The grammar-translation method of foreign language teaching is one of the most tradi-tional methods, dating back to the late nine-teenth and early twentieth centuries. It was originally used to teach 'dead' languages (and literatures) such as Latin and Greek, and this may account for its heavy bias to-wards written work to the virtual exclusion
This method is based on the principles of behavior psychology. It adapted many of the principles and procedures of the Direct Method, in part as a re-action to the lack of speaking skills of the Reading Approach.
The communicative approach could be said to be the product of educators and linguists who had grown dissatisfied with the audio-lingual and grammar-translation methods of foreign language instruction.
The origins of Communicative Language Teaching are to be found in the changes in the British languages teaching tradi-tion dating from the late 1960s. Interest in and development of communicative-style teaching mushroomed in the 1970s; authentic language use and classroom exchanges where students engaged in real communication with one another became quite popular.
The role of the instructor in CLT is quite differ-ent from traditional teaching methods. In the traditional classroom, the teacher is in charge and "controls" the learning. In CLT the teacher serves as more of a facilitator, allowing stu-dents to be in charge of their own learning.
Language is used for communication. For this reason, CLT makes use of communication to teach languages. CLT emphasizes real-life situ-ations and communica-tion in context. While gra-mmar is still important in the CLT classroom, the emphasis is on communi-cating a message .
Multimedia is an ideal way to teach lan-guage using CLT as the theory. It allows for realistic simulations of communicative situ-ations. Many such programs are games, such as "A la rencontre de Philipe" or "Who is Oscar Lake?". They place the learner in a situation in which understanding basic com-munication, and social and cultural contexts are vital to advancing in the game.
i. Humanism is described in applied linguistics as ‘language teaching respecting the integrity of learners, allowing for per-sonal growth and responsibility, taking psychological and affective factors into account, and representing “whole person learning”’. The roots of humanism in lan-guage teaching are various. One central one is the ‘discovery-learning’ movement.
Characteristics (take that of the Silent Way as an example)
The students have to be fully alert to make the most of what the teacher says to play the major part in the learning.
Various aids are used as simple pointers, or to make shapes, helping the learners de-duce the meanings for themselves.
The method has many traditional aspects, including use of traditional structural sylla-buses.
Task-based teaching has become a subject of keen contemporary interest, and different task-based approaches exist today. One underlying principle holds for all the approaches – to place the emphasis firmly on activities or tasks that learners do in class. One thing should be men-tioned is that, there are a number of features that will make tasks more or less difficult. So that we can progressively give our learners tasks where there are more and more things to think about, and consequently less and less attention available for form.
The future is always uncertain, and this is no less true in anticipating methodological directions in second language teaching than in any other field. Some current predictions assume the carrying on and refinement of current trends; others appear a bit more science-fiction-like in their vision.
However, the future of L2 teaching methodologies, as yet not fully explored, is associated with what might be called a ‘cognitive approach to language learning’. Perhaps this cognitive, or information-processing approach is where the future lies.