The Rise of Islam Founding a religion and building an empire
The Arabian Peninsula <ul><li>Desert Land </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest Arabs moved frequently to find water. We call them  n...
<ul><li>Most early Arabs were polytheistic, but  Allah  (Arabic for “God”) was the supreme God.  </li></ul><ul><li>They tr...
<ul><li>Muhammad was born into a merchant family in Makkah. </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad was deeply troubled by the gap in h...
<ul><li>While meditating, Muslims believe, Muhammad received revelations from God.  </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad came to bel...
<ul><li>Muhammad set out to convince the people of  Makkah  that his revelations were true. </li></ul><ul><li>In 622, he a...
<ul><li>After the prophet’s death, Muslim scholars drew up a  law code called the  shari’ah .  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It pr...
The Five Pillars of Islam <ul><li>Islam stresses the need to obey the will of Allah. </li></ul><ul><li>The Five Pillars of...
 
Creation of the Arab Empire <ul><li>Muhammad did not leave a successor, so when he died, people were unsure of who to foll...
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Unit 5 lesson 2 power point

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Unit 5 lesson 2 power point

  1. 1. The Rise of Islam Founding a religion and building an empire
  2. 2. The Arabian Peninsula <ul><li>Desert Land </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest Arabs moved frequently to find water. We call them nomadic for they were always on the move. </li></ul><ul><li>Communities developed along trade routes </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Most early Arabs were polytheistic, but Allah (Arabic for “God”) was the supreme God. </li></ul><ul><li>They traced their ancestry to Abraham and his son Ishmael , who were believed to have built a shrine called the Kaaba (pictured below) at the city of Makkah (Mecca). </li></ul>Early Arab Religion
  4. 4. <ul><li>Muhammad was born into a merchant family in Makkah. </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad was deeply troubled by the gap in his area between the rich merchants, who he thought were greedy and the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>He went to the hills to meditate on the matter. </li></ul>The Founding of Islam
  5. 5. <ul><li>While meditating, Muslims believe, Muhammad received revelations from God. </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad came to believe that Allah had revealed himself partially through Moses (Judaism) and Jesus (Christianity), and that Allah ’s final revelations were to him. </li></ul><ul><li>The Quran , the holy scriptures of Islam, came out of these revelations. It contains the ethical guidelines for Muslims, those who practice Islam. </li></ul>The Founding of Islam Cont.’
  6. 6. <ul><li>Muhammad set out to convince the people of Makkah that his revelations were true. </li></ul><ul><li>In 622, he and some of his followers moved north to Yathrib, later renamed Madinah (Medina; “city of the prophet”). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This journey is known as the Hijra h , and 622 is the first year of the Muslim </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As more followed Muhammad, he became more powerful and began to assemble communities of Muslims and an army. </li></ul><ul><li>After many military victories, even more people turned to Muhammad as their leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Though Muhammad later died, Islam continued to spread </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>After the prophet’s death, Muslim scholars drew up a law code called the shari’ah . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It provides guidelines for daily living, and much of it comes from the Quran. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muslims must follow sound principles, such as honesty and justice. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims may not gamble, eat pork, drink alcoholic beverages, or be dishonest . </li></ul>Muslims and Islam
  8. 8. The Five Pillars of Islam <ul><li>Islam stresses the need to obey the will of Allah. </li></ul><ul><li>The Five Pillars of Islam represent Allah’s will </li></ul><ul><li>They are: </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in Allah and Muhammad as his prophet </li></ul><ul><li>Pray 5 times a day </li></ul><ul><li>Giving alms, such as food or money, to the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Observance of the holy month Ramadan, including fasting from dawn to dusk </li></ul><ul><li>Making a pilgrimage ( hajj ) to Makkah at least once in a lifetime </li></ul>
  9. 10. Creation of the Arab Empire <ul><li>Muhammad did not leave a successor, so when he died, people were unsure of who to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Many of his followers chose Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law, and named him caliph , or successor to Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>The Arab Empire and Islam grew under Abu Bakr </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Bakr instructed his followers to raid enemy villages to expand the religion of Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is known as jihad – or “struggle in the way of God” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 650 C.E., Muslims had conquered all of north Africa </li></ul>

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