1972) 180,000 Slobodan Milosevic (Yugoslavia, 1992-96) 200,000 Foday Sankoh (Sierra Leone, 1991-2000)
  33. 33. <ul><li>ntury </li></ul>300,000 Idi Amin (Uganda, 1969-1979) 400,000 Mullah Omar - Taliban (Afghanistan, 1986-2001) 400,000 Savimbi (Angola, 1975-2002) 500,000? (Chinese civilians) Fumimaro Konoe (Japan, 1937-39) 500,000 Yahya Khan (Pakistan, 1971) vs Bangladesh 570,000 Tito (Yugoslavia, 1945-1987) 600,000 Saddam Hussein (Iran 1980-1990 and Kurdistan 1987-88) 800,000 Suharto (East Timor, West Papua, Communists, 1966-98) 800,000 Jean Kambanda (Rwanda, 1994) 900,000 Leonid Brezhnev (Afghanistan, 1979-1982) 1,000,000 Yakubu Gowon (Biafra, 1967-1970) 1,200,000 Armenians Ismail Enver (Turkey, 1915) 1,500,000 Menghistu (Ethiopia, 1975-78) 1.6 million (purges and concentration camps) Kim Il Sung (North Korea, 1948-94) 1,700,000 Pol Pot (Cambodia, 1975-79) 5,000,000 (civilians in WWII) Hideki Tojo (Japan, 1941-44) 12,000,000 (concentration camps and civilians WWII) Adolf Hitler (Germany, 1939-1945) 23,000,000 (the purges plus Ukraine's famine) Jozef Stalin (USSR, 1932-39) 49-78,000,000 Mao Ze-Dong (China, 1958-61 and 1966-69, Tibet 1949-50)
  34. 34. Isolationalists-1940. <ul><li>America First Committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Lindbergh was most famous member and public speaker against going to war. </li></ul><ul><li>Lindbergh was America MOST famous hero of that time. </li></ul><ul><li>What feat of daring did he do in 1927? </li></ul>
  35. 35. U.S. Enters the War-1941. <ul><li>Neutrality Act of 1939: </li></ul><ul><li>F.D.R. declares U.S. neutral “As in deed and as well as thought” after WWII breaks out. </li></ul><ul><li>EXCEPT, F.D.R. wants to sell arms and supplies to England and France. </li></ul><ul><li>Public agrees with F.D.R. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Help for Brits. <ul><li>Destroyers for bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and islands of the Caribbean-1940. </li></ul><ul><li>Lend-Lease Act-1940. U.S. could give military aid to “any country vital to the defense of U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Sliding into W.W.II. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Fire-Side Chats. <ul><li>How did he explain Lend-Lease? </li></ul><ul><li>“If your neighbor’s house is on fire, you’d at least let him borrow a hose, so your house doesn’t catch fire too.” </li></ul>
  38. 38. Election of 1940. <ul><li>F.D.R. runs for a third term. Unprecedented. </li></ul><ul><li>F.D.R. ran on the fact he kept U.S. out of war AND would do so in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>F.D.R. won in a landside. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Hemispheric Defense Zone-1940 Roosevelt declared the entire Western Hemisphere as neutral. This allowed the U.S. Navy to patrol this area and report intel to the British. How do you think the Germans saw this action?
  40. 40. Atlantic Charter-1941. <ul><li>Churchill later stated that Roosevelt “Would force an incident” with Germany to go to war. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S.S. Geer was fired upon by U-Boat. </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt ordered “Shoot on sight” for for American Navy. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S.S. Destroyer Reuben James sunk by U-Boat Oct. of 1941. </li></ul><ul><li>115 sailors died. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor-12-07-41. <ul><li>Why did the Japanese do this? </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. was the main rival for the wealth, trading partners, and land holdings in the Pacific. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan wanted to create a colonial empire like the rest of the powerful nations. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem: The world’s real estate was already taken by Europe/U.S. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Japan Invaded China-1937. <ul><li>U.S. cuts off trade with Japan-1941. </li></ul><ul><li>Most important U.S. export cut? OIL! </li></ul><ul><li>We supplied Japan with 80 percent of their oil needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan est. that they had 6 months of fuel before their naval fleet ran dry. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Why Pearl Harbor? <ul><li>What did the Japanese need most? </li></ul><ul><li>Where was the closest oil supply? </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch East Indies. Present day Malaysia. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S./British naval/air bases blocked Japan’s approach to oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Pearl Harbor held most of U.S. naval assets. </li></ul>
  44. 44. “A Day That Will Live In Infamy.” <ul><li>For some strange reason Hitler declared war on U.S. after Pearl Harbor. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler didn’t have to by treaty with Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Major blunder by Hitler. </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt now made Germany the U.S.’s number one target. 90 percent of war effort will be to defeat Hitler first! </li></ul>