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Ornamental fish project
 

Ornamental fish project

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    Ornamental fish project Ornamental fish project Document Transcript

    • Project Proposal for the Establishment of<br />Ornamental Fish Breeding and Management Training facilities at SRTRI, Campus<br />April 2005<br />Table of Contents<br />Summary...........................................................................................................3<br />Project Rationale...............................................................................................4<br />Background..................................................................................................4<br />Project Description.....................................................................9<br />Goals......................................................................................9<br />Objectives ..............................................................................9<br />Activities...............................................................................10<br />Time Line .............................................................................13<br />Project Monitoring and Evaluation ......................................13<br />Community Involvement......................................................13<br />Summary<br />Summary<br />Tropical ornamental fish comprise a varied list of species, each with their own peculiar requirements for commercial production, and markets for these fish are as varied as the fish themselves. A considerable amount of prior knowledge is recommended to anyone who wishes to enter the field. It is extremely difficult for new producers to get good information on how to produce tropical fish; although many production techniques and management skills required for tropical fish are similar to those in a food fish operation, the specific methods for producing a given species are usually closely guarded secrets.While not unique to Florida, tropical fish production is concentrated there. This results primarily from the climate, but the historical strength of the industry is also a factor. Tropical fish<br />The fish-keeping hobby is believed to have started in China 1,000 years ago and spread to England in course of time. Rapid technological advances and the advent of air transport popularised the hobby. Aquarium fish keeping began in 1805. The first public display aquarium opened at Robert's Park in England in 1853. However, the market for ornamental fish in the world for public aquaria is less than one per cent and 99 per cent of the market is still confined to domestic aquaria. The world's best aquarium is in San Francisco. The aquaria are placed in 10 levels one above the other. The best one in India is the Taraporevala Aquarium in Mumbai. Several alternative income generation activities are proposed for development by the Iwokrama Centre and the NRDDB under a sustainable utilization area and a broad integrated fisheries management plan respectively. The development of the NRDDB’s plan is facilitated by the Iwokrama Centre, and involve the communities of the North Rupununi, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Fisheries, Crops and Livestock. The proposed plans include fish farming, Arapaima management and trading in ornamental fish; these activities have arisen from recommendations during workshops and on natural resource management in the Rupununi and Guyana.<br />In this document, we develop the idea of the aquarium fish trade as a sustainable business in the North Rupununi that would potentially be used by Iwokrama. This document presents the idea to stakeholders to encourage them to add their inputs. The document provides a background that includes the biophysical nature of the North Rupununi; the status of its fish fauna; and considers issues that affect Iwokrama’s and the community’s capacity to effectively monitor and conserve their natural resources. The background also discusses prior work done by the NRDDB and the Iwokrama Centre in nurturing and developing the project to its present stage.<br />This project plan presents objectives and a draft work plan and timeline for project activities. The document recommends which communities should be involved in the trade and describes the infrastructural and institutional systems that need to be developed for project implementation. Suggested infrastructural needs include developing a holding station and purchasing fishing and shipping equipment. From an institutional perspective, community organizational systems must improve, an operational or work plan for the trade needs to be developed, community members need training in financial management, harvest management, marketing, and research. The plan also presents mechanisms for ensuring accountability and for effectively managing the project. A key issue will be to define a clear set of indicators that will accurately allow the NRDDB and Iwokrama to monitor and evaluate the project<br />Introduction<br />The US, Europe and Japan are major markets for ornamental fish, but their oft chilly climates allow only for tropical fish breeding by expensive artificial means. They prefer to import the fish from Asian countries and territories including Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.Singapore annually earns more than $300mil from export of ornamental fish, while other countries and territories export around $200mil.  The figure is currently $4-5mil for Vietnam, while this country has an ‘absolute advantage” in breeding ornamental fish.Ornamental fish keeping is becoming popular as an easy and stress relieving hobby. About 7.2 million houses in the USA and 3.2 million in the European Union have an aquarium and the number is increasing day by day through out the world. Ornamental fish farming is also growing to meet this demand. The fact is that USA, Europe and Japan are the largest markets for ornamental fish but more than 65% of the exports come from Asia. It is encouraging news for developing countries that more than 60% of the total world trade goes to their economies. Although India is still in a marginal position its trade is developing rapidly. An estimate carried out by Marine Products Export Development Authority of India shows that there are one million fish hobbyists in India. The internal trade is estimated to be about U.S.$ 3.26 million and the export trade is in the vicinity of U.S.$ 0.38 million. The annual growth rate of this trade is 14%. A rich diversity of species and favorable climate, cheap labor and easy distribution make India, and West Bengal in particular, suitable for ornamental fish culture. With Kolkata as a distribution and export center the adjoining districts have become the major ornamental fish-producing zones of India. About 90% of Indian exports go from Kolkata followed by 8% from Mumbai and 2% from Chennai. In the state of West Bengal there are more than 2000 people involved in this trade including ornamental fish breeders, growers, seed and live food collectors, traders and exporters (Fig. 1). About 150 families are involved in ornamental fish farming to maintain theirlivelihood. More than 500 families use it as an additional income generating business.<br />World trade of ornamental fishes has reached more than one billion dollars and is growing rapidly at around 10% per year.India currently exports only around Rs. 30 million (US$650,000 million) of ornamental fish. However, the northeast of India has many species of fish that have great potential in the ornamental trade and many of which are attractive to foreign markets. There is great potential to expand the local industry.<br />Ornamental fish breeding and culture -a new dimension to aquaculture entrepreneurship in India <br />The hobby of Ornamental fish keeping in India is nearly 70 years old. It began with the British and continueing till today. As the days passed, the Ornamental fish keeping and its propagation has become an interesting activity of many, which provided not only aesthetic pleasure but also financial openings. About 600 ornamental fish species have been reported worldwide from various aquatic environments. Indian waters possess a rich aquatic biodiversity with 2118 fin-fishes distributed in different ecosystems, out of which 520 species are found exclusively in cold and warm water.left0 It is estimated that more than 100 varieties of indigenous ornamental fishes are available in our freshwater ecosystem in addition to a similar number of exotic species that are bred in captivity. Further, the vast potential of natural resources of India in comparison to other potential countries like Singapore, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, Hong King (China), Thailand etc. offers great scope and possibilities of commercial freshwater ornamental fish production and export. The global ornamental fish trade tuned to US$ 4.5 billion in 1995 and with an annual growth rate of about 10%, this increased to US$ 7 billion today. Though India’s export (US$ 0.25 million in 1997) in global trade is very less, still the days are not far to achieve an important position in aquarium trade.<br />Ornamental fish-keeping in aquaria, though a costly hobby, but can be profitable if its breeding is mastered upon. It provides not only essential self-employment to the rural as well as urban entrepreneurs but also valuable profits in terms of foreign exchange. It is, therefore, imperative to understand in detail about their various breeding behavior including their sexual differentiations, larval rearing, water chemistry, nutrition, disease etc. before venturing into the lucrative business, referred to as a money-spinner in the Aquaculture world.<br />right0The main objective of the Ornamental fish Breeding and Culture Unit of Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA) is to conduct research on commercially important species, their nutrition, breeding, and disease control. CIFA conducts different National Training programmes on these aspects every year. The objective of the training programme is to educate not only the private entrepreneurs but also various officials who are directly or indirectly involved in popularizing ornamental fish culture amongst the real users. Further the course intends to provide an exposure to the participants with regard to different types of ornamental fishes of freshwater origin, their identification, distribution, sexual dimorphism, breeding, nutrition, suitable environment, various diseases, field demonstration, aquarium fabrication, aquarium accessories used in aquariums etc. CIFA is conducting training programme with participants from State Fisheries Departments, MPEDA, Central Institutes, Bank officials, Teachers of Universities, Researchers, KVK, NGO Officials, and private entrepreneurs. In future it is planned to organize a National Training Programme on ornamental fishes, their breeding and culture especially for women candidates, where we will give more emphasis for the women from Northeastern states of India.<br />The impact of training programme can be assessed through development of different private and government hatcheries throughout the country. We are getting positive responses from all over the country. Everyday new ornamental fish hatcheries are coming up and people are optimistic in their planning. Few rural backyard units have been developed in and around the Institute. Some of them are availing MPEDA subsidy. We are hopeful and a day will come when India will also secure a better position in trading of ornamental fishes.<br />Source: Saroj K Swain, Senior Scientist, Ornamental fish breeding and culture unit Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar-751002, Orissa, India, Fax : 91-463407<br />History <br />The history of the Ornamental fish breeding goes back as far as 1163. In the year 1841, M. Ward, a natural scientist, at the time introduced this ornamental fish keeping as a hobby, to the common man through the construction of an aquarium with fish. <br />AdvantagesDisadvantages1. Reduced water requirements2. Year round production3. Ability to use existing buildings4. High yields per gallon of water5. Improved feed conversion rates6. More Control1. High initial investment2. Complexity3. Sub-lethal effects of ammonia and carbon dioxide4. Lack of successes needed for loans5. Inefficiencies in filtration6. Expensive filtrationThe word "Aquarium" (derived from Latin 'aqua' (water) ) was used to describe a "pond with fish" by V. H. Ghouse who took this culture of keeping, and breeding Ornamental Fish in a new and different direction. <br />Diseases<br />Except for species-specific viruses, all major diseases of food fish occur in the ornamental fish<br />industry plus a few unique to the tropics. Because the ponds and tanks in which ornamental fish are kept tend to be small, and because of the large variety of fish in any one facility, disease management takes a considerable amount of a manager's time.<br />Economics<br />An ornamental fish production unit may be of three types – a breeding unit, rearing unit or combined breeding and rearing unit. The profit depends on the carrying capacity, candidate species and infrastructure. The marginal farmers who breed or rear the fish have to sell them earlier due to the lack of proper equipment and get less profit. On the other hand better-off farmers rear the fish to an optimum size and get more profit. The average cost and return of a minimal breeding and rearing unit of live bearers is in Table 3.<br />Breeders<br />By rough estimates, there are 150 fulltime and 1,500 part-time breeders. And the tribe is growing.<br />How the breeders function<br />The domestic trade is a mix of medium and small farmers. In Chennai, many farmers grow fish in their backyards and sell the stock to Southern India Aquarists (SIA), a major exporter. The company has a couple of retail outlets in Chennai.<br />What the govts are doing<br />The state government undertaking Tamil Nadu Fisheries Development Corporation (TNFDC) joined the field in 2000. It has two retail outlets in Chennai and plans to open more in Coimbatore and Madurai. It rears popular varieties like goldfish, angelfish, mollies and fighters in its farm near Coimbatore. For the fiscal 2001-02, TNFDC earned Rs 14.18 lakh by selling ornamental fishes and tank accessories. The company is yet to commence exports.<br />MPEDA is planning to set up ornamental fish parks in Kochi and Chennai, collaborating with Kerala and Tamil Nadu governments and the Singapore government’s Agri-Veterinary Authority, and a private party. “The park will be around 10 acres with each unit getting half an acre. The outlay for each park will be around Rs 15 crore,” says Cyriac.<br />While the land near Kochi International Airport has been identified, MPEDA is awaiting the Tamil Nadu government’s decision in this regard for the Chennai park. The parks will rear mainly guppy and angelfish. “These two fishes are the largest selling varieties in the world and the bread and butter of the trade,” Cyriac sums up.<br />Cost of farm<br />“The capital outlay for a decent farm with all equipment is Rs 10 lakh.” As far as the variety to be reared is concerned, he pitches for goldfish, which has the biggest market in India.<br />market<br />India is waking up to yet another business opportunity — aquariums. The global trade in the ornamental fish that people like to see floating around glass tanks in homes, offices, hotels and public places is estimated at Rs 5,000 crore, of which India has a minuscule Rs 2 crore. This is despite the country’s tropical climate, varied freshwater sources, and 7,000-km coastline.Says K Jose Cyriac, chairman, Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA): “The global trade in ornamental fish is estimated to be Rs 5,000 crore. While Singapore and other South East Asian countries account for 80 per cent of the global trade, India figures in the fringes with Rs 2 crore exports.”<br />The main markets are the US, the UK, Belgium, Italy, Japan, China, Australia and South Africa. With its tropical climate, India can become a key player. Many Indian species like catfish, dwarf and giant gourami, and barbs are popular abroad and fetch good prices.<br />Apart from freshwater fish, marine ornamental fish are also found in abundance in coastal regions. Most of species found in Indian waters are acceptable as pets, with their beauty and ability to live in confinement and to consume different varieties of food, and peaceful nature. The major suppliers of marine varieties are the Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the Caribbean, Kenya and Mauritius.<br />Import and export<br />An aqua technology park on the lines of the Agro Technology Park in Singapore can be built to enable the export of more than 50 species of ornamental fish in the region. The park will have facilities such as an R&D laboratory, training and demonstration centre, eight units of ornamental fish breeding farms (to be leased out to small farmers), fish feed unit with a production capacity of more than 1 tonne per day, ornamental hydrophyte units (to produce minimum 6 lakh units of ornamental aquarium plants) and aquarium fabrication unit (to produce glass aquariums of different sizes). According to a NEDFi study, the Rs 4 crore project could be located in Guwahati, as there would be 32.48 per cent return of investment.About the problems in exporting tropical fishes, Cyriac says one issue is air connectivity to the markets from the breeding point. According to the trade, the other major issue is the licensing of brood stock imports. “Liberal imports will give greater fillip to the industry,” says Venkatesan. Most of the foreign fish varieties are brought in from Sri Lanka clandestinely.<br />Production in the world<br />Besides the production on Florida farms, there<br />are minor operations in warm water springs in the<br />Western U.S. and numerous "backyard" operations<br />throughout the country. In the Far East, production<br />centers are found in Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia,<br />Hong Kong and Malaysia. In addition, there are<br />hundreds of species which are only available as<br />wild-caught specimens, either because no one has<br />found a way to produce them on farms, or economics<br />prohibit production; except for a handful of species,<br />all marine ornamental fish are caught from the<br />world's tropical oceans. Major centers for<br />Types of fishes<br />Ornamental fish comprise two broad categories:<br />live-bearers and egg-layers. Live-bearers include<br />guppies, mollies, platies and swordtails. Egg-layers<br />include almost everything else; the major groups are<br />barbs, tetras, gouramis, danios and cichlids.<br />varieties, such as high-fins or lyre-tails. In addition,<br />most live-bearers have extreme sexual dimorphism,<br />i.e., males and females don't look the same, and<br />buyers demand an almost equal male-female ratio in a<br />given shipment. In most pond populations, the<br />number of sexually mature males will lag behind the<br />*<br />Outlook<br />Ornamental fish farming can be a<br />promising alternative for many people.<br />It requires little space and less initial<br />investment than most other forms of<br />aquaculture. At the first stage of<br />starting of an ornamental fish farm,<br />very sophisticated or complicated<br />equipment is not necessary. Only a<br />clear understanding of habits and<br />biology of the fishes basic needs is<br />required so it can be practiced even in<br />urban areas with little alteration of<br />backyard or even the roof of a<br />dwelling. As less manpower is needed,<br />the women or the elders can run small<br />home units. With slightly more<br />sophisticated equipment such as<br />heaters, aerators and power filters, and<br />practices such as selective breeding,<br />stock manipulation and proper feeding,<br />large units can be maintained in urban<br />areas also.<br />Marketing<br />Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal is<br />the main distribution centre. From here<br />the fish are sent to different states of<br />India by air or road. A fair amount is<br />also exported. Two parallel marketing<br />procedures exist for exotic and native<br />fish. In the case of exotic species, more<br />than 99% is consumed by the domestic<br />market and a few species like gold fish<br />and angelfish are exported. On the<br />other hand, 90% native ornamental<br />species are collected and reared to<br />meet export demand. The amount of<br />marine ornamental fish trade is<br />negligible in this area.<br />The marketing process is generally<br />being done through the following<br />channels:<br />• Firstly, the producers directly sell<br />the ornamental fish directly to the<br />wholesalers, but the amount is very<br />negligible<br />• Secondly, there are some big middle<br />tired men who buy large volumes of<br />fish at very low prices from the<br />producers, rearing the fish for 2-3<br />months before selling at the<br />wholesale markets again for<br />increased profit.<br />• Lastly from the wholesale markets,<br />retailers and others purchase the<br />ornamental fish.<br />For export, the Marine Products Export<br />Development Authority has 20<br />registered exporters. They either have<br />their own farm or collect the fish from<br />different areas for export. The USA,<br />Japan and Singapore are the main<br />markets.<br />Annexure - I<br /> Ornamental fish Marketing potential<br />The ornamental industry produces fish, plants, and shellfish for stocking aquaria.Warm-water species, such as tropicals, and cool-water ornamentals, such as goldfish, are two categories grown on farms.<br />AngelfishSuckermouth CatfishDiscusGoldfishGuppyKoiMollyOscarSwordtailTetra<br />Angelfish<br />Common name: AngelfishScientific name: Pterphyllum scalare<br />Production potential: Moderate<br />Marketing potential:Potential: HighSize: 1/2 inch - 3 inches lengthMarket: Ornamental<br />Temperature requirements:Growing: 75-84°FSpawning: 82°FLethal: 60°F<br />Feed requirements:Protein: 40% crude protein, using a combination of flake, live, or frozen feedsFat: 10-15%<br />Spawning requirements: Once broodfish start to exhibit courtship behavior, they are transferred to an 80 liter spawning tank. Females spawn on a vertical substrate such as a slate tile. Eggs are adhesive and will hatch in two days at 82°F. Each female may lay up to 200 eggs per female every 7 to 14 days. First feeding using newly hatched brine shrimp can begin five days after hatching. After fertilization, the slate with attached eggs is placed in a 3 to 5 gallon aquarium containing enough methylene blue to give a dark blue color. An air stone should be placed underneath the slate to provide circulation. After hatching one-half of the aquarium, water should be replaced each day so by the time the fry are free-swimming, the water is only slightly blue.<br />Most common production systems: Recycle systems, ponds. When the fry are free-swimming, they should be transferred to an aerated 15 gallon aquarium at 300 fry per aquarium. The aquarium should have a water depth of approximately 4 inches and be filtered with a sponge filter. The shallow water depth facilitates the feeding of the fry. When the fry are approximately 0.6 inches in diameter, they should be transferred to a 30 to 55 gallon aquarium with aeration and filtration. Fry should grow to a marketable size in 6 to 8 weeks.<br />Suckermouth Catfish<br />Common name: Suckermouth catfishScientific name: Hypostomus plecostomus<br />Production potential: Moderate<br />Marketing potential:Potential: HighSize: Many discrete size ranges starting at 1-2 inchesMarket: Ornamental<br />Temperature requirements:Growing: 71.6-82.3°FSpawning: 75-79°FLethal: NA<br />Feed requirements:Protein: 32% catfish feed 1/8 inch in diameter.Fat: NA<br />Spawning requirements: Females are sexually mature after two years. Females burrow into the pond bank (cavity spawners) and lay around 250 eggs per spawn.<br />Most common production systems: Ponds and tanks<br />Discus<br />Common name: DiscusScientific name: Symphysodon discus and Symphysodon aequifasciatus<br />Production potential: Moderate<br />Marketing potential:Potential: HighSize: 1/2 inch - 3 inches lengthMarket: Ornamental<br />Temperature requirements:Growing: 75-84°FSpawning: 82°FLethal: 70°F or lower will initiate disease outbreaks<br />Feed requirements:Protein: 40% crude protein, using a combination of flake, live, or frozen feeds.Fat: 10-15%<br />Spawning requirements: Once broodfish start to exhibit courtship behavior, they are transferred to an 80 liter spawning tank. Females spawn on a vertical substrate such as a slate tile. Eggs are adhesive and will hatch in two days at 82°F. Each female may lay up to 200 eggs per female every 7 to 14 days. First feeding using newly hatched brine shrimp can begin five days after hatching. After fertilization, the slate with attached eggs is placed in a 3 to 5 gallon aquarium containing enough methylene blue to give a dark blue color. An air stone should be placed underneath the slate to provide circulation. After hatching one-half of the aquarium, water should be replaced each day so by the time the fry are free-swimming, the water is only slightly blue. Discus are extremely sensitive to poor water quality and require a near neutral pH and hardness levels less than 80 mg./l.<br />Most common production systems: Recycle systems, ponds. When the fry are free-swimming, they should be transferred to an aerated 15 gallon aquarium at 300 fry per aquarium. The aquarium should have a water depth of approximately 4 inches and be filtered with a sponge filter. The shallow water depth facilitates the feeding of the fry. When the fry are approximately 0.6 inches in diameter, they should be transferred to a 30 to 55 gallon aquarium with aeration and filtration. Fry should grow to a marketable size in 6 to 8 weeks.Goldfish <br />Common name: Goldfish. The comet variety is the most common type of goldfish, but there have been many other varieties developed, such as black moors, calico, koi, and shubunkins.Scientific name: Carassius auratus<br />Production potential: Easy<br />Marketing potential:Potential: ModerateSize: 1-6 inches for ornamental1-2 inches for feeder fishMarket: Bait, ornamental<br />Temperature Requirements:Growing: 70°FSpawning: Above 60°FLethal: NA<br />Feed requirements:Protein: 30-38%Fat: NA<br />Spawning requirements: Spawns repeatedly from May to June, eggs hatch in 2-8 days, 50,000 eggs/lb. body weight. The primary method used is the egg transfer method.In this method the broodstock spawn on spawning mats placed in shallow water along the shore. When mats are covered with eggs, they are moved to rearing ponds.<br />Most common production systems: Ponds. Small ponds, 0.25-1.0 acre, for spawning and larger ponds, 0.5-5 acres, for rearing of fry.<br />Guppy<br />Common name: GuppyScientific name: Lebistes reticulatus<br />Production potential: Easy<br />Marketing potential:Potential: HighSize: 0.25 inch - 1.5 inches lengthMarket: Ornamental<br />Temperature requirements:Growing: 83°FSpawning: NALethal: NA<br />Feed requirements:Protein: Guppies feed on 40% crude protein flake food, small zooplankton, or newly hatched brine shrimp.Fat: 8%<br />Spawning requirements: Live bearer that can give birth to 200 young. Females become sexually mature in about three weeks.<br />Most common production systems: Recycle systems and ponds<br />Koi<br />Common name: KoiScientific name: Cyprinus carpio<br />Production potential: Easy<br />Marketing potential:Potential: ModerateSize: 3 inches -12 inches lengthMarket: Ornamental<br />Temperature requirements:Growing: 55-80°FSpawning: Above 65°FLethal: NA<br />Feed requirements:Protein: 31-38%Fat: 3-8%<br />Spawning requirements: Koi spawn in the spring and female produce 60,000 eggs/lb. body weight. Eggs hatch in 2-7 days.<br />Most common production systems: PondsMolly <br />Common name: MollyScientific name: Several species of live bearers in the family Poecillidae including Platypoecilus mentalis (Black molly) and Poecilla velifera (Sailfin molly).<br />Production potential: Easy <br />Marketing potential:Potential: HighSize: 1-2 inchesMarket: Ornamental <br />Temperature requirements:Growing: 77-86°FSpawning: 80-84°FLethal: Below 60°F<br />Feed requirements:Protein: 40% flake food or 45% salmon starterFat: NA<br />Spawning requirements: Female mollies mature in 3-4 months and bear approximately 10 fry every two weeks. To prevent the adults from eating their offspring, cover for the fry must be provided.<br />Most common production systems: Ponds and aquaria.<br />Oscar<br />Common name: Oscar, velvet cichlidScientific name: Astronotus ocellatus<br />Production potential: Easy<br />Marketing potential:Potential: HighSize: 2 inches and largerMarket: Ornamental<br />Temperature requirements:Growing: 79-86°FSpawning: 80-82°FLethal: 65°F<br />Feed requirements:Protein: 32-32% pelleted fish food for adults. Broodfish and fry need supplements of live foods such as brine shrimp.Fat: NA<br />Spawning requirements: Females will produce 1,000-2,000 eggs, which are laid onto a rock substrate.<br />Most common production systems: Ponds and recycle systems<br />Swordtail<br />Common name: SwordtailScientific name: Xiphophrus hellerii<br />Production potential: Easy<br />Marketing potential:Potential: HighSize: 0.25 inch - 1.5 inches lengthMarket: Ornamental<br />Temperature requirements:Growing: 83°FSpawning: NALethal: NA<br />Feed requirements:Protein: 40-50%Fat: 10-12%<br />Spawning requirements: Live bearer that can give birth to 200 young. Females become sexually mature in about three weeks.<br />Most common production systems: Ponds and recycle systems<br />Tetra<br />Common name: Tetra and other species in the family Characidae (Characins)Scientific name: Paracheirondon innesi (Common neon tetra) and Paracheirondon axelrodi (Cardinal tetra)<br />Production potential: Moderate<br />Marketing potential:Potential: HighSize: 1 inch -2 inches lengthMarket: Ornamental<br />Temperature requirements:Growing: 77-82°FSpawning: 77-82°FLethal: Below 65°F<br />Feed requirements:Protein: 40% flake fish foodFat: NA<br />Spawning requirements: Female may lay up to 150-300 eggs per spawn onto a perlon mat. Adults are removed. Fry hatch after 24 hours. and fry swim up after five days.<br />Most common production systems: Tanks and aquaria <br />