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Aquarium fish and Marine aquarium fish and Marine ornamental organisms


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Aquarium fish and Marine aquarium fish and Marine ornamental organisms

  1. 1. Freshwater & Marine Aquarium fishes/organisms Sameer G. Chebbi Ph.D Dept. of Zoology Karnatak Science College, Dharwad
  2. 2. Aquarium fishes can be generally classified into egg layers and live bearers • Cardinal Tetra (Cheirodon axeirodi)
  3. 3. • The Cardinal Tetra brings delicate beauty to any home freshwater aquarium. • It has a bright blue stripe contrasted by a lower red stripe that runs the entire length of its body. • This coloration differs from its cousin, the Neon Tetra, which has a red stripe that runs only halfway down the body. • Equally as peaceful as Neon Tetras, Paracheirodon axelrodi will school together for a brilliant display of activity and colour to dress small to large aquarium systems.
  4. 4. • Breeding the Cardinal Tetra requires very soft water in the 1-2 dH range, a pH of 5-6, and low lighting levels. • The female may lay as many as 130 eggs and the adults should be removed at this time. • The eggs will hatch in about 24 hours and will become waterborne in approximately five days. • Feed the fry baby brine shrimp and other suitable small foods. • The Cardinal Tetra will accept many small foods such as brine shrimp or daphnia, freeze-dried bloodworms and tubifex, micro pellet food, and high quality flake food.
  5. 5. • Black Widow Tetra (Gymnocoxymbus tenetzi)
  6. 6. • The Black Widow Tetra is a very peaceful, schooling fish that comes from the regions of South America. • Receiving its name from its black translucent coloring, the hardy Black Widow Tetra is great for any community aquarium. • These Tetras are silver in color with black stripes and long flowing black fins.Hiding spaces such as rocks, plants, and driftwood are recommended to give this fish a sense of security. • Taller plants should be used to coincide with its mid-level swimming habits along with plenty of rock formed cave structures. • Black Widow Tetras will breed occasionally in an aquarium setting and a hospital or "breeding tank" will be necessary. Slightly acidic water is best for optimal breeding habits. • After the eggs have been fertilized, removing the parents will be necessary to reduce the number of lost fry. Feed the fry baby brine shrimp or crushed flake food. • The Black Widow Tetra will accept many small foods such as brine shrimp or daphnia, freeze-dried bloodworms and tubifex, micro pellet food, and a high quality flake food.
  7. 7. • Neon Tetra (Paracheirodon innesi)
  8. 8. • The Neon Tetra is often described as the jewel of the aquarium hobby. It is easy to see why it is one of the most popular freshwater tropical fish. With their iridescent blue bodies and bright red tails, Paracheirodon innesi creates an exciting splash of color in any aquarium, especially when kept in schools of six or more.Native to the clear water streams of South America, the Neon Tetra prefers densely planted systems with plenty of low light areas to hide. To best recreate its natural habitat, place rocks and driftwood amongst the plants for added areas of refuge. However, the Neon Tetra will tend to swim or remain suspended in the water column in schools to create a breathtaking display of color. Extremely peaceful, the Neon Tetra should be kept with similarly nonaggressive tank mates of a similar size. • This member of the Characidae family thrives in slightly acidic water with stable water parameters. To breed Neon Tetras, separate a pair into a "breeding tank" with no lighting at first, and gradually increase lighting until spawning occurs. Water hardness should be less than 4 dH and live foods such as mosquito larvae are great inducers. Be sure to remove the adults after the eggs have been laid, as the adults will eat them. The eggs should hatch within 30 hours. • Neon Tetras will accept many small foods such as brine shrimp or daphnia, freeze-dried bloodworms and tubifex, micro pellet food, and a high quality flake food.
  9. 9. • Hockey Stick boehikei) Tetras (Thayeria
  10. 10. • The Hockey stick Tetra comes from the tributaries and rivers of South America and makes a wonderful addition to any community aquarium. • They are pale to golden in color, and have a black vertical stripe that extends down the bottom half of the tail, giving an appearance similar to a Hockey stick. • The Hockey stick Tetra can be housed in an aquarium with other soft water fish. • Tetras are a schooling fish that work well in groups of six or more fish of the same species. • Live plants, rocks and driftwood help to enhance its natural habitat and provide hiding spaces. • Hockey stick Tetra breed occasionally in an aquarium setting and a hospital or "breeding tank" will be necessary. During breeding time, the females will display a fuller looking belly, which help distinguish them from the males. • Slightly acidic water is best for optimal breeding habits. After the eggs begin to hatch, 12 to 15 hours after being laid, removing the parents will reduce the number of lost fry. • The Hockey stick Tetra will accept many small foods such as brine shrimp or daphnia, freeze dried bloodworms and tubifex, micro pellet food, and a high quality flake food.
  11. 11. • Piranha (Serrasalmus species)
  12. 12. • The Piranha is an ominous looking fish with a long, slender, silver body with a bright red tail. • Piranhas are indigenous to the Amazon basin, in the Orinoco, in rivers of the Guianas, in the Paraguay-Paraná, and the São Francisco River systems. • The most distinguishing characteristic of this fish is the large sharp teeth that are easily seen. • Often referred to as the Dog Characin, Freshwater Barracuda, Spotted Cachorro, or the Amazon Cachorro, this fish is a Characin related to both tetras and the piranha.A 70 gallon or larger aquarium that is well established is ideal for this species. • Provide the Piranha with driftwood in order to maintain a neutral to slightly acidic pH and soft water. There should be plenty of open swimming areas. • A vicious predator, the Piranha should only be housed with other more aggressive predacious fish of similar size. Ideally, it is best to not place this species with territorial species of Cichlids. • The breeding habits of this species are unknown, and the Piranha has yet to be spawned in the home aquarium. • The Piranha is a carnivore and should be fed a variety of live foods such as small fish and crustaceans.
  13. 13. • Rosy Barb (Puntius conchonius)
  14. 14. • The Rosy Barb is one of the larger Barbs that can grow up to 6 inches in the wild. The male is red and gold with black spots near the rear and at the dorsal fin. • The female lacks the red color and is mostly golden.They prefer a well-planted tank of at least 30 gallons with soft, slightly acidic water. • Rocks and driftwood can be added to the aquarium, but leave plenty of space for swimming. The Rosy Barb is a schooling fish and enjoys being in numbers. • If in a large enough school, they typically will not bother any other fish in the aquarium. • It is best, when trying to breed the Rosy Barb, to house two females with one male. Provide a coarse gravel in the breeding tank and after the eggs have been laid, remove the parents. • The fry will hatch in approximately 3 days, at which time, they should be fed baby brine shrimp until large enough to accept crushed flake food. • The Rosy Barb needs to be fed a variety of foods including vegetables as well as meaty foods. • Feed a quality flake food as well as live and frozen foods such as brine shrimp and bloodworms.
  15. 15. • Tiger Barb (Puntius tetrazona)
  16. 16. • The Tiger Barb is silver/gold with black stripes and orange accented fins. • They are a very lively, playful fish that prefers to be in schools. • They prefer a well-planted tank of at least 30 gallons with soft, slightly acidic water. • Rocks and driftwood can be added to the aquarium, but leave plenty of space for swimming. • The Tiger Barb is a very active fish that may pester or even nip the fins of larger, slower moving fish. • It is best, when trying to breed the Tiger Barb, to house a number of Barbs in the same aquarium until they pair off. After a pair has developed, the female will lay the eggs and the male will follow behind to fertilize. • The fry will be free-swimming after about 5 days. Feed the fry newly hatched brine shrimp until large enough to accept crushed flake food. • The Tiger Barb needs to be fed a variety of foods including vegetables as well as meaty foods. • Feed a quality flake food as well as live and frozen foods such as brine shrimp and bloodworms.
  17. 17. • Zebra Danio (Brachydanio rerio)
  18. 18. • The Zebra Danio boasts an instantly recognizable striped, zebra pattern. • A perennial favorite of freshwater enthusiasts, Danio rerio is either silver or gold with five uniform blue/purple stripes that stretch horizontally from the gill to the end of the tail. • The Zebra Danio is a highly active swimmer, especially when kept in small schools.Native to the Ganges region in Eastern India, wild Zebra Danios are found in a variety of habitats, ranging from fast-moving streams to slow-moving, nearly stagnant ponds. In the home aquarium, this member of the Cyprinidae family prefers a well-planted aquarium with large open swimming areas. • For best care, keep this peaceful fish in small schools with equally non-aggressive fish. Since they are omnivores, feed the Zebra Danio a varied diet of flake and frozen foods. • Male Zebra Danios are generally more torpedo shaped, while females tend to have a larger belly. Generally, male Zebra Danios spawn with and remain loyal to one female. A breeding pair should be placed in a breeding aquarium with fine-leaved plants for them to spawn over. • Roughly 300-400 eggs are produced and hatch within two days. The fry should be fed small pieces of live foods, such as brine shrimp.
  19. 19. • Gold Fish (Carassius auratus)
  20. 20. • Red Oranda is one of several varieties of what is commonly known as the Goldfish; Carassius auratus auratus. Originally from parts of Asia, Japan, and China, Goldfish now enjoy worldwide distribution due to controlled breeding programs. The Red Oranda is a metallic-scaled fish. Resembling the Veil Tail varieties, the Red Oranda's distinction is in its color and the "hood" that covers its head. • In the case of the Red Oranda, the entire body and hood are a bright red or orangish-red. All Goldfish are members of the carp group and generally quite hardy. • The Red Oranda will do well in a tank of 30 gallons of water or more with a fine gravel bottom and hardy, cold water plants, as well as backyard garden ponds of 180 gallons or more. Goldfish are diggers and will scatter the fine sand onto leaves, injuring thin and less hardy plants. Roots and well-rounded river rocks are appreciated. • There appears to be a definite courtship ritual when Goldfish breed. Breeding often results in up to 1,000 eggs, with fry hatching in five to six days. They should be fed small pieces of live or prepared foods designed for egg-laying fish. • Goldfish are omnivorous, and will eat all types of dried and live foods. Limit protein, however, to 30% of the diet. A Goldfish flake or pellet food will provide these fish with the proper nutrition.
  21. 21. • Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
  22. 22. • • • • Domestic Koi are praised for their hardiness and variety of colors and patterns. For this reason, Koi are often regarded as the "kings" of pond fish. These farm-raised members of the Cyprinidae family are available in a variety of colors and patterns, but are most commonly white, yellow, orange, or a combination of these colors. Originally from Japan, Domestic Koi are bred in fish farms in the southern USA. While Koi are rumored to live more than 200 years in the wild, their typical life span in captivity is between 25 and 35 years.The ideal setup for Domestic Koi is a 1,000+ gallon pond with a fine gravel substrate, rocks, and hardy plants. Because these Koi savor plant roots and will dig to get to them, be sure to place large rocks around the base of plants to protect them. You will also need to provide adequate filtration to maintain proper water conditions. Males are easily identified by their concave anal section and occasionally by breeding spots on the head. Spawning may result in as many as 1,000 eggs, with fry emerging in approximately 4 to 7 days, depending on the water temperature. Feed fry small live foods or frozen daphnia for the first 3 to 4 weeks. At that time, gradually change their diet to crushed flake and pellet foods. Their color will emerge in about 3 to 12 weeks. Feed Domestic Koi a quality pellet or flake food. While aggressive eaters, Domestic Koi make great pets and can be taught to eat from your hand. For specific colors, color forms, or varieties of Koi, please check the selection of Japanese Koi.
  23. 23. • Ghost Glass bicirrhis) Cat (Kryptopterus
  24. 24. • • • • The Ghost Glass Cat is a unique fish that offers fish-keepers an incomparable view of its internal organs. Thanks to its low-pigment and almost clear body, the Ghost Glass Cat is like a living skeleton whose organs, including its swim bladder and vertebral column, are visible.Ghost Glass Cats, also known as Indian Ghosts, Ghost Fish, Glass Catfish, or Glass Cats, are very peaceful, and a great community fish that will give their caretakers hours of enjoyment. Ghost or glass-like in appearance, the Ghost Glass Cat loves a low light condition and is most active during dawn and dusk. As a true schooling fish, it needs other Ghost Glass Cats in the aquarium in order to survive and thrive. Ghost Glass Cats should be kept in groups of five or more to stay healthy and happy. If they are not kept in groups, they will often go into a state of stress, stop eating, and waste away. The Ghost Glass Cat does not like a lot of light and in brightly illuminated aquariums, it will usually hide from the light. However, they will come into the open and swim around in darkness or low light conditions. Ghost Glass Cats should be kept in aquariums with plenty of rocky coves and hiding places, as well as dense, live vegetation. It is extremely rare and difficult to breed Ghost Glass Cats in captivity. No techniques have been discovered to breed them in an aquarium. It is generally believed that Glass Catfish lay and scatter their eggs. Ghost Glass Cats are omnivores and should be fed a diet offlake and frozen foods, as well as freeze-dried bloodworms and tubifex.
  25. 25. • Oscar Cichlid (Astronotus ocellatus)
  26. 26. • • • • • • The Tiger Oscar is a color variation of Astronotus ocellatusOscar. It is also known as the Marble Cichlid or the Velvet Cichlid and is a colorful addition to a large aquarium. The Tiger Oscar has a blue-black background with an orange-red pattern. The dorsal fin has an eyespot that is very brightly colored. They will form a pair, make a nuclear family and are generally peaceful in nature. It is hard to tell the difference between the male and females, but during spawning the female has obvious genital papilla.The Tiger Oscar requires a large aquarium of at least 70 gallons with a deep sand bottom and a few large rocks. They will dig up plants; so any that are in the tank should be potted with the root surfaces covered with rocks. Using floating plants is a good compromise to this problem. Tiny Oscars form a tight cluster for protection and this is normal behavior for juvenile fish. Large Oscars are not as territorial as most other cichlids when full grown but will consume anything they can fit into their mouths. A large tank should be used for breeding, as much as 100 gallons if possible. The Tiger Oscar will spawn in soft or hard water as long as it is clean and clear and has a temperature between 79-86°F. The female will lay from 1,0002,000 eggs on rocks that have been carefully cleaned. The eggs are opaque at first, turning transparent in 24 hours. The brood will be carefully guarded and cared for and the fry will be kept in pits and may even be covered. When they are free-swimming, the fry should be fed Cyclops. Sometimes the fry will cling to their parents. The Tiger Oscar is a carnivore that is a predaceous and hearty eater. Oscars will eat a variety of meaty foods, including small fish and earthworms, Cichlid pellets, larger flake food, ocean plankton, bloodworms, and tubifex worms.
  27. 27. • Firemouth Cichlid (Cichlasoma meeki)
  28. 28. • • • • • The Firemouth Cichlid is a beautiful cichlid that is somewhat territorial, especially during spawning. Their background color is a pearlescent turquoise-blue with red edging the scales. The throat and breast are red in color, ranging from a brick shade to a fiery red. There is a series of black marks running along the body, starting behind the eye, extending to the base of the caudal fin. The membranes of the fins have turquoise spots and the dorsal fin is edged in red. The pelvic and anal fins are edged in black. They form pairs, make a nuclear family and are excellent parents. The Firemouth Cichlid requires a tank of a minimum of 30 gallons, with a fine sand bottom for burrowing and plenty of open swimming room. Plants should be hardy, likeSagittaria, and potted with their root surfaces protected. There should also be rocks available, as they like to hide among the rocks and roots. They do get territorial during spawning and will harass smaller tank mates of their own species, so keeping fish that are similar in size is recommended. When attempting to threaten members of their same species, the Firemouth Cichlid will inflate a throat sac and extend its gill covers in an aggressive stance. The females are less brightly colored than the males and have a blunt genital papilla. The male also has sharply pointed dorsal and anal fins. Firemouth Cichlids make excellent parents, and both the male and female share in the rearing of the fry. After carefully cleaning the rocks in the tank, the female will deposit 100-500 eggs on them. The fry are protected in pits at the floor of the tank and moved several times. The fry may be fed newly hatched brine shrimp and finely crushed flakes. The Firemouth Cichlid parents may raise several broods in a year. The Firemouth Cichlid is omnivorous, and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.
  29. 29. • Angel Fish (Pteropyllum species)
  30. 30. • The Black Angel is tank bred within the USA and is mostly black in color with areas of varying shades of black. The fins are thin and typically, will extend the length of the body. • It prefers a well-planted tank of at least 30 gallons with soft, slightly acidic water. Rocks and driftwood can be added to the aquarium, but leave plenty of space for swimming. • It is best, when trying to breed the Black Angel, to house a number of angels in the same aquarium until they pair off. After a pair has developed, a flat surface needs to be provided where the eggs can be laid. A piece of slate, a large plant leaf, or even a flowerpot should be positioned at an angle of about 30 degrees in an area of moderate water flow. The female will lay the eggs and the male will follow behind to fertilize. After approximately three days, the eggs will hatch and the fry will emerge. Feed the fry newly hatched brine shrimp until large enough to accept crushed flake food. • The Black Angel needs to be fed a variety of foods including vegetables as well as meaty foods. Feed a quality flake food as well as live and frozen foods such as brine shrimp and bloodworms. • Freshwater Angelfish are measured at TL (Total Length) which means your fish will be measured from the tip of its nose to the end of its tail.
  31. 31. • Siamese Fighting splendens) fish (Betta
  32. 32. • • • This variety of Betta has a striking, elaborate tail that differentiates it from other Bettas. The Twin Tail has a split tail, almost giving the suggestion of having two tails. A similar fish, the Crown Tail, has a teardrop shape to its tail. The Twin Tail Betta is a type of "Siamese" Fighting Fish. These fish have been bred over the years to enhance the fins and remarkable variety of colors of the males, as well as making them increasingly combative. Therefore, only one male should be kept in a tank; however, smaller, shorter-finned females may be housed together with caution. In addition, a male and a female should only be housed together temporarily for breeding purposes. Females can be as colorful as the males, although, they rarely have the long finnage that is seen with the males.An ideal environment for the Betta is a well-filtered aquarium that holds a steady temperature of between 75° and 86°F. Though the Betta is often sold in small bowls in department stores, for best care, Betta splendens should be kept singly in aquariums of at least 1 gallon. It also prefers a variety of hiding places amongst the foliage of freshwater plants. The Betta can be bred in the home aquarium. For breeding purposes, males and females can be temporarily housed together. Once laid by the female, the eggs are placed inside a bubblenest and tended by the male Betta. Fry appear in about 24 hours and must be fed very small food initially, such as crushed or powdered flakes and newly hatched brine shrimp. Fry will also take finely chopped hard-boiled egg yolk. Provide the Betta with a carnivore diet consisting of a quality flake food, frozen or freeze dried bloodworms and brine shrimp.
  33. 33. • Dwarf Gourami (Colisa lalia)
  34. 34. • • • • • The Dwarf Gourami, also known as the Powder Blue Dwarf Gourami, the Red Dwarf Gourami, and the Neon Blue Dwarf Gourami, is a peaceful, shy fish. If in a pair the two fish will swim together. The Dwarf Gourami has an iridescent sheen to its body, more prominent in the male. The male is a vivid orange-red with turquoise blue vertical stripes that continue into the fins. Females are pale, silvery blue-gray with very faint yellowish vertical stripes. Dwarf Gouramis are considered Labyrinth Fish, meaning they breathe directly from the air, and must have access to the surface.Dwarf Gouramis require a tank that is 10 gallons or larger. The aquarium should be heavily planted and have at least part of the surface covered with floating plants. A darker substrate will help show-off the gourami's colors, and peat filtration is recommended. Regular water changes are a must, as this gourami can be susceptible to disease. They should not be kept with large, aggressive fish, but are compatible with other small, peaceful fish as well as fellow gouramis. Loud noises often scare them, so the tank should be in a quiet area. The Dwarf Gourami is a bubblenest builder that uses plants to help bind together the bubbles. Besides the difference in color, the sex can be determined by the dorsal fin. The male's dorsal fin is pointed, while the female's is rounded. The water level should be reduced to 8 inches during spawning, and the temperature should be approximately 82°F. After spawning the female should be moved to a different tank. The male will tend to the eggs and fry, and when the fry are 2-3 days old the male should also be removed. When first hatched, the fry should be fed infusoria, and later, brine shrimp and finely ground flakes. Freeze-dried tablets may also be fed to older fry. The Dwarf Gourami is an omnivore and prefers both algae-based foods as well as meaty foods. An algae-based flake food, along with freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and brine shrimp will provide these fish with the proper nutrition.
  35. 35. • Blue Gourami or Three Spot Gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus)
  36. 36. • • • • The Blue Gourami is also known as the Three-Spot Gourami. This gourami is a rather peaceful fish that is very comical to watch as a juvenile. The Blue Gourami has only two spots, one in the center of the body, and a second at the beginning of the tail. The eye is actually the third "spot" that is referred to in the name. Traditionally silvery blue in color, their colors can change significantly with their moods, as well as during spawning, when they obtain a much deeper blue hue. Blue Gouramis are considered Labyrinth Fish, meaning they breathe directly from the air and should have access to the surface of the aquarium. The Blue Gourami will be housed with a variety of tank mates that are of similar size and temperament. While males can be territorial with each other, they become timid around other, more aggressive fish. The ideal tank set-up would be an aquarium of a minimum of 20 gallons which has plenty of live plants as well as rocks and driftwood for use as hiding places. The best way to differentiate between the male and female Blue Gourami is by the dorsal fin. In the male, the dorsal fin is long and pointed, while the female's is shorter and rounded. When ready to breed, the male builds a bubblenest and then begins to entice the female by swimming back and forth, flaring his fins and raising his tail. When this behavior is noticed, the water level should be reduced to 6 inches. After spawning the female should be removed to a separate aquarium as the male may become aggressive toward her. The male will tend to the eggs until they hatch, and after hatching, there should be frequent water changes, especially during the third week, as this is when the labyrinth organ is developing. The fry should be fed infusoria and nauplii. The Blue Gourami is an omnivore and requires both algae-based foods as well as meaty foods. An algae-based flake food, along with freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and brine shrimp will provide these fish with the proper nutrition.
  37. 37. • Kissing temmincki) Gourami (Helostoma
  38. 38. • • • • The Kissing Gourami is also known as the Kisser Fish or Pink Kisser. The Kissing Gourami is silvery-peach in color and has thick lips that can be extended or pursed (as in kissing). They are generally a tolerant species, but males may occasionally fight by pressing their lips together (i.e., kissing). The weaker of the two will normally back down. They are surface breathers and must have access to the surface of the aquarium. The Kissing Gourami requires a 30-gallon or larger tank, with stones and plants. Plastic plants are best because they will eat most all vegetation in the aquarium, although Java Fern and possibly Java Moss may also be used. There is no need to clean the back of the aquarium because the Kissing Gourami will browse on the algae that is growing there. The Kissing Gourami is peaceful with other fish of similar size and will tolerate others of the same species. There are no distinguishing characteristics between the male and female, although the female is usually heavier than the male. The Kissing Gourami prefers soft water for breeding and does not build a nest. Lettuce leaves should be laid on the surface for use as spawning material. The eggs will float to the lettuce where the fry will get nourishment from the bacteria and infusoria that is on the lettuce. The Kissing Gourami is an omnivore and requires both algae-based foods as well as meaty foods. An algae-based flake food, along with freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex and brine shrimp will provide these fish with the proper nutrition.
  39. 39. • Live Bearers • Red Fire Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)
  40. 40. • • • The Red Fire Guppy has a prominent, intense red coloration. This fiery red guppy is one of the preferred color varieties among beginning hobbyists and breeders alike. The Red Fire Guppy stands out as it swims amongst aquatic plants. Even experienced aquarists praise this member of the Poeciliidae family, for its hardy nature and quick maturation.One of the many color variations of Poecilia reticulata, the farm-raised Red Fire Guppy requires an aquarium of at least 20 gallons. Because of its hardiness, it is tolerant of small changes in water parameters. However, care should be taken to keep temperature, pH, and nutrient levels in check. The Red Fire Guppy is a very peaceful fish and should be housed with freshwater tankmates of similar temperament. The female in this pair may be of an assorted variety. However, you can easily differentiate the male from the female. The male guppy is smaller in size, has brighter coloration with a bigger tail fin, and a pointed anal fin. The female is larger in size with duller coloration, has a rounded anal fin, and a pregnancy patch on the lower portion of the body. Ideally, the aquarium should have a covering of floating ferns and a breeding box to protect the fry. Adults may eat the fry if left to fend for themselves without the breeding box. The fry should be fed brine shrimp, micro food and pulverized flakes. The Red Fire Guppy is an omnivore and requires both algae-based foods as well as meaty foods. An algae-based flake food, along with freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and brine shrimp will provide guppies with the proper nutrition.
  41. 41. • Black Molly (Poecilia latipinna)
  42. 42. • • • The Black Molly is a short-finned hybrid variation of Poecilia latipinna, the Sailfin Molly. The Black Molly is all black in coloration with short fins. They may have patches of a slight gold or silver coloration when a juvenile, but will outgrow this with age. Mollies have the ability to adapt to a variety of salt levels in the aquarium. With a gradual acclimation, these fish may be maintained in either a freshwater or saltwater aquarium. In the freshwater aquarium, a teaspoon of aquarium salt per gallon is recommended for optimum health.The Black Molly prefers a tank of at least 30 gallons with plenty of strong plants such as Java Fern, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, and Anubias. They require a good filtration system because of their hearty appetites and resulting waste products. The Black Molly is well suited for the community tank because of its peaceful nature, and is compatible with other peaceful, large fish that can withstand similar water conditions. The pointed anal fin and much larger dorsal fin on the male, and the rounded anal fin and pregnancy spot on the female differentiate the two. The Black Molly is a livebearer that requires a spawning box in a 25 gallon, or larger breeding tank. The aquarium should be planted as densely as possible or have a thick algae mat. Having a group of floating plants in the corner of the aquarium will promote rearing outside of the breeding tank. Every 60-70 days the female give birth to 10-60 young that are already approximately one-half inch long. The Black Molly is omnivorous and that prefers both meaty foods as well as algae. Provide these fish with an algae-based flake food, as well as freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and brine shrimp.
  43. 43. • Sword Tail (Xiphophorus helleri)
  44. 44. • • • • The Neon Swordtail is aptly named for its exciting electric coloration. It is a beautiful color variety of the Xiphophorus helleri Swordtail that boasts brilliant, neon-colored bands across the length of its body. Like a living prism, the Neon Swordtail exudes a rainbow of rich, iridescence that accentuates the movements of this active fish.The Swordtail is perhaps the quintessential community aquarium fish. The time-tested popularity of the Swordtail can be attributed to its ease of care, peaceful temperament, and wonderfully diverse fin and color varieties. The most common Swordtail varieties include: Red Wag, Red Velvet, Marigold, Black Nubian, and Pineapple Swordtail. The male Swordtail is especially prized for its namesake feature, the showy extension on the lower part of its tail resembling a sword. The Neon Swordtail requires an aquarium of at least 20 gallons that is well planted with plenty of room for swimming. Because of its peaceful nature, the Neon Swordtail is well suited for the community aquarium. However, the male Neon Swordtail can demonstrate territorial aggression towards other male Swordtails so care should be taken when housing more than one male. Also, the Neon Swordtail is an accomplished jumper, so be sure to provide a secure cover for the aquarium. The Neon Swordtail is a live-bearing fish related to freshwater aquarium favorites including guppies, mollies, and platys. As such, a female Neon Swordtail can give birth to as many as 80 fry at one time. A spawning box is recommended, or if one is not available, provide dense floating cover to protect the Swordtail fry from potential predation by the adults. Unless it is your intention to breed Neon Swordtails, the male Swordtail fry should be separated once the sex of the fry is determined. The Neon Swordtail can begin breeding as young as three months of age and can quickly overpopulate an aquarium. The Neon Swordtail is an omnivore that will eat commercially prepared flaked foods and algae, as well asfreeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex , and brine shrimp.
  45. 45. • Pineapple Platy (Xiphophorus maculatus) •
  46. 46. • The Pineapple Platy is a sunny color variety of the popularXiphophorus maculatus Platy. The exciting fiery red and orange coloration accentuates the playful and social nature of the Pineapple Platy. "Fun," "festive" and "friendly" are just a few adjectives that describe this peaceful, easy-care Platy. The Pineapple Platy is a great example of the amazing new color and fin variation of Platies now available thanks to selective breeding.The Pineapple Platy adds brilliant color to the aquarium and are very easy to keep. These features make it a great fish for beginners and accomplished aquarists alike. The Pineapple Platy requires an aquarium of at least 10 gallons that is densely planted with hardy plants like Java Fern and Java Moss. The Pineapple Platy is a very peaceful fish and makes an excellent addition to the freshwater community aquarium. Any other peaceful fish can be housed with them. • The Pineapple Platy is a livebearer capable of reproducing at three to four months of age. The male is smaller and more brightly colored than the female, and can be distinguished by his gonopodium. The fry will most often reach maturity in a community aquarium. • The Platy is an omnivore that will eat commercially prepared flaked foods and algae, as well as freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and brine shrimp.
  47. 47. • Octopus - Assorted (Octopus sp.)
  48. 48. • • • • • The body of the Octopus is covered with chromatophores that allow it to blend in with any background by changing color. These Octopi from the Caribbean are brown with white spots when they are in a neutral mood. Unlike most animals, the Octopus has a rectangular pupil. It usually comes out at night to feed on small invertebrates or sleeping fish. It uses its eight tentacles to bring the catch to its beaklike mouth. Of its total length, the arms will represent about 80%, with the body comprising the rest.The Octopus will do best in an aquarium if provided with plenty of live rock and ample hiding places and a large area in which to move. It prefers an aquarium with caves and medium to coarse substrate with low lighting levels. The ideal lighting for this aquarium is dim actinic lighting. The Octopus can be surprisingly strong, so in the home aquarium, it is best to anchor the rocks, or even glue them together to keep the Octopus from toppling the rocks into the glass or onto itself. Cover all tank openings very well or it will try to escape. The Octopus is sensitive to high levels of nitrates and copper-based medications. It can be very difficult to acclimate into a new environment. Always approach the Octopus slowly to avoid causing it to release its ink cloud in defense. In the aquarium, this release of ink will necessitate a large water change to avoid its death. It is an extremely difficult species to breed in an aquarium. The Octopus can be fed shrimp and mussel meat. It will also eat live crayfish and feeder shrimp. Any live foods should be fed spirulina based dry foods, plankton, and krill to enhance their nutritional value.
  49. 49. • Haddon's Carpet Anemone, Assorted(Stichodactyla haddoni)
  50. 50. • • • • • The Haddon's Carpet Anemone lives singly, in the shallow waters of the Indo Pacific and Red Sea. Found outside of the reef it resides in soft muddy or sandy substrate and can attain a size of up to 3 feet in diameter. This colorful Anemone is also referred to as Haddon’s Anemone, Saddle Anemone, Saddle Carpet Anemone, or Saddleback Anemone. Haddon's Carpet Anemone have short, blunt tentacles with a very potent sting, and can be distinguished from their close relatives Stichodactyla gigantea and Stichodactyla mertensii by the lack of any coloration, spots or markings on the underside of the anemone and down its column.This anemone serves as a "host" for many types of Clownfish in the wild including: Amphiprion clarkii, A. sebae, A. akindynos, A. chrysogaster, A. chrysopterus, and A. polymnus. In the home aquarium, they can also serve as host for Amphiprion ocellaris, A. percula, and A. allardi. The Haddon's Carpet Anemone requires a tank with strong lighting and good water movement. The aquarium should have a variety of sandy and rocky locations as this animal oftentimes can move about and seek refuge in a place it prefers. This species of Haddon's Carpet Anemone prefers to bury its foot into the sandy bottom, and will oftentimes attach itself to the bottom of the aquarium glass, where its column is completely buried in the sand for protection. When first introducing this anemone into the display, it is best to try and dig out an area of the sand bed where you prefer it will reside, while decreasing the flow rate during this time so that its not blown around the display. Doing so will allow the anemone time to settle in and bury its foot completely into the sand bed. Once in place, carefully move some sandy substrate around the column and increase the flow rate back to the normal output. The Haddon's Carpet Anemone has a very potent sting and may harm corals and other anemones as it moves about the aquarium. It is not compatible with other anemones within a 12" diameter, so monitor it when it is first introduced into the tank. This species of Carpet Anemone can eat fish in the display aquarium so use caution when housing a Carpet Anemone in with fish other than clownfish. When healthy, this anemone is very sticky to the touch, and when they grasp something (or someone), it is very difficult to convince it to let go without damaging the animal. It is also one of the few anemones that can cause a severe reaction in humans, so keeping one requires care in handling. Although one of the easiest “Carpet Anemones” to care for this animal is still challenging, and is best left to the seasoned veteran aquarists. For proper care, a fully established aquarium, with perfect water chemistry, adequate flow and strong illumination, along with weekly or even daily feeding is needed. Ideal foods consist of chunks of fresh fish, uncooked shrimp, and other meaty marine foods.
  51. 51. • Snapping Shrimp (Alpheus sp.)
  52. 52. • • • The Snapping Shrimp may also be called Symbiosis Shrimp and Pistol Shrimp. It is found in a variety of colors and sizes.Snapping Shrimp are not easily sexed, but the males of many species are thought to have a larger pincher. The sound it makes comes from an appendage on the pincher which moves when the pincher is opened or closed and water is ejected. The Snapping Shrimp can be easily confused with Mantis Shrimp if judged by sound only. Unlike the Mantis Shrimp, it is not harmful and will not pose any threat in the tank, with the possible exception of smaller shrimp.The name Symbiotic Shrimp comes from the equally beneficial relationship the Snapping Shrimp has with gobies (e.g.;Amblyeleotris or Stonogobiops). The goby, with better eyesight, warns the shrimp of predators. The shrimp share its food with the goby. Depending upon the species, Snapping Shrimp may also have symbiotic relationships with sponges, corals, or anemones (e.g.; Bartholomea annulata). It is beneficial to the tank as it churns the sand. It thrives in environments with sand, rock caves, and dim light. If in pairs, one will often stand guard at the burrow while the other is inside. The Snapping Shrimp is intolerant of copper or high nitrate levels, but needs a correct level of iodine in the water to promote proper molting. Snapping Shrimp will accept freeze-dried and frozen foods and bottom feeder tablets, as well as scavenge for algae in the aquarium. The Pistol Shrimp are intolerant of copper or high nitrate levels, but need a correct level of iodine in the water to promote proper molting.
  53. 53. • Red Knob linckii) Sea Star (Protoreaster
  54. 54. • • • • • The Red Knob Sea Star, also known as the Red Spine Star, African Sea Star, and Red-knobbed Starfish, has a thick, gray body with multiple bright red tubercles extending upward along each of its five arms. Red stripes connect these protrusions, giving its back the appearance of wires interconnecting in a grid-like fashion. It is found in shallow tidal pools and up to 100' deep reefs in the Indian Ocean. The Red Knob Sea Star requires a large aquarium with ample supplies of live rock. A small specimen will eat algae. As it grows older, however, it is not reef compatible, as it will eat soft corals, sponges, tubeworms, clams, starfish, and other invertebrates. It should not be housed with puffers. It is very sensitive to high levels of copper-based medications and will not tolerate high levels of nitrates. Breeding in an aquarium is extremely difficult with no distinguishing characteristics to help differentiate males from females. The Red Knob Sea Star is very intolerant of sudden changes in oxygen levels, salinity and pH of the water, and cannot tolerate copper-based medications. The drip acclimation method is highly recommended for all Sea Stars due to their intolerability to changes in water chemistry. It should never be exposed to air while handling. In the aquarium, the diet can consist of chopped clams, shrimp, fish, and squid fed once a week.
  55. 55. • Red Lobster (Procambarus sp.)
  56. 56. • • • • The Red Lobster is a great crayfish species native to the rivers and streams of North America. An excellent scavenger for ponds or aquariums, the Red Lobster will feed upon any leftover food or detritus that settles on the bottom. It is also a great algae controller and will eat any filamentous algae that may form upon the rocks or substrate. However, the diet of the Red Lobster should be supplemented with sinking pellet and flake foods, as well as with dried algae.Female Red Lobsters are often more subdued in color and have much smaller claws than their male counterparts.Procambarus sp. only grows to a maximum size of around 5", which makes them well suited for both freshwater aquariums and backyard ponds. If kept in outdoor water gardens, many will hibernate during the winter months to survive. For best care, keep the Red Lobster in an aquarium or pond of at least 20 gallons. It requires plenty of rocks for shelter and moderately sized substrate in which it can burrow. The Red Lobster can be aggressive towards its own kind and requires plenty of room for individual territories. Therefore, larger aquariums or ponds will be needed if housing more than one Red Lobster. When housing more than one Red Lobster, provide at least 20 gallons per lobster and include plenty of cover including both rocks and plants. If housed in a pond in an area that experiences freezing winters, be sure to use a de-icer to keep an open hole in the ice for proper gas exchange. Provide places within the pond that contain a few inches of sandy or soilbased substrate for the lobsters to hibernate in. The Red Lobster will not typically bother fish, unless the fish are very small and are slow enough for the Red Lobster to catch. The Red Lobster is relatively easy to breed in captivity, and the eggs hatch in about 21 days. After hatching, the young can be fed flake or pellet foods, and should be separated in order to keep them from eating each other.
  57. 57. • Marine Aquarium fish • Queen Angelfish (Holacanthus ciliaris) •
  58. 58. • The Queen Angelfish is one of the most striking of all angelfish. Vibrant yellow and electric sapphire-blue highlights give the Queen Angelfish an almost iridescent appearance. It has a dark spot on the forehead surrounded by bright blue. The dorsal and pelvic fins are elongated.With the potential of reaching an impressive 18 inches, the Queen Angelfish needs a large tank - at a minimum of 250 gallons, with lots of hiding places and live rock for grazing. Not a good reef dweller, the Queen Angelfish is prone to nip at stony and soft corals (sessile invertebrates) and clam mantles. It can be aggressive, so it must be introduced to the community tank last. A somewhat difficult angelfish to keep, Queen Angelfish often suffer from incorrect water parameters and diet. • The diet should include Spirulina, marine algae, high-quality angelfish preparations, mysis or frozen shrimp, and other meaty items. The Queen Angelfish should be fed at least three times daily. • The Small Juvenile will contain the Juvenile colorations or may be color shifting to a young adult, while the Medium will be a sub-adult, and the Large will be in Adult coloration.
  59. 59. • Ocellaris Clownfish, Bred (Amphiprion ocellaris) Tank
  60. 60. • • • • The Ocellaris Clownfish may be one of the aquarium industry's most popular marine fish. Its beautiful orange body dressed with white bands outlined in black instantly distinguishes the Ocellaris Clownfish. This member of the Pomacentridae family is an excellent addition to almost any saltwater aquarium system. What makes this specific variety even more appealing to aquarists is the fact that each Ocellaris Clownfish is tank-bred to help protect the fragile reef environments of the world.The Tank-Bred Ocellaris Clownfish has other unique advantages over wild-caught species. For one, the TankBred Ocellaris Clownfish is very hardy and more accustomed to conditions found in home aquariums. Therefore, it makes a great choice for novices and seasoned aquarists alike. The Tank-Bred Ocellaris Clownfish can also be kept with a variety of other tank-bred clownfish, if introduced into the aquarium at the same time. The Tank-Bred Ocellaris Clownfish is also easy to breed in the home aquarium. The females will be the largest of the pair and the two fish will usually stay close to each other in the aquarium. The Tank-Bred Ocellaris Clownfish is an egg layer and will deposit the eggs on a flat surface and defend the eggs from other tankmates. The eggs will normally hatch in 6-11 days depending on the water temperature. The fry must be reared in a separate aquarium on a diet of rotifers followed by baby brine shrimp. The Tank-Bred Ocellaris Clownfish is also known as the False Percula Clownfish, False Clown Anemonefish, and Anemone Demoiselle. This fish is sometimes sold as the Percula Clown, even though it is not. The color pattern is very similar, but it is not as bright orange. The Tank-Bred Ocellaris is usually significantly lighter in coloration and is often missing one or more stripes. It may also have non-symmetrical stripes on the sides of its body, making the Tank-Bred Ocellaris Clownfish unusual and appealing to most hobbyists. The coloration of these fish will darken to a nice solid orange with age. This Clownfish is an aggressive eater. It will accept most meaty foods and frozen herbivore preparations.
  61. 61. • Russell's Lionfish (Pterois russelli)
  62. 62. • The Russell's Lionfish is also known as the Red Volitans, Spotless, or Soldier Lionfish; Largetail or Military Turkeyfish; and Plaintail Firefish. It is tan with light brown vertical stripes. The spines on the dorsal, anal, and pectoral fins are fleshy, and not banded like those of other lionfish. • The spines on the fins are poisonous, and if you are stung, the reaction will be similar to a bee sting only a little stronger. • The Russell's Lionfish requires a 70 gallon or larger aquarium with numerous hiding places. It is a very hardy fish and generally peaceful, except towards other lionfish. It may eat tank mates including ornamental shrimp and small fish. • Feeding may be difficult until the fish is acclimated to the tank; feeding live shrimp or feeder fish may be helpful. Once acclimated, the Russell's Lionfish will eat meaty foods including the flesh of fish and crustaceans.
  63. 63. • Spotted Puffer (Canthigaster jactator)
  64. 64. • The Spotted Puffer is also called the White Spotted Sharpnose Puffer, or White Spot Hawaiian Puffer. Members of the Canthigaster genus are called Sharp-nosed Puffers or Tobies. It is a reddish brown with white spots. It lacks pelvic fins, but has learned to use the pectoral fins to move about the aquarium.A 50 gallon or larger, fish-only aquarium is suitable. It may eat invertebrates found in a reef tank. Its teeth are actually a fused beak-like structure which it uses to crush its prey. • Parts of its flesh are poisonous. It has the ability, when threatened or alarmed, to inflate its body to almost twice its normal size. It does get alarmed when in a net, therefore, use a container to transfer it. • The Spotted Puffer needs a varied diet of meaty foods including; squid, krill, clams, and hard shelled shrimp to help wear down their ever growing teeth.
  65. 65. • Kole Yellow Eye Tang (Ctenochaetus strigosus)
  66. 66. • Ctenochaetus strigosus is known by many names including the Striped Bristletooth and Goldring Bristletooth. Both C. strigosus and the Spotted Bristletooth (C. striatus) are sometimes called Kole Yellow Eye Tang, Yellow Eye Tang, or Yelloweye Surgeonfish.C. strigosus has an oval body shape with bold markings that change with maturity. As a juvenile, it has a yellow-gold to tan color combined with striping and spots. When matured, the body color darkens, ranging from blue to burgundy. Depending on what part of the world it is from, it can have either a majority of spots or stripes highlighting the body. • A 70 gallon or larger aquarium is necessary to provide plenty of swimming room. It is aggressive towards other Tangs, therefore, it is best to only keep one per tank. It will not harm sessile invertebrates in the reef tank environment. • Although Tangs will eat meaty foods along with the other fish in the aquarium, it is important that they are offered plenty of marine based seaweed and algae. This will strengthen their immune system, reduce aggression and improve their overall health. Offer dried seaweed tied to a rock or use a veggie clip, and feed at least 3 times per week. Sea Veggies, Seaweed Salad and Ocean Nutritionare all ideal products and are very easy to use.
  67. 67. • Big Eye Black Soldierfish (Myripristis sp.) Bar
  68. 68. • The Big Eye Black Bar Soldierfish, also known as the Blackbar Soldierfish, is bright red with thin white outlines on the fins. The eyes are very large and the center pupil is black, giving this fish a unique look.A 70 gallon or larger aquarium with large amounts of live rock for hiding will provide a good environment. A small group is suitable as long as there are adequate hiding locations and space in the aquarium. It is a nocturnal fish, hiding while the lights are on, and swimming in the darkness in search of food. It will eat invertebrates such as worms (including fireworms), crustaceans and serpent stars. • When first introduced into the aquarium, live saltwater feeder shrimp should be used to entice this fish to eat. The diet varies between live feeder shrimp, freeze dried shrimp, and chopped marine meats that will move in the water column.