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Aim: How did the Islamic Empire affect the societies which it conquered? Analyze the map of the spread of Islam. To where does the religion spread? How long did it take for Islam to spread to these areas? How do you think it was able to spread so quickly?
Present day Bedouin homes The Bedouin people were tribal and nomadic Some had settled down into towns and engaged in trading.
Incense Road The 2,000-foot Jebel Mahrat escarpment blocks the monsoon rains, creating a microclimate where frankincense trees grow. In the hidden valley at Sarif, spring-fed ponds have been cooling weary desert travelers for 6,000 years.
The City of Petra Located in present-day Jordan, Petra grew rich from the spice trade. During the late Hellenistic and Imperial period local worthies engaged in a fantastic array of construction, carving Greco-Roman façades from the living rock.
He was a merchant and prospered from several successful caravans sent to Syria.
He married his employer Khadija who was his senior by several years.
Khadija bore him several children among whom four daughters survived.
All but one predeceased their father.
Muhammad is the founder of the religion of Islam and is regarded by Muslims as a prophet of God ( الله , Allāh ), the last and the greatest law-bearer in a series of prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets. Muslims consider him the restorer of the uncorrupted original monotheistic faith. He was also active as a diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, reformer, military general, and, according to Muslim belief, an agent of divine action.
Discontented with life in Mecca, he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. According to Islamic beliefs it was here, at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from God.
He was overcome by visions and voices.
He realized it was the angel Gabriel who was telling him – ‘iqra’ or ‘recite’
These Suras became the Q’uran (Koran).
Many of the early recitations dealt with judgments and the end times.
The cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour where, according to Muslim beliefs, Muhammad received his first revelation.
Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him is the only way acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God.
The duty of human beings is to surrender to this unique omnipotent god, the Merciful, the Compassionate; to surrender from the bottom of one’s heart, with one’s whole soul and mind.
The word “Islam” means this complete surrender to the Divine will.
One who practices such a surrender is a Muslim. Same root as salam – peace.
Muhammad Receiving Instruction from the angel Gabriel
Merchants of Mecca did not take to Muhammad’s message and he left the city. Much of Mecca’s economy is built on people visiting the Kaaba and its idols as part of a pilgrimage. If Mohammed’s new religion starts taking root, then people will stop coming and their economy will fall apart.
He went to the city of Medina because he had been asked by the leaders there to share his message with them.
This journey to Medina is called the hijra or hegira.
Muhammad was now convinced that he was preaching the true message of Abraham and Jesus that had been distorted by the Jews and the Christians.
This same rock is believed by Jews to be the slab upon which Abraham bound Isaac and nearly sacrificed him (in Islamic tradition, it was Ishmael). And that it was the rock upon which the Ark of the Covenant was put.
Mohammed takes up a defensive position and relies on range weapons such as slings and arrows.
The Muslims also had religious fervor on their side while the Meccans weren’t too enthusiastic.
About 70 Meccans are killed and another 70 are taken prisoners. Only 14 Muslims fall.
The Battle of Badr
War continues and Mohammed conquers Mecca in 630. He spares the populace that had opposed him and most convert to Islam. He proceeds to destroy all the idols in the Kaaba. Hence, Islam takes root.
Muhammad at the Ka’ba. The Ka’ba predates Islam. It was originally a pagan site with hundreds of idols surrounding it. In 630, Muhammad and his followers returned to Mecca as conquerors, and he destroyed the 360 idols in and around the Ka’ba. While destroying each idol, Muhammad recited [ Qur'an 17:81 ] which says "Truth has arrived and falsehood has perished for falsehood is by its nature bound to perish.” The Ka’ba
The revered "black stone" (Alhajar Al-Aswad) is a special divine meteorite, that fell at the foot of Adam and Eve. It is presently embedded in the southeastern corner of the Kaba. The Black Stone A 1315 illustration from the Persian Jami al-Tawarikh, inspired by the story of Muhammad and the Meccan clan elders lifting the Black Stone into place when the Kaaba was rebuilt in the early 600s
The Maqam Ibrahim is located in front of the only door of the Ka’ba. Inside the building is a boulder about 2 x 3 feet in size and that claims to have the footprint of Abraham which was imbedded when his foot miraculously sank into the rock when he stood on it. Muslims believe that this is the spot where Abraham used to perform prayers near the Kaba. They also believe he used it as a stepping stone to build the Ka’ba. The Maqam Ibrahim In order to complete the upper part of the walls of the Ka’ba, Ibrahim stood upon a large stone block which he moved along when each section was completed. When the Ka’ba was finished, the large stone block was left outside the Kaaba, close to the eastern wall of the sanctuary. It became known as the Maqam Ibrahim (the station of Ibrahim) and it stands today is the place where Ibrahim offered up his prayers.
The collection of the teachings Muhammad received from Allah. Can only be read in Arabic.
Muslims regard the Qur’an as the culmination of divine messages that started with those revealed to Adam, regarded in Islam as the first prophet, and continued with the Scrolls of Abraham, the Torah, the Psalms, and the Gospel.
These books are not explicitly included in the Qur’an, but are recognized therein.
The Qur’an also refers to many events from Jewish and Christian scriptures, some of which are retold in distinctive ways from the Bible and the Torah.
The Qur'an itself expresses that it is the book of guidance. Therefore it rarely offers detailed accounts of historical events; the text instead typically placing emphasis on the moral significance of an event rather than its narrative sequence.
Muslims believe the Qur'an itself to be the main miracle of Muhammad.
Islam Beliefs, Practices, Holy Books Significance Middle East, Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem 622 C.E. Spread North Africa, S.E.Asia, U.S. Founded by Muhammad- Prophet – Koran Five Pillars of Faith: Allah is one true God, Prophet is Muhammad Pray Five times a day facing Mecca Almsgiving – give to the poor Ramadan – Fasting Hajj – Pilgrimage to Mecca Can not eat pork, gamble, drink alcohol, smoke Jihad – Struggle in God’s service Led to Islamic Empires Umayyad Caliphate, Abbasids, Ottoman, Mughal Shiite-Sunni Split Crusades – Holy wars Missionary religion
Regulated moral behavior, family life, business, govt. etc.
Helps followers to interpret the Koran and to apply it to everyday life
No separation of church and state
Applied Koran to all aspects of life (secular and religious)
Koran and prayer in Arabic only
The Rise of Islam Muhammad unified the Arabic people both politically and through the religion of Islam The Mighty Sword Fair Treatment The Will of Allah Divide & Conquer Match each with the correct phrase above. Muslims were united in their belief in Islam, and were inspired to spread the word of Allah Byzantine and Persian Empires were weakened from fighting against each other Muslim rulers treated conquered fairly; many converted to Islam; non-Muslims must pay a special tax, but could practice freely Arabs were strong fighters
The Rise of Islam Muhammad unified the Arabic people both politically and through the religion of Islam The Mighty Sword Fair Treatment The Will of Allah Divide & Conquer Muslims were united in their belief in Islam, and were inspired to spread the word of Allah Byzantine and Persian Empires were weakened from fighting against each other Muslim rulers treated conquered fairly; many converted to Islam; non-Muslims must pay a special tax, but could practice freely Arabs were strong fighters
Sunnis (90%) believed caliph (leader) should be chosen by Muslim leaders
Shi’ites (10%) believed the caliph had to be a relative of Muhammad
Divisions Within Islam Two sects develop after the death of Muhammad
“ As with other sects in Islam, there is no question regarding the ultimate source of all their belief: it's the Koran – the word of God. One source, one book, one code – differences are in the interpretation of things not specifically mentioned. All sects also agree on the precedence set by the practices established by the Prophet Mohammed except for some differences regarding the reliability of different sources and references. Differences stem from questions of details of practice or life, government, marriage, inheritance, minor differences in prayer time, determining when the moon is born, etc.” Divisions Within Islam
Strong commitment to the monotheistic belief system, resting on the Five Pillars of Islam, first articulated by Muhammad and later elaborated on by scholars and mystics.
The development of overland and maritime trade and communication routes that facilitated the spread of new crops, trade goods, and ideas, from improved techniques in agriculture to the writings of the classical Greek philosophers.
Engagement with and sometimes adoption of various cultural traditions encountered by the far-flung realm and its trade contacts. Hence elements of Persian, Indian, Christian, and Greek cultures found their place into Islamic society and thought.
Characteristics of Islamic Society Compare these characteristics with what was happening in Medieval Europe. Which were common to both societies?
With the Umayyad dynasty, the political center of Islam shifts from Medina to Syria. The Umayyad capital was at Damascus. Followed a Byzantine type structure and focused power in the Mediterranean. The dynasty survived roughly a century until overthrown by the Abbasids in 750 CE.
The Umayyad Dynasty 661-750 C.E.
From that point on, the caliphate ceased to be a sacred position of leadership for the entire Muslim community, and became instead a prize to be violently fought over.
The Umayyad Great Mosque, Damascus
The Umayyads were able to change the caliphate from an elected position to one that was in effect hereditary.
The Umayyads were also responsible for expanding the dar al-Islam to North Africa, Spain, and Central Asia
Umayyad Expansion What is the advantage of moving their capital to Damascus?
Córdoba, the seat of the Umayyad rulers in Spain, was the centre of cultural life. Its wonderful mosque has inspired Muslim poets right up to the 20th century.
The Umayyad Dynasty
In 685AD the Umayyad Khalif, 'Abdul Malik ibn Marwan, commenced work on the Dome of the Rock. Essentially unchanged for more than thirteen centuries, the Dome of the Rock remains one of the world's most beautiful and enduring architectural treasures.
The Dome of the Rock
The Nasri palace of Alhambra, in Granada, is one of the finest examples of the high art and culture achieved by the Islamic civilization in Spain.
Women gained some rights. They were employed in the fields of commerce and law and took greater control of household operations.
Failed attack of Constantinople in 717 weakened Empire.
In 739, Berber subjects in North Africa rebelled against the routine discrimination the Arabs imposed on them.
Class differences: T he ruling class had acquired great wealth from its territorial gains, and its lavish lifestyle contrasted sharply with the poverty faced by many of the empire's subjects.
Opposition group, led by descendants of Muhammad's uncle, Abbas, called themselves the Abbasids. After several military conflicts, the Abbasids succeeded in overthrowing the Umayyads in 750, and installed their own caliph on the throne.
This period of glory has become known as the "Golden Age" of Islamic civilization, when scholars of the Muslim world made important contributions in both the sciences and humanities: medicine, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, literature, and more.
Most of the famous Muslim scholars from the 9th to 13th centuries had their educational roots in Baghdad. Here, teachers and students worked together to translate Greek manuscripts, preserving them for all time. They studied the works of Aristotle, Plato, Hippocrates, Euclid, and Pythagoras.
The House of Wisdom was home to, among others, the most famous mathematician of the time: Al-Khawarizmi, the "father" of algebra.
Harun was a great patron of art and learning, and is best known for the unsurpassed splendor of his court and lifestyle. Some of the stories, perhaps the earliest, of The Thousand and One Nights were inspired by the glittering Baghdad court, and King Shahryar.
Julian Köchert's painting of Harun al-Rashid receiving the delegation of Charlemagne demonstrates diplomatic contacts between their respective domains.
Harun built a palace in Baghdad, far grander and more beautiful than that of any caliph before him. He established his court there and lived in great splendor, attended by hundreds of courtiers and slaves.
Abbasid Art and Architecture Great Mosque at Samarra Calligraphy Paintings