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chapter 5interaction design      basics
interaction design basics• design:          – what it is, interventions, goals, constraints• the design process          –...
what are we designing?interactions not just interfaces
what are we designing?interactions not just interfaces
interactions           not just interfacesnot just the immediate interaction  e.g. stapler in office  technology changes i...
what are we designing?interactions not just interfacesinterventions not just artefacts
what are we designing?interactions not just interfacesinterventions not just artefacts
design interventions           not just artefactsnot just the system, but also …  documentation, manuals, tutorials  what ...
what are we designing?not just interfacesinteractions and interventions
what is design?
what is design?    achieving goals within constraints• goals - purpose  – who is it for, why do they want it• constraints ...
golden rule of design   understand your materials
for Human–Computer Interaction            understand your materials• understand computers  – limitations, capacities, tool...
To err is human• accident reports ..   – aircrash, industrial accident, hospital mistake   – enquiry … blames … ‘human err...
Central message …     the user
the interaction design process
The process of designwhat iswanted          analysis                             design                                   ...
The process of design   what is   wanted  interviews     analysis ethnography                                    design wh...
The process of design            scenarioswhat is   task analysiswanted               analysis                            ...
The process of designwhat is                     guidelineswanted                      principles                         ...
The process of design what is wanted                 analysis                                    design                   ...
The process of designwhat iswanted          analysis                      precise                                      spe...
The process of design                   scenarios   what is       task analysis          guidelines   wanted              ...
… but how can I do it all ! !
… but how can I do it all ! !  limited time    ⇒              design trade-off
usability?finding problems and fixing them?   8deciding what to fix?   4
… but how can I do it all ! !limited time ⇒ design trade-offdeciding what to fix?
… but how can I do it all ! !limited time ⇒ design trade-offdeciding what to fix?perfect system ⇒ poor design process   to...
user focus  know your user     personae  cultural probestechnology probes
know your user     •   who are they?     •   probably not like you!     •   talk to them     •   watch them     •   use yo...
persona• description of an ‘example’ user  – not necessarily a real person• use as surrogate user  – what would Betty thin...
example personaBetty is 37 years old, She has been Warehouse Manager for fiveyears and worked for Simpkins Brothers Engine...
persona• description of an ‘example’ user  – not necessarily a real person• use as surrogate user  – what would Betty thin...
cultural probes• direct observation   – sometimes hard      • in the home      • psychiatric patients, …• probe packs   – ...
technology probeshard for users to envisage radically new technology    => use early prototypes as promptsnot “what it wil...
scenariosstories for design  use and reuse
scenarios• stories for design  – communicate with others  – validate other models  – understand dynamics• linearity  – tim...
scenarios …• what will users want to do?• step-by-step walkthrough  – what can they see (sketches, screen shots)  – what d...
scenario – movie playerBrian would like to see the new film “Moments of Significance”and wants to invite Alison, but he kn...
scenarios …• what will users want to do?• step-by-step walkthrough  – what can they see (sketches, screen shots)  – what d...
also play act …• mock up device• pretend you are doing it• internet-connected swiss army knife …                          ...
… explore the depths• explore interaction  – what happens when• explore cognition  – what are the users thinking• explore ...
use scenarios to ..• communicate with others  – designers, clients, users• validate other models  – ‘play’ it against othe...
linearityScenarios – one linear path through systemPros:  – life and time are linear  – easy to understand (stories and na...
the systems                                                info and help        management            messagesstart       ...
levels• widget choice  – menus, buttons etc.• screen design• application navigation design• environment  – other apps, O/S
the web …• widget choice       • elements and tags                      – <a href=“...”>• screen design       • page desig...
physical devices• widget choice       • controls                      – buttons, knobs, dials• screen design       • physi...
think about structure• within a screen  – later ...• local  – looking from this screen out• global  – structure of site, m...
local    from one screen looking out
goal seeking               goalstart
goal seeking                                         goalstart        progress with local knowledge only ...
goal seeking                                         goalstart           …   but can get to the goal
goal seeking                                          goalstart           …   try to avoid these bits!
four golden rules• knowing where you are• knowing what you can do• knowing where you are going  – or what will happen• kno...
where you are – breadcrumbs       shows path through web site hierarchy             top level category   sub-category web ...
beware the big button trap            things           other things                            the thing from         more...
modes• lock to prevent accidental use …  – remove lock - ‘c’ + ‘yes’ to confirm  – frequent practiced action• if lock forg...
global           between screens         within the application
hierarchical diagrams                       the system info and help        management             messages               ...
hierarchical diagrams ctd.• parts of application  – screens or groups of screens• typically functional separation         ...
navigating hierarchies• deep is difficult!• misuse of Miller’s 7 ± 2  – short term memory, not menu size• optimal?  – many...
think about dialogue     what does it mean in UI design? Minister: do you name take this woman … Man: I do Minister: do yo...
think about dialogue     what does it mean in UI design? Minister: do you name take this woman …  • marriage service     •...
network diagrams    main        remove                           confirm   screen         user               add user• sho...
network diagrams ctd.• what leads to what• what happens when• including branches• more task oriented then hierarchy       ...
wider still       between applications          and beyond ...
wider still …• style issues:  – platform standards, consistency• functional issues  – cut and paste• navigation issues  – ...
                                  Dix , Alan                                  Finlay, Janet                              ...
basic principles• ask        – what is the user doing?• think        – what information, comparisons, order• design       ...
available tools• grouping of items• order of items• decoration - fonts, boxes etc.• alignment of items• white space betwee...
grouping and structure    logically together ⇒ physically together  Billing details:          Delivery details:   Name    ...
order of groups and items• think! - what is natural order• should match screen order!      – use boxes, space etc.      – ...
decoration• use boxes to group logical items• use fonts for emphasis, headings• but not too many!!                ABCDEFGH...
alignment - textyou read from left to right                     (English and European)                ⇒ align left hand si...
alignment - names• Usually scanning for surnames    ⇒ make it easy!  Alan Dix              Janet Finlay  Gregory Abowd  R...
alignment - numbers                        532.56think purpose!           179.3                       256.317which is bigg...
alignment - numbers                             627.865visually:                               1.005763 long number = big ...
multiple columns• scanning across gaps hard:         (often hard to avoid with large data base fields)  sherbert          ...
multiple columns -   2• use leaders   sherbert               75   toffee                120   chocolate              35   ...
multiple columns -      3• or greying    (vertical too)   sherbert                       75   toffee                      ...
multiple columns -    4• or even (with care!) ‘bad’ alignment                          sherbert 75                        ...
white space      what isn’tis often as important      as what is
white space - the counter     WHAT YOU SEE
white space - the counter     WHAT YOU SEETHE GAPS BETWEEN
space to separate
space to structure
space to highlight
physical devices toodifferent construction   similar principles
physical controls• grouping of items  – defrostsettings  defrost settings  – typeof food  type of food  – time to cook   t...
physical controls• grouping of items• order of items1) typetype of heating    1) of heating                         1     ...
physical controls• grouping of items• order of items• decoration  – different colours  different colours for    for differ...
physical controls• grouping of items• order of items• decoration• alignment  – centered text in buttons   centred text in ...
physical controls• grouping of items• order of items• decoration• alignment• white space  – gaps to aid grouping   gaps to...
user action and control  entering information  knowing what to do      affordances
entering information                                                  Name:     Alan Dix                                  ...
knowing what to do• what is active what is passive  – where do you click  – where do you type• consistent style helps  – e...
affordances                                                   mug handle• psychological term                              ...
appropriate appearance      presenting information       aesthetics and utility           colour and 3Dlocalisation & inte...
presenting information• purpose matters                                    name     size   – sort order (which column, num...
aesthetics and utility• aesthetically pleasing designs   – increase user satisfaction and improve productivity• beauty and...
colour and 3D• both often used very badly!• colour  –   older monitors limited palette  –   colour over used because ‘it i...
bad use of colour• over use -   without very good reason (e.g. kids’ site)• colour blindness• poor use of contrast• do adj...
colour and 3D• both often used very badly!• colour  –   older monitors limited palette  –   colour over used because ‘it i...
across countries and cultures• localisation & internationalisation    – changing interfaces for particular cultures/langua...
iteration and prototyping     getting better …    … and starting well
prototyping• you never get it right first time• if at first you don’t succeed …                                        OK?...
pitfalls of prototyping• moving little by little … but to where• Malverns or the Matterhorn? 1.   need a good start point ...
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Interaction Design

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Transcript of "Interaction Design"

  1. 1. chapter 5interaction design basics
  2. 2. interaction design basics• design: – what it is, interventions, goals, constraints• the design process – what happens when• users – who they are, what they are like …• scenarios – rich stories of design• navigation – finding your way around a system• screen design – what goes where, and what it looks like• iteration and prototypes – never get it right first time!
  3. 3. what are we designing?interactions not just interfaces
  4. 4. what are we designing?interactions not just interfaces
  5. 5. interactions not just interfacesnot just the immediate interaction e.g. stapler in office technology changes interaction style manual: write, print, staple, write, print, staple, … electric: write, print, write, print, …, staple
  6. 6. what are we designing?interactions not just interfacesinterventions not just artefacts
  7. 7. what are we designing?interactions not just interfacesinterventions not just artefacts
  8. 8. design interventions not just artefactsnot just the system, but also … documentation, manuals, tutorials what we say and do as well as what we make
  9. 9. what are we designing?not just interfacesinteractions and interventions
  10. 10. what is design?
  11. 11. what is design? achieving goals within constraints• goals - purpose – who is it for, why do they want it• constraints – materials, platforms• trade-offs
  12. 12. golden rule of design understand your materials
  13. 13. for Human–Computer Interaction understand your materials• understand computers – limitations, capacities, tools, platforms• understand people – psychological, social aspects – human error• and their interaction …
  14. 14. To err is human• accident reports .. – aircrash, industrial accident, hospital mistake – enquiry … blames … ‘human error’• but … – concrete lintel breaks because too much weight – blame ‘lintel error’ ? … no – design error we know how concrete behaves under stress• human ‘error’ is normal – we know how users behave under stress – so design for it!• treat the user at least as well as physical materials!
  15. 15. Central message … the user
  16. 16. the interaction design process
  17. 17. The process of designwhat iswanted analysis design implement and deploy prototype
  18. 18. The process of design what is wanted interviews analysis ethnography design what is there vs. implementwhat is wanted and deploy prototype
  19. 19. The process of design scenarioswhat is task analysiswanted analysis design implement and deploy prototype
  20. 20. The process of designwhat is guidelineswanted principles dialogue analysis design implement and deploy prototype
  21. 21. The process of design what is wanted analysis design implement and deploy evaluation heuristics prototypetechnology probes
  22. 22. The process of designwhat iswanted analysis precise specification design implement and deploy prototype architectures documentation help
  23. 23. The process of design scenarios what is task analysis guidelines wanted principles dialogue precise interviews analysis ethnography specification design what is there vs. implementwhat is wanted and deploy evaluation heuristics prototype architectures documentation help
  24. 24. … but how can I do it all ! !
  25. 25. … but how can I do it all ! ! limited time ⇒ design trade-off
  26. 26. usability?finding problems and fixing them? 8deciding what to fix? 4
  27. 27. … but how can I do it all ! !limited time ⇒ design trade-offdeciding what to fix?
  28. 28. … but how can I do it all ! !limited time ⇒ design trade-offdeciding what to fix?perfect system ⇒ poor design process too good ⇒ too much effort in design
  29. 29. user focus know your user personae cultural probestechnology probes
  30. 30. know your user • who are they? • probably not like you! • talk to them • watch them • use your imagination
  31. 31. persona• description of an ‘example’ user – not necessarily a real person• use as surrogate user – what would Betty think• details matter – makes her ‘real’
  32. 32. example personaBetty is 37 years old, She has been Warehouse Manager for fiveyears and worked for Simpkins Brothers Engineering for twelveyears. She didn’t go to university, but has studied in herevenings for a business diploma. She has two children aged 15and 7 and does not like to work late. She did part of anintroductory in-house computer course some years ago, but itwas interrupted when she was promoted and could no longerafford to take the time. Her vision is perfect, but her right-handmovement is slightly restricted following an industrial accident 3years ago. She is enthusiastic about her work and is happy todelegate responsibility and take suggestions from her staff.However, she does feel threatened by the introduction of yetanother new computer system (the third in her time at SBE).
  33. 33. persona• description of an ‘example’ user – not necessarily a real person• use as surrogate user – what would Betty think• details matter – makes her ‘real’
  34. 34. cultural probes• direct observation – sometimes hard • in the home • psychiatric patients, …• probe packs – items to prompt responses • e.g. glass to listen at wall, camera, postcard – given to people to open in their own environment they record what is meaningful to them• used to … – inform interviews, prompt ideas, enculture designers
  35. 35. technology probeshard for users to envisage radically new technology => use early prototypes as promptsnot “what it will be like”more exposing potentiale.g. Hermes office door displays
  36. 36. scenariosstories for design use and reuse
  37. 37. scenarios• stories for design – communicate with others – validate other models – understand dynamics• linearity – time is linear - our lives are linear – but don’t show alternatives
  38. 38. scenarios …• what will users want to do?• step-by-step walkthrough – what can they see (sketches, screen shots) – what do they do (keyboard, mouse etc.) – what are they thinking?• use and reuse throughout design
  39. 39. scenario – movie playerBrian would like to see the new film “Moments of Significance”and wants to invite Alison, but he knows she doesn’t like “arty”films. He decides to take a look at it to see if she would like itand so connects to one of the movie sharing networks. He useshis work machine as it has a higher bandwidth connection, butfeels a bit guilty. He knows he will be getting an illegal copy ofthe film, but decides it is OK as he is intending to go to thecinema to watch it. After it downloads to his machine he takesout his new personal movie player. He presses the ‘menu’button and on the small LCD screen he scrolls using the arrowkeys to ‘bluetooth connect’ and presses the select button. Onhis computer the movie download program now has an iconshowing that it has recognised a compatible device and he dragsthe icon of the film over the icon for the player. On the playerthe LCD screen says “downloading now”, a percent doneindicator and small whirling icon. … … …
  40. 40. scenarios …• what will users want to do?• step-by-step walkthrough – what can they see (sketches, screen shots) – what do they do (keyboard, mouse etc.) – what are they thinking?• use and reuse throughout design
  41. 41. also play act …• mock up device• pretend you are doing it• internet-connected swiss army knife … but where is that thumb?use toothpick as stylus
  42. 42. … explore the depths• explore interaction – what happens when• explore cognition – what are the users thinking• explore architecture – what is happening inside
  43. 43. use scenarios to ..• communicate with others – designers, clients, users• validate other models – ‘play’ it against other models• express dynamics – screenshots – appearance – scenario – behaviour
  44. 44. linearityScenarios – one linear path through systemPros: – life and time are linear – easy to understand (stories and narrative are natural) – concrete (errors less likely)Cons: – no choice, no branches, no special conditions – miss the unintendedSo: – use several scenarios – use several methods
  45. 45. the systems info and help management messagesstart navigation design add user remove user local structure – single screen global structure – whole site main remove confirm screen user add user
  46. 46. levels• widget choice – menus, buttons etc.• screen design• application navigation design• environment – other apps, O/S
  47. 47. the web …• widget choice • elements and tags – <a href=“...”>• screen design • page design• navigation design • site structure• environment • the web, browser, external links
  48. 48. physical devices• widget choice • controls – buttons, knobs, dials• screen design • physical layout• navigation design • modes of device• environment • the real world
  49. 49. think about structure• within a screen – later ...• local – looking from this screen out• global – structure of site, movement between screens• wider still – relationship with other applications
  50. 50. local from one screen looking out
  51. 51. goal seeking goalstart
  52. 52. goal seeking goalstart progress with local knowledge only ...
  53. 53. goal seeking goalstart … but can get to the goal
  54. 54. goal seeking goalstart … try to avoid these bits!
  55. 55. four golden rules• knowing where you are• knowing what you can do• knowing where you are going – or what will happen• knowing where you’ve been – or what you’ve done
  56. 56. where you are – breadcrumbs shows path through web site hierarchy top level category sub-category web site this pagelive linksto higher levels
  57. 57. beware the big button trap things other things the thing from more things outer space• where do they go? – lots of room for extra text!
  58. 58. modes• lock to prevent accidental use … – remove lock - ‘c’ + ‘yes’ to confirm – frequent practiced action• if lock forgotten – in pocket ‘yes’ gets pressed – goes to phone book – in phone book … ‘c’ – delete entry ‘yes’ – confirm … oops !
  59. 59. global between screens within the application
  60. 60. hierarchical diagrams the system info and help management messages add user remove user
  61. 61. hierarchical diagrams ctd.• parts of application – screens or groups of screens• typically functional separation the systems info and help management messages add user remove user
  62. 62. navigating hierarchies• deep is difficult!• misuse of Miller’s 7 ± 2 – short term memory, not menu size• optimal? – many items on each screen – but structured within screen see /e3/online/menu-breadth/
  63. 63. think about dialogue what does it mean in UI design? Minister: do you name take this woman … Man: I do Minister: do you name take this man … Woman: I do Minister: I now pronounce you man and wife
  64. 64. think about dialogue what does it mean in UI design? Minister: do you name take this woman … • marriage service • general flow, generic – blanks for names • pattern of interaction between people • computer dialogue • pattern of interaction between users and system • but details differ each time
  65. 65. network diagrams main remove confirm screen user add user• show different paths through system
  66. 66. network diagrams ctd.• what leads to what• what happens when• including branches• more task oriented then hierarchy main remove confirm screen user add user
  67. 67. wider still between applications and beyond ...
  68. 68. wider still …• style issues: – platform standards, consistency• functional issues – cut and paste• navigation issues – embedded applications – links to other apps … the web
  69. 69.  Dix , Alan Finlay, Janet Abowd, Gregory Beale, Russell screen design and layout basic principles grouping, structure, order, alignment, use of white space physical panels action andABCDEFGHIJKLM appearanceNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
  70. 70. basic principles• ask – what is the user doing?• think – what information, comparisons, order• design – form follows function
  71. 71. available tools• grouping of items• order of items• decoration - fonts, boxes etc.• alignment of items• white space between items
  72. 72. grouping and structure logically together ⇒ physically together Billing details: Delivery details: Name Name Address: … Address: … Credit card no Delivery time Order details: item quantity cost/item cost size 10 screws (boxes) 7 3.71 25.97 …… … … …
  73. 73. order of groups and items• think! - what is natural order• should match screen order! – use boxes, space etc. – set up tabbing right!• instructions – beware the cake recipie syndrome! … mix milk and flour, add the fruit after beating them
  74. 74. decoration• use boxes to group logical items• use fonts for emphasis, headings• but not too many!! ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ
  75. 75. alignment - textyou read from left to right (English and European) ⇒ align left hand side boring but Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory Winston Churchill - A Biography readable! Wizard of Oz Xena - Warrior Princess Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory Winston Churchill - A Biography Wizard of Ozfine for special effects Xena - Warrior Princessbut hard to scan
  76. 76. alignment - names• Usually scanning for surnames ⇒ make it easy! Alan Dix  Janet Finlay Gregory Abowd Russell Beale  Dix , Alan Finlay, Janet Abowd, Gregory Alan Janet Gregory  Dix Finlay Abowd Beale, Russell Russell Beale
  77. 77. alignment - numbers 532.56think purpose! 179.3 256.317which is biggest? 15 73.948 1035 3.142 497.6256
  78. 78. alignment - numbers 627.865visually: 1.005763 long number = big number 382.583align decimal points 2502.56or right align integers 432.935 2.0175 652.87 56.34
  79. 79. multiple columns• scanning across gaps hard: (often hard to avoid with large data base fields) sherbert 75 toffee 120 chocolate 35 fruit gums 27 coconut dreams 85
  80. 80. multiple columns - 2• use leaders sherbert 75 toffee 120 chocolate 35 fruit gums 27 coconut dreams 85
  81. 81. multiple columns - 3• or greying (vertical too) sherbert 75 toffee 120 chocolate 35 fruit gums 27 coconut dreams 85
  82. 82. multiple columns - 4• or even (with care!) ‘bad’ alignment sherbert 75 toffee 120 chocolate 35 fruit gums 27 coconut dreams 85
  83. 83. white space what isn’tis often as important as what is
  84. 84. white space - the counter WHAT YOU SEE
  85. 85. white space - the counter WHAT YOU SEETHE GAPS BETWEEN
  86. 86. space to separate
  87. 87. space to structure
  88. 88. space to highlight
  89. 89. physical devices toodifferent construction similar principles
  90. 90. physical controls• grouping of items – defrostsettings defrost settings – typeof food type of food – time to cook time to cook
  91. 91. physical controls• grouping of items• order of items1) typetype of heating 1) of heating 1 2) temperature2) temperature 3) time to cook3) time to cook 4) start 24) start 3 4
  92. 92. physical controls• grouping of items• order of items• decoration – different colours different colours for for different functions different functions – lines around related lines around related buttons buttons (temp up/down)
  93. 93. physical controls• grouping of items• order of items• decoration• alignment – centered text in buttons centred text in buttons ? easy to scan ? ? easy to scan ?
  94. 94. physical controls• grouping of items• order of items• decoration• alignment• white space – gaps to aid grouping gaps to aid grouping
  95. 95. user action and control entering information knowing what to do affordances
  96. 96. entering information Name: Alan Dix Address: Lancaster• forms, dialogue boxes – presentation + data input – similar layout issues – alignment - N.B. different label lengths  Name: Address: Alan Dix Lancaster• logical layout – use task analysis (ch15) – groupings ? Name: Alan Dix Address: Lancaster – natural order for entering information • top-bottom, left-right (depending on culture) • set tab order for keyboard entry N.B. see extra slides for widget choice
  97. 97. knowing what to do• what is active what is passive – where do you click – where do you type• consistent style helps – e.g. web underlined links• labels and icons – standards for common actions – language – bold = current state or action
  98. 98. affordances mug handle• psychological term ‘affords’• for physical objects grasping – shape and size suggest actions • pick up, twist, throw – also cultural – buttons ‘afford’ pushing• for screen objects – button–like object ‘affords’ mouse click – physical-like objects suggest use• culture of computer use – icons ‘afford’ clicking – or even double clicking … not like real buttons!
  99. 99. appropriate appearance presenting information aesthetics and utility colour and 3Dlocalisation & internationalisation
  100. 100. presenting information• purpose matters name size – sort order (which column, numeric alphabetic) chap10 chap1 12 17 chap5 chap10 16 12 – text vs. diagram chap1 chap11 17 51 – scatter graph vs. histogram chap14 chap12 262 22 chap20 chap13 27 83 chap8 chap14 32 22• use paper presentation principles! …… …• but add interactivity – softens design choices • e.g. re-ordering columns • ‘dancing histograms’ (chap 21)
  101. 101. aesthetics and utility• aesthetically pleasing designs – increase user satisfaction and improve productivity• beauty and utility may conflict – mixed up visual styles ⇒ easy to distinguish – clean design – little differentiation ⇒ confusing – backgrounds behind text … good to look at, but hard to read• but can work together – e.g. the design of the counter – in consumer products – key differentiator (e.g. Apple)
  102. 102. colour and 3D• both often used very badly!• colour – older monitors limited palette – colour over used because ‘it is there’ – beware colour blind! – use sparingly to reinforce other information• 3D effects – good for physical information and some graphs – but if over used … e.g. text in perspective!! 3D pie charts
  103. 103. bad use of colour• over use - without very good reason (e.g. kids’ site)• colour blindness• poor use of contrast• do adjust your set! – adjust your monitor to greys only – can you still read your screen?
  104. 104. colour and 3D• both often used very badly!• colour – older monitors limited palette – colour over used because ‘it is there’ – beware colour blind! – use sparingly to reinforce other information• 3D effects – good for physical information and some graphs – but if over used … e.g. text in perspective!! 3D pie charts
  105. 105. across countries and cultures• localisation & internationalisation – changing interfaces for particular cultures/languages• globalisation – try to choose symbols etc. that work everywhere• simply change language? – use ‘resource’ database instead of literal text … but changes sizes, left-right order etc.• deeper issues – cultural assumptions and values – meanings of symbols e.g tick and cross … +ve and -ve in some cultures … but … mean the same thing (mark this) in others  
  106. 106. iteration and prototyping getting better … … and starting well
  107. 107. prototyping• you never get it right first time• if at first you don’t succeed … OK? design prototype evaluate done! re-design
  108. 108. pitfalls of prototyping• moving little by little … but to where• Malverns or the Matterhorn? 1. need a good start point 2. need to understand what is wrong
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