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human memory      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chimp_Brain_in_a_jar.jpg
types of memory        timescale  seconds       sensory memory                short-term memory (STM)  minutes            ...
mechanism    long term         –       physical                          synapse growth   short term         –      electr...
sensory memory
at the sensorsafter imageshabituation... always sense change
in the brainbuffers for stimuli received through senses  iconic memory: visual stimuli  echoic memory: aural stimuli      ...
short-term memory
short-term memory
short-term memory (STM)also called ‘working memory’scratch-pad for temporary recall  rapid access ~ 70ms  rapid decay ~ 20...
Millers 7+/-2     2832   138743021234827849320      2
seven ‘chunks’   meaning matters  42194520011066   42 1945 2001       1066   0121 414 2626HEC ATR ANU PTH ETRHEC ATR ANU P...
long-term memory
long-term memoryrepository for all our knowledge                             ... and who  we are   slow access – relative ...
types of (explicit) LTMepisodic   serial memory of events   may be hard to recall out of ordersemantic / declarative   str...
associativeconcepts linked to one another    finding a start point?    external cues      recognition vs. recall    e.g. m...
explicit memoryepisodic & semantic memory             explicit / conscious                            you know that you kn...
implicit / tacit knowledgemotor memories   playing an instrumentautomatic reactions   Pavlov and Skinnerexpert knowledge  ...
linkedfrom explicit to implicit         proceduralisationfrom implicit to explicit         introspection and  externalisat...
mezzanine memory
mezzanine memorywhat you are doing now       context – activates LTMwhat you have been doing recently       short-term epi...
where studied      cockpits and control rooms              situation awareness      reading                               ...
reliable memories?Charlotte walked through the           door ...
semantic not photographic  perception        encode             reconstruct                                    memoriesall...
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The Human: Memory

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The Human: Memory

  1. 1. human memory http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chimp_Brain_in_a_jar.jpg
  2. 2. types of memory timescale seconds sensory memory short-term memory (STM) minutes mezzanine memoryhours/days lifetime long-term memory (LTM)
  3. 3. mechanism long term – physical synapse growth short term – electrical 7±2 neuron firing mezzanine – chemical? (no ‘proper’ name) LTP (long termpotentiation) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GFPneuron.png
  4. 4. sensory memory
  5. 5. at the sensorsafter imageshabituation... always sense change
  6. 6. in the brainbuffers for stimuli received through senses iconic memory: visual stimuli echoic memory: aural stimuli ... what did you say? haptic memory: tactile stimulicontinuously overwritten
  7. 7. short-term memory
  8. 8. short-term memory
  9. 9. short-term memory (STM)also called ‘working memory’scratch-pad for temporary recall rapid access ~ 70ms rapid decay ~ 200ms limited time ~ 30s without rehearsal limited capacity – 7± 2 chunk
  10. 10. Millers 7+/-2 2832 138743021234827849320 2
  11. 11. seven ‘chunks’ meaning matters 42194520011066 42 1945 2001 1066 0121 414 2626HEC ATR ANU PTH ETRHEC ATR ANU PTH ETR EET EET
  12. 12. long-term memory
  13. 13. long-term memoryrepository for all our knowledge ... and who we are slow access – relative to STM slowly created – rehearsal slow decay, if any huge or unlimited capacity
  14. 14. types of (explicit) LTMepisodic serial memory of events may be hard to recall out of ordersemantic / declarative structured memory of facts, concepts, skills links and associations http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Tyger_BM_a_1794.j
  15. 15. associativeconcepts linked to one another finding a start point? external cues recognition vs. recall e.g. menus vs command line
  16. 16. explicit memoryepisodic & semantic memory explicit / conscious you know that you knownot all memory like that ....
  17. 17. implicit / tacit knowledgemotor memories playing an instrumentautomatic reactions Pavlov and Skinnerexpert knowledge http://www.flickr.com/photos/protographer23/358987856/
  18. 18. linkedfrom explicit to implicit proceduralisationfrom implicit to explicit introspection and externalisationimplicit associations activate explicit recall
  19. 19. mezzanine memory
  20. 20. mezzanine memorywhat you are doing now context – activates LTMwhat you have been doing recently short-term episodic memory
  21. 21. where studied cockpits and control rooms situation awareness reading long-term working memoryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Swiss_Saab_2000_Cockpit.jpg
  22. 22. reliable memories?Charlotte walked through the door ...
  23. 23. semantic not photographic perception encode reconstruct memoriesall memories are constructed  confabulation false memories e.g. Deb Roy @ MIT, first steps

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