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  • Hi Vaisakh , Great research. I think one thing which is missing - ( facts & figures ) total market size of Inland fish consumer, consumption based -region specific,age specific, rural & urban market, do you have the details with you. Pls. let me know -
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  1. 1. VAISAKH. G FRM MA 1 05
  2. 2. RESOURCES LENGTH / AREA Rivers and Irrigation canal 1,91,024 km(195000) Ponds and Tanks 2.14 m ha Reservoirs 3.15 m ha Upland Lakes 0.72 m ha Brackish water 1.24 m ha Flood plain wetland 0.35 m ha Estuaries 0.3 m ha
  3. 3. <ul><li>Max total water bodies – odisha (9.8 L ha) </li></ul><ul><li>AP (8.11 L Ha) </li></ul><ul><li>Karnataka – 7.4 L ha </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil Nadu – 6.9 L ha </li></ul><ul><li>West Bengal – 5.45 L ha </li></ul>
  4. 4. RIVERINE RESOURCES <ul><li>A  river  is a natural watercourse usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. </li></ul><ul><li>5 Major river systems in India. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ganga, the Brahmaputra, the Indus, the east coast, and theWest coast river systems. </li></ul>
  5. 5. RIVER SYSTEM LENGTH (KM) CATCHMENT AREA (SQ KM) FISHES GANGA 8047 96.6 m ha 265 Sp; Schizothorax sp, mahaseers, cat fishes(siluridae), Labeo sp, Feather backs etc Gangetic Major carps inlower stretches BRAHMAPUTRA 4027 5,80,000 126 sp; Tor sp, chocolate mahseer, Bagarius sp:, catfishes, major carps, hilsa etc. Middle – catfishes dominates INDUS --- ---- JHELUM - commercial fishery Brown trout, common carps, loaches, Labeo dero etc
  6. 6. <ul><li>EAST COAST </li></ul><ul><li>MAHANADI </li></ul><ul><li>GODAVARI </li></ul><ul><li>KRISHNA </li></ul><ul><li>CAUVERY </li></ul>6437 857 1465 1280 850 1,41,600 233229 SIMILAR TO GANGA. Hilsa at lower reaches Carps, Large Cat fishes, FWprawn Dam construction affect fisheries. Tor sp: and cat fishes <ul><li>WESTCOAST </li></ul><ul><li>NARMADA </li></ul><ul><li>TAPTI </li></ul>3380 1312 720 94235 48000 Mahseer, Labeo sp, Wallago attu, channa sp etc Mahseer, Labeo kalbasu, Mystus sp, Wallago attu.
  8. 8. LACUSTRINE RESOURCES <ul><li>Lakes, Ponds and Tanks. </li></ul><ul><li>LAKES : </li></ul><ul><li>A body of standing water which are of considerable expanse and deep enough to stratify thermally.(Multouskii) </li></ul><ul><li>A body of standing water occupying a basin and lacking continuity with the sea.(Forel). </li></ul><ul><li>Lakes are classified based on origin, latitude etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ooty lake, Kodaikanal lake, Vercaud lake, lakes of Kumaon hill etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>TANKS AND PONDS: </li></ul><ul><li>Important fresh water aquaculture resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Ponds and tanks are artificially created. </li></ul><ul><li>Not deep enough for thermal stratification. </li></ul><ul><li>Account for 2.41 m ha </li></ul>
  10. 10. RESREVOIR <ul><li>HOW IT DIFFERS FROM LAKES????? </li></ul><ul><li>ARTIFICIALLY CREATED, Man made lake </li></ul><ul><li>Defined as, “large expanse of impounded water artificially created by putting across a stream, an earthen or stone masonry or concrete bundh or dam. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation, power generation, flood control, recreation. </li></ul><ul><li>Fishery treated as a bye product. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Tamil nadu – more area of small reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>MP highest in total area, area of medium reservoirs. </li></ul><ul><li>Karnataka max number of large reservoir, area in AP </li></ul>TYPES AREA (ha) NUMBER LARGE > 5000 56 MEDIUM 1000 – 5000 180 SMALL <1000 19134
  12. 12. ESTUARINE RESOURCES <ul><li>ECOTONE OR BUFFER ZONE. </li></ul><ul><li>Defined as, “a semi enclosed body of water which has a far connection with the open sea and with in which sea water is diluted with fresh water derived from land drainages. (PILCHARD) </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal estuary right angled with sea shore almost rare. </li></ul><ul><li>Along east and the west coast. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>By Ganges, Brahmaputra, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery, Mahanadi, Narmada, Tapti. </li></ul><ul><li>West coast – Kerala, Karnataka, Goa </li></ul><ul><li>Sand bars at mouth, Horse shoe shaped </li></ul><ul><li>FW dominated in SW monsoon and salt water in summer </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal amplitude decrease from north to south </li></ul><ul><li>BRACKISH WATER </li></ul><ul><li>1.44 m ha </li></ul><ul><li>West Bengal richest – 4,05,000 ha </li></ul>
  14. 14. COLD WATER FISHERY RESOURCES <ul><li>Comprise of high altitude lakes, rivers, streams, their tributaries and reservoirs dammed across such rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>In India lakes and rivers above 914 msl qualify as cold water. </li></ul><ul><li>Fishable length of all hill streams of north western and eastern himalayas est: as 3200 km </li></ul>
  15. 15. FLOOD PLAIN WETLANDS <ul><li>Dynamic ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>12% of earth’s surface by wetlands , of this 15% is flood plain wetland. </li></ul><ul><li>Flood plain includes the flatlands bordering river basins and streams, that are subjected to periodic or permanent flooding, to lower stretches of river. </li></ul><ul><li>In India by Ganga, brahmaputra, and Barak Basins at middle or lower stretches. </li></ul><ul><li>Tal, Jheel, Maun, Chaur, boar, bheel, Pat etc </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Flood plain wet land of Ganga – 26.2% of India, Brahmaputra – 5.9% </li></ul><ul><li>2 types – open (1 tonnes/ha/year) and </li></ul><ul><li>closed (100 – 300 kg/ha/year </li></ul><ul><li>Flood plain lakes and derilict water bodies together forms .798 million ha. </li></ul>
  17. 17. LAGOONS, BACK WATERS AND ESTUARINE WETLANDS <ul><li>Back water and lagoons - .19 m ha </li></ul><ul><li>Lagoons – Chilka and pulicat Lake and Vembanad Back waters. </li></ul><ul><li>Estuarine wetlands includes floodplain lakes, swamps, and brackish water farms (bheries) at lower margin of hooghly – Matla Estuary. </li></ul>
  18. 19. YEAR MARINE (M T) INLAND (M T) TOTAL (M T) 1950 – 51 0.53 0.21 0.752 2004 – 05 2.78 3.53 6.3 2005 – 06 2.81 3.75 6.57 2006 - 07 3.02 3.84 6.8 2007 - 08 2.92 4.20 7.12 2008 - 09 2.97 4.65 7.63 2009 - 10 3.07 4.93 8.00
  19. 20. <ul><li>INLAND CAPTURE FISHERIES – 0.8 M T </li></ul><ul><li>10% OF TOTAL FISH PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>FRESH WATER AQUACULTURE – 4.03 M T </li></ul><ul><li>50%OF TOTAL </li></ul><ul><li>COLD WATER FISHERIES - .0003 M T (1% 0F INLAND) </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>WEST BENGAL – 13.23 L TONNES </li></ul><ul><li>AP – 9.61 L TONNES </li></ul><ul><li>UP – 3.49 L TONNES </li></ul><ul><li>BIHAR – 3 L TONNES </li></ul><ul><li>ODISHA – 2.35 L TONNES </li></ul><ul><li>SIKKIM, DELHI, DADAR AND NAGAR HAVELI, DAMAN & DUE ARE LEAST PRODUCERS. </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>RIVERINE FISHERIES </li></ul><ul><li>The total length of rivers and canals in India - 191024 km . 14 major rivers , 44 medium rivers and innumerable small rivers and streams. </li></ul><ul><li>Ganga is the longest river ( 2525km) next Godavari </li></ul><ul><li>(1465KM), Krishna( 1401km)and Narmada (1312km) </li></ul><ul><li>U P (Including Uttaranchal ) - largest extent of rivers </li></ul><ul><li>( 28500 km )next J& K(27781KM ) </li></ul><ul><li>Yield of major rivers - 0.64 to 1.64 t/km (avg 1t/km) </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>RESERVOIR FISHERIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoirs form the largest inland fisheries resource in terms of resource size . 56 large , 180 medium, 19134 small total 3.15 m ha. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hirakud Reservoir is the largest reservoir in the country with an area of 74592 ha . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peninsular states account for more than 56 % of the total area . 94% of the small and 34% of the reservoirs are here. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T N has the maximum number of reservoirs ( 8906) Karnataka ( 4679 ) and A P ( 2937 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present fish production from reservoirs is estimated at 0.94 lakh t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small reservoirs contribute the catches(74%)followed by the large (19%) medium (7%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Average fish production of large and medium reservoirs is 13kg/ha(11- 15kg/ha) and that of small reservoirs is 50kg/ha </li></ul>
  23. 25. ACTUAL AND POTTENTIAL PRODUCTION TYPE AREA (ha) PRESENT PRODUCTION (Tonnes) POTTENTIAL PRODUCTION (T) SMALL MEDIUM LARGE 1,485,557 507,298 1,160,511 74200 6500 13000 743000 127000 116000 TOTAL 3,153,366 93,700 986,000
  24. 26. <ul><li>Average yield of open type wetlands is 1t/ha/yr . that of </li></ul><ul><li>closed type wetland is 100-300kg/ha/yr </li></ul><ul><li>Beels In Assam and West Bengal are most exploited wetlands. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential production level of beel is 1000 – 1500kg/ha/year. </li></ul><ul><li>Present level – 100 – 150 kg/ha/year </li></ul>
  25. 27. POTENTIAL OF FISH PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN FLOOD PLAIN WETLANDS STATE AREA (‘000 HA) EXISTING PRODN (‘000 T) POTTENTIAL(‘000T) GAP (‘000T) % increase WB ASSAM BIHAR 0THER 42.5 100 40 192 9.56 12 4.8 1.49 53.15 95 30 15.78 43.59 83 25.2 14.29 455.96 691.67 525.00 959.06 TOTAL 526.5 50.65 307.93 257.28 507.96
  26. 28. <ul><li>AVG YIELD- 45-75 kg/ha/yr </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>LARGEST(, RICHEST SURROUNDS THE SUNDERBAN DELTA </li></ul><ul><li>172 SP-99,HIGH SALINITY ZONE REMAINING IN FRESH WATER </li></ul><ul><li>50,000t FISH LANDED/annum </li></ul><ul><li>70%-high saline zone </li></ul><ul><li>Fishery increase from 61194 T during 1998 – 99 to 117639 t in 2010-11.(CIFRI) </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>MAX SUSTAINABLE YIELD-35674 t </li></ul><ul><li>FARAKKA BARRAGE-OVER GANGA,FISHERY BELOW BARRAGE INCREASED AND HILSA LANDINGS IN ESTUARY INCREASED </li></ul><ul><li>UPPER ZONE FISH NOW AT LOWER ZONE (FRESH WATER </li></ul><ul><li>Hilsa account to 15 – 20 % of total </li></ul><ul><li>C catla, L bata,Rita rita, W attu ,Clupisoma gaura </li></ul><ul><li>Eutropichthys vacha, Aorichthys spp and M rosenbergii </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>WIDE, BUT SALINE ZONE IS LESS(30-35 kms from sea) </li></ul><ul><li>RICH ,BUT LAND ONLY 500-600 t /a AND ARE NOT EASILY ACCESSIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>CATCHES- </li></ul><ul><li>MULLETS, T ilisha , SEA BASS, CAT FISHES, THREAD FINS AND SCIAENIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Fishery declined to 110 t in2005 - 06 </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>GODAVARY -18000 ha, PRODUCTION 500 t mullets, prawns,hilsa shad main resources </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution by branches are 3916 t and 3156.13 t </li></ul><ul><li>Hilsa much less but it is important </li></ul><ul><li>KRISHNA -smaller and catches by fresh water forms despite considerable reduction in flow ever since the construction of Nagarjunasagar and Srisailam </li></ul><ul><li>Yield in 2004 -05 is 496.1t </li></ul><ul><li>CAUVERY - a fishery of mullets and prawns that constitute 50%of catches , rest of clupeids, polynemids and seabass. Hilsa is insignificant </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>ANNUAL PRODN-4000 t </li></ul><ul><li>PRAWNS MAJOR </li></ul><ul><li>HILSA FISHERIES IN NARMADA NEEDS TO BE OBSERVED FOR SOME TIME FOR ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CONSTRUCTION OF DAMS </li></ul><ul><li>TAPTI : 179.6 T IN 1999- 2000, major is Hilsa </li></ul><ul><li>IN NARMADA decline in catch to 4866 T in 2007- 08(15319 t in 1993- 94) </li></ul><ul><li>Avg annual fish yield is bw 11000 t and 14000 t. </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>Back waters and lagoons—0.19m ha </li></ul><ul><li>2 large lagoons---Chilka & Pulicatt lake </li></ul><ul><li>Vembanad backwaters </li></ul><ul><li>West Bengal---estuarine wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Inland brackish waters– not developed Haryana,Punjab,Rajasthan,Western U.P. </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>Richest resource </li></ul><ul><li>Economy of Orissa </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood to 15,000 fishers-128 villages </li></ul><ul><li>906 km 2 area(now 620 ) </li></ul><ul><li>3661 t fish (1957-65) </li></ul><ul><li>28%prawns,68.5% fish </li></ul><ul><li>Increased fish(85%),Prawn(14%) –1993-94 </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in yield to 9000 T in 2000 - 03 </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>Miscellaneous fish and predators increased </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in quality fishes like mullets, prawns </li></ul><ul><li>16 species of fish comprise mullets, catfishes, sciaenids, perches </li></ul><ul><li>4 species of Penaeid prawns and 2 species of crabs </li></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>77,000 ha area </li></ul><ul><li>760-1370t of fish </li></ul><ul><li>Mullets dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Juveniles of different species of mullets </li></ul><ul><li>Catch at peak in 1980s – 9000 t </li></ul><ul><li>Declined to 4545 t and 3892 t in 2007-08 and 20008 – 09 resp. </li></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>30 interconnected back waters </li></ul><ul><li>46000ha area </li></ul><ul><li>Vembanad--- 70,000ha </li></ul><ul><li>Avg yield bw 1200- 8500 t </li></ul><ul><li>Black clam – 31431 t </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 t fish from this area </li></ul><ul><li>Pearl spot, mullets, Megalops,Sillago, </li></ul><ul><li>Lutjanus,Tilapia, Prawns( 3 Species),clams Shrimps </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of barriage hinders euryhaline sp from 200 8. </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>Bheries </li></ul><ul><li>W.B.----33,000 ha – annual contribution- 37000t of fish and prawn </li></ul><ul><li>Avg yield- 775 – 1258 kg/ha/year </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible species stocking –mullets and shrimps </li></ul><ul><li>Paddy and fish farming </li></ul><ul><li>Estuaries and lagoons ---pollution and destructive fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Larval harvesting ---lead to low pdn </li></ul><ul><li>Ranching pads----enhance fish pdn </li></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><li>UPLAND FISHERY RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprises of 8253 km of rivers , 21900 ha of natural lakes , 29700 ha of reservoirs and 350 ha of ponds and tanks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources widely distributed in J&K, H P, Uttaranchal and north eastern states . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources remain largely untapped due to lack of development and scientific efforts. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>PRESENT STATUS OF INLAND FISHERIES </li></ul><ul><li>India - the second largest producer of inland fish in the world with a production of around 4.65 in 2008 – 09 and 4.93 mmt (2009 - 10) </li></ul><ul><li>The share of Inland fisheries sector to the total fish production has gone up to over 61.6% at present. </li></ul><ul><li>West Bengal leads in Inland fish production (contributing to about 28% of the total production of the country)followed by Andhra(20%).(2008 - 09) </li></ul><ul><li>Currently ,aquaculture contributes to over 80% of the total inland fish production. </li></ul><ul><li>There are currently about 1400 inland fishing villages in the country. </li></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>INDIA IS SECOND LARGEST </li></ul><ul><li>SHARE IN INLAND FISHERIES 46% IN 1980 AND OVER 80% IN RECET YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>TEN FOLD GROWTH </li></ul><ul><li>.37 MT IN 1980 TO 4.03 M T IN 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR CARP, CAT FISH, FRESH WATER PRAWN ETC </li></ul><ul><li>AP LEADING PRODUCER OF FRESH WATER PRAWN 87% </li></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>INLAND CAPTURE </li></ul><ul><li>NOW 0.8 MT </li></ul><ul><li>2012 – 0.9 MT </li></ul><ul><li>2020 – 1.2 MT </li></ul><ul><li>FRESH WATER AQUACULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>NOW 4.03 MT </li></ul><ul><li>2012- 5.73 MT </li></ul><ul><li>2020 – 7.5 MT </li></ul>
  43. 45. <ul><li>CAPTURE FISHERIES </li></ul><ul><li>Management of stocks in reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Culture based fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>1.Stocking and selection of right species </li></ul><ul><li>2.Pen and cage culture technology </li></ul><ul><li>Hill fishery resource assessment and management </li></ul><ul><li>Development of sport fisheries in hill areas </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem based modelling approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Fisheries co management and community participation </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing regulations that are feasible in Inland </li></ul>
  44. 46. <ul><li>CULTURE FISHERIES </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the coverage of areas of ponds and tanks for aquaculture practices </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity of existing water bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification and Intensification of culture practices </li></ul><ul><li>Research support for sustainable , eco-friendly , and techno-economically viable hatchery and culture systems </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaculture technologies for hill fisheries </li></ul>