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Islamic Civilization


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Published in: Spiritual

Islamic Civilization

  1. 1. Islamic Civilization
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>After the death of Muhammad, Islam spread across parts of three continents </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim Empires ruled over parts of Europe, Africa, and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Islam experienced a golden age during the 700’s and 800’s </li></ul><ul><li>A golden age is a time of unparalleled peace and prosperity when a civilization reaches its peak </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Spread of Islam <ul><li>Islam arose on the Arabian Peninsula in the early 600’s </li></ul><ul><li>In 632 Muhammad died and Abu Bakr was elected the first caliph or successor to Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>The period when Muslims were ruled by caliphs was known as the caliphate, this is when the Islamic world expanded </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Bakr was successful in uniting the Muslims. Through military conquests they conquered parts of the Byzantine Empire, Persia, Middle East, North Africa, Spain, Sicily, India, and southeast Asia </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Spread of Islam
  5. 5. Reasons for Muslim Success <ul><li>The Arabs were strong fighters </li></ul><ul><li>The Byzantine and Persian Empires were weak from fighting wars </li></ul><ul><li>United belief in Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim rulers treated conquered people fairly </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Muslims were allowed to practice their own religions freely, as long as they paid a tax to the Muslim Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Many conquered people will convert to Islam </li></ul>
  6. 6. Islamic Law <ul><li>As Islam spread, Islamic scholars developed a system of laws to help people interpret the Koran and apply it to everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>The system of law developed is known as Sharia. It regulated moral behavior, family life, business, and government </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, Sharia applied the Koran to all aspects of life, not just spiritual aspects </li></ul>
  7. 7. Divisions within Islam <ul><li>Two different groups of Muslims emerged, Sunnis and Shiites </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis believed the caliph should be chosen by Muslim leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Shiites believed that only the descendents of Muhammad should be his successor </li></ul><ul><li>This split continues today and often results in violence </li></ul>
  8. 8. Islams Golden Age <ul><li>Muslims blended and absorbed customs and traditions from many of the peoples they ruled </li></ul><ul><li>Preserved the Greco-Roman culture </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad stressed the importance of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Arts and architecture – Muslims architects built mosques and beautiful palaces. Artists were excellent at calligraphy, which decorated artwork and buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Literature – adopted the ideas of Greek, Indian, and Chinese writers </li></ul><ul><li>Math and Science – Muslims studied Indian and Greek mathematics, pioneered the study of algebra and geometry, and calculated the circumference of the earth to within a few thousand feet </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim doctors had to pass very difficult tests before they could practice medicine </li></ul>
  9. 9. Arabic Painting of Socrates
  10. 10. Golden Age Examples
  11. 11. Economic Achievements <ul><li>Trade – Muslims developed an extensive trade network across their empire </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing – organized manufacturing in the Muslim world produced steel swords, leather goods, and carpets </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture – farmers grew sugarcane, cotton, herbs, fruits, and vegetables </li></ul>
  12. 12. Muslim Trade Routes