Rise of islam


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Rise of islam

  1. 1. Rise of Islam and Comparison to Other Abrahamic Religions
  2. 2. Judaism, Christianity and Islam  All three religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam have roots back to a man and prophet named Abraham. Therefore, the three religions are often called Abrahamic Religions.
  3. 3. Roots of Judaism  Living in the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) were the Hebrews, a group of nomadic people.  God told Abraham to move his people from Mesopotamia to Canaan (modern day Palestine/Israel).  This is the land that the Hebrews believed that God had promised them.
  4. 4. The Roots of Judaism  Prophets, or spiritual leaders/teachers such as Abraham, told the people to obey God and also preached a strong code of ethics (moral standards to live by).  An example of these ethics would be the Ten Commandments, which is a covenant (an agreement between God and man) to obey.
  5. 5. The Roots of Judaism  This is the beginning of the religion known as Judaism which is monotheistic (the belief in a one, true God).  Judaism is the oldest, monotheistic religion to survive to the present day.
  6. 6. Judaism Quick Facts  With over 3,000 years of history, Judaism is the oldest, continuous monotheistic (just one god) religion in the world.  Basic laws and teachings come from the holy text, the Torah.  Jews believe the Holy Land of Jerusalem and Palestine was gift from Yahweh/Adonai (God) to Abraham.  Prophets are Abraham and Moses.  Jewish King Solomon built a great temple (synagogue) to God in Jerusalem. ◦ It has since been destroyed and only remaining portion is the Western Wall, King Solomon’s Temple - Then The Western Wall - Now
  7. 7. Rise of Christianity  Christianity is a spinoff of Judaism.  Around the year 30-50 AD, a prophet named Jesus arose and believed that his mission was to bring about salvation that God had promised to the Israelites.  Jesus performed miracles, taught ethical concepts such as humility, charity and love towards others, not strict adherence to Roman law.
  8. 8. The Spread of Christianity  Jesus would be put to death by crucifixion. However, his message would carry on.  Apostles such as Paul and Peter spread the message that Jesus was the son of God and savior of all mankind.  By accepting Jesus as Christ, (Christos is Greek word for Messiah), people could be saved from sin and reconciled with God.
  9. 9. Christianity Quick Facts  Started as a sect of Judaism and evolved around 2,000 years ago.  Based on teaching of Jesus Christ, who Christians believe to be the son of God.  Teachings are recorded in the Bible.  Jerusalem and Palestine are the sites of Jesus’ life, death and resurrection.  It is home to original cross and stone of Christ’s tomb  Site of sacred Church of the Holy Sepulcher  Holds a variety of Christian shrines Church of the Holy Sepulcher
  10. 10. The Rise of Islam
  11. 11. Background  Islam emerged in the Arabian Peninsula as a spinoff of both Judaism and Christianity.
  12. 12. Geographic Setting  Many Arab clans occupied Arabia at this time (500AD). Nomadic herders called Bedouins used camels to cross to cross the desert to pasture when seasons changed.  Bedouins traded with other Arabs all around the Peninsula.
  13. 13. Mecca  Mecca (Mekkah) was a booming market town at the crossroads of two main caravan routes. ◦ One linked Arabia with Palestine and the Mediterranean coast. ◦ The second one, crossed from Mesopotamia to Africa.  Pilgrims also went there on pilgrimage. They prayed at the Kaaba, an ancient shrine the Arabs believe to be built by Abraham. ◦ During this time, the Arabs were pagans. The Kaaba was filled with many idols in which the people prayed to.
  14. 14. Mecca
  15. 15. The Kaaba
  16. 16. Muhammad  He was born in Mecca about 570 AD.  When he was young, he worked as a shepherd among the Bedouins.  Later he led caravans across the desert and became a successful merchant.  When he was 25, he married Khadijah, a wealthy widow, and was a devoted father and husband.
  17. 17. His Visions  When he was 40 he was troubled by the idol worship and moral ills of society.  He went into a cave to meditate. ◦ According to Muslim belief, he heard a voice that ordered him to pray.  He understood it was the voice of angel Gabriel calling him to be the messenger of God.  The message given to him by the angel was what would become the Qur’an.
  18. 18. Birth of Islam  Muhammad was terrified. How could an illiterate merchant become the messenger of God?  But his wife encouraged him to accept the call. ◦ In fact she was the first convert of Islam.  Islam means “submission” as in “to submit to God”.  He spent the rest of his life spreading Islam, urging Arabs to give up the false gods and praise Allah.
  19. 19. An Outcast  At first, a few people listened to the teaching of Muhammad. He gained some followers, but mostly developed many enemies. His rejection of traditional Arab gods angered Meccans, who feared this would anger their gods and trade would be disrupted.
  20. 20. Muhammad the Warrior  Facing murder threats in 622, he and his followers fled for Medina.  When he reached Medina, he was welcomed as a ruler and lawgiver.  Others soon began to adopt Islam.  With a strong enough following, Muhammad returned to Mecca and defeated the non-believers in battle.  According to the story, Muhammad entered Mecca and
  21. 21. Death and after  For the last years of his life, he worked to unite all Arabs under the banner of Islam.  He died in 632, possibly poisoned.  The faith that he proclaimed continued to spread, to the point in which it is one of the world’s main religions.  (2nd largest with 1.3 Billion followers).
  22. 22. Islam Quick Facts  Islam has close ties to the prophets and teachers of Judaism and Christianity.  The holy book, the Qur’an, establishes claim that both Jews and Arabs are people of Abraham  Muslims believe Allah’s (God) gift of the Holy Land to Abraham was meant for Arabs (the first Muslims)  Mecca is Islam’s holiest city, followed by Medina and Jerusalem.  Jerusalem is the site of the prophet Muhammad’s ascension into heaven Islamic Mosque: Dome of the Rock
  23. 23. Life of a Muslim
  24. 24. Life of a Muslim  All Muslims (followers of Islam) perform or adhere to the 5 Pillars of Islam.  Faith  Prayer  Fasting  Alms Giving  Pilgrimage
  25. 25. Faith  “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”  all believers believe in this statement of faith
  26. 26. Prayer  Muslims face toward Mecca and pray five times a day  may be done in a mosque or elsewhere  must always face towards Mecca during prayer
  27. 27. Charity (Alms or Giving)  responsible to support less fortunate by giving money
  28. 28. Fasting  During Islamic holy month of Ramadan, Muslims do not eat or drink anything between sunrise and sunset. ◦ This reminds Muslims that there are more important things in life than food. ◦ Seen as sign of humility and self-control.
  29. 29. Pilgrimage  Muslims are expected to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during their lifetime  Called the Hajj
  30. 30. The Two Major Sects of Islam  Just like the Christian religion, Islam experienced a schism and two main branches of beliefs were developed. Shiites Sunni Most Shiites live in Iran, Lebanon, Yemen, and Iraq. About 90% of Muslims today are Sunnis • Both branches believe in the same God, follow the Five Pillars of Islam, and study the Quran. • However, they differ in daily practices and have often fought over wealth and political issues. Shiites believed Muhammad’s true successors were the descendants of his daughter and son-in-law. Shiites believed they were divinely inspired (chosen by God). Sunnis became a majority. They believed that any good Muslim could be a leader or caliph, and that this caliph was a political leader, not a divinely inspired prophet.
  31. 31. How Did Islam Spread?
  32. 32. Spread of Islam  Following the death of Muhammad, Islam spread at an enormous rate through trade and conquest.
  33. 33. Trade  One reason for the quick spread of Islam was the vast trading network in the Middle East.  Camel caravans crossed the Sahara to West Africa.  The Silk Road brought trade from East Asia and provided a link to Europe.  Monsoon winds carried Arab ships from East Africa to India and Southeast Asia.  Vast camel trains traveling across the deserts bearing spices, perfumes, precious metals, ivory and silk were traded throughout the Middle East and into Africa, Europe and India.  Mecca was an important trade
  34. 34. Trade  As the Muslims came into contact with their markets, they brought their religion with them.  New products, culture and ideas were exchanged, and the religion of Islam was introduced to many regions and people.  Soon, people started to speak Arabic to trade with the Muslims and many even converted to
  35. 35. Raid and Conquest  Islam also spread due to raids and military conquest.  The Arabian Peninsula is a land that does not have much resources, so it was not uncommon for tribes to attack or raid and plunder one another.  These raids or attacks were known as ghazu
  36. 36. Raid and Conquest  One of Muhammad’s main concerns was the ummah, or Muslim family.  While it started off rather small, it started to grow to include all the Arabs.  Muhammad did not allow followers of Islam to raid one another.  This meant that raiding parties would then have to reach out further than the Arabian Peninsula.  This would include areas like Persia, the Byzantine Empire and
  37. 37. Raid and Conquest  Naturally, the only way to stop the raids was to convert to Islam and become part of the ummah.  In some cases, Muslim leaders imposed a special tax on the non-Muslims, (Jews, Christians, and others) that allowed them to continue to practice their religion.  However, this was costly and many people converted to Islam.  Refusal to pay or convert
  38. 38. Constantinople and the Fall of the Byzantines  By the 1300’s many areas of the Middle East, Africa and Asia were under Muslim control.  The only thing that stood in the way of expansion into Europe was the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.  In 1453, the Ottomans (Muslims from modern day Turkey) began a 52-day siege of Constantinople. After pounding the walls with cannon fire, they finally defeated the city.
  39. 39. Suleiman the Magnificent  Under the Ottoman Emperor, Suleiman the Magnificent, Islam would spread further in Africa, Asia and into Europe.  In fact, he invaded as far as Vienna, Austria!  Islam had now spread to over 3 continents.
  40. 40. The Golden Age of Islam
  41. 41. The Golden Age of Islam  The Muslim empire stretched into Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe.  The Muslims absorbed traditions from all of the people who lived under their rule, including Jews and Christians.  During this time, Muslim empires flourished and experienced a “Golden Age” where many
  42. 42. The Arts  Islamic art and literature reflected the diverse cultures within the Muslim world.  Painters created detailed illuminated manuscripts and miniature paintings.  Muslim artists perfected skills in calligraphy or beautiful writing. ◦ They incorporated the
  43. 43. The Arts  The Arabs had a rich tradition of storytelling.  Poets wrote tales of romantic and dangerous desert journeys. Some are remembered today, such as The Thousand and One Nights.
  44. 44. Architecture  Domes and arches adapted from the Byzantines became symbolic of Muslim architecture.  Domed mosques and high minarets still dominate Muslim cities such as Medina. ◦ The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is the oldest surviving example of Muslim architecture. It was built in 688.
  45. 45. Dome of the Rock  The Foundation Rock inside the building is the site from which Mohammed is believed to have ascended into Heaven.  It is the third holiest site in Islam located in Jerusalem on the Temple Mount.  This same rock is believed by Jews to be the slab upon which Abraham bound Isaac and nearly sacrificed him (in Islamic tradition, it was Ishmael).  Lastly, it was the rock in which the Ark of the
  46. 46. Minarets  Minarets are tall is a distinctive architectural feature of mosques.  Minarets provide a visual focal point and are used for the call to prayer (usually by a speaker in the tower.)
  47. 47. Hagia Sophia  The minarets were added to the Hagia Sophia after the city of Constantinople fell to the Muslims and was converted to a mosque. Before After
  48. 48. Economy  The Muslim trade network included Europe, Africa, the Middle East, India and China.  Arab merchants pioneered new business practices, such as partnerships, checks, and credit.  Handicraft industries grew. Guilds regulated quality, price, and production.  Some valued imported products included: • Steel swords—Damascus • Leather goods—Córdoba • Cotton textiles—Egypt • Carpets—Persia • The Muslim economy was booming.
  49. 49. Math  Arab scholars made many mathematical advances.  Arab mathematicians developed what became our modern number system.  The study of algebra was pioneered by Muslims in the 800s.
  50. 50. Science and Medicine  Building on the work of the Greeks, Muslims greatly advanced medicine and public health. • Physicians and pharmacists had to pass tests. • Physicians set up hospitals. • Pharmacists mixed bitter-
  51. 51. Science and Medicine  Muslim physicians made great advances in medicine.  They studied measles and smallpox.  They even compiled a huge encyclopedia of all known medical knowledge called the Canon on Medicine.  Arabic physicians could even perform cataract