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CONFLICTS & NEGOTIATIONS IN ORGANIZATIONS
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CONFLICTS & NEGOTIATIONS IN ORGANIZATIONS

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  • 1. TERM PAPER PRESENTATION ON TOPIC:- CONFLICTS & NEGOTIATIONS IN ORGANIZATIONS T HARI KUMAR(449) APARNA K(450) ALEX JAMES(451) KAVYA(452)
  • 2. Conflict Definition A process that begin when party perceives that another party has negatively affected , or is about to negatively affect something that the first party cares about.  Transitions in Conflict Thought Traditional View – All conflicts are harmful and must be avoided. Interactionist View – Conflict is absolutely necessary for group to perform effectively.
  • 3. Functional Vs Dysfunctional Conflict  Functional Conflict  Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance.  Dysfunctional Conflict  Conflict that hinders group performance There are 3 types of conflict Task: relates to the content and goals of the work – Low to moderate level. Relationship: focus on interpersonal relationships - High level. Process: relates to how the work gets done – Low level.
  • 4. Stage 1: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility  Is the appearance of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise Communication Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise” Structure Size and specialization of jobs Member/goal incompatibility Leadership styles (close or participative) Reward systems (win-lose) Personal Variables Differing individual value systems Personality types
  • 5. Stage 2 : Cognition and personalization  If one or more of previous points raise up , we reach this stage Percieved Conflict: Awareness by one or more parties of existence of conditions that create opportinities that conflict raise Felt Conflict: Emotional involvment in a conflict that creates anxiety, and frustation
  • 6. Stage 3 : Intentions
  • 7. Stage 4 :Behavior  It includes the statement actions , and reactions made by the conflicting parties  According to many conflict management techniques Problem solving Subordinate goals “ shared goals” Avoidance Compromising
  • 8. Stage 5 : Outcomes FUNCTIONAL Increased group performance Stimulation of creativity and innovation Encouragement of interest and curiosity Problem-solving DYSFUNCTIONAL Development of discontent Reduced group effectiveness Retarded communication Reduced group cohesiveness
  • 9. Negotiation: Is a process that occurs when two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources Bargaining Strategies There are two general approaches to negotiation : Distributive Bargaining The most identifying feature is that it operates under zero-sum conditions, that is any gain I make is at your expense and vice versa. So the essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie. Integrative Bargaining Operates under the assumption that one or more settlements can create a win-win solution . Both parties must be engaged for it to work.
  • 10. Negotiation Process 5 steps of the negotiation process 1- preparation and planning  Make sure that your goal stays paramount in your discussions  Put your goals in writing and develop a range of outcomes to keep your attention focused.  Assess what you think are the other party’s goals.  Once you have gathered your information , use it to develop a strategy. 2-Definition of ground rules: During this phase , the parties will exchange their initial proposals or demands. And are ready for defining ground rules to 3rd party.
  • 11. Negotiation Process 3-Clarification and justification: At this phase both you and the other party will explain ,amplify , clarify and justify your original demands. 4- Bargaining and problem solving: This is where both parties will undoubtedly need to make concessions. 5-Closure and implementation The final step in the negotiation process is formalizing the agreement that has been worked out and developing any procedures necessary for implementation and monitoring.
  • 12. Individual differences in negotiation effectiveness Three factors influence how effectively individuals negotiate : personality, mood & emotions , and gender.  Personality traits in negotiation Negotiators who are agreeable or extraverted aren’t very successful in distributive bargaining as they are outgoing and friendly , they tend to share more information than they should . So the best distributive bargainer appears to be a disagreeable introvert , someone more interested in his or her own outcomes than in pleasing the other party and having a pleasant social exchange .
  • 13. Individual differences in negotiation effectiveness  Moods and emotions in negotiation Emotions play an important part in the negotiation process, Negative emotions can cause intense and even irrational behavior, and can cause conflicts to escalate and negotiations to break down. On the other hand, positive emotions often facilitate reaching an agreement and help to maximize joint gains.  Gender differences in negotiations Men have been found to negotiate better outcomes than women , although the difference is relatively small.
  • 14. Third party negotiations Mediator  Mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasons and persuasion , suggesting alternatives . Arbitrator  Arbitrator Is a third party with the authority to dictate an agreement.  The big plus of arbitration over mediation is that it always results in a settlement . Conciliator  Conciliator Is a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent . Consultant  Consultant is a skilled and impartial third party who attempts to facilitate problem solving through communication and analysis, aided by a knowledge of conflict management
  • 15. CONCLUSION TO REDUCE CONFLICTS Use appropriate problem solving techniques to solve conflicts but if the conflicts are functional then they are to be praised towards its achievement. but if at all they are dysfunctional then they should be immediately controlled.