What are the dependencies that affect the timeline, cost, and output of this project?
Rainwater harvesting walamtari june12_1
Rain Water Harvesting Workshop for Rain water Harvesting campaign with United Federation of Resident Welfare Associations (U-FERWAS) 5.6.2012Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy Water and Land Management Training andCEO, GEO Research Institute (WALAMTARI), Govt. of APhttp://e-geo.org
Meteorological DroughtMeteorological drought is the amount of dryness and the duration of the dry period. Atmosphericconditions that result in deficiencies of precipitation change from area to area.Hydrological DroughtHydrological drought is associated with the effects of periods of precipitation shortages on watersupply. Water in hydrologic storage systems such as reservoirs and rivers are often used formultiple purposes such as flood control, irrigation, recreation, navigation, hydropower, and wildlifehabitat. Competition for water in these storage systems escalates during drought and conflictsbetween water users increase significantly.Agricultural DroughtAgricultural drought mainly effects food production and farming. Agricultural drought and precipitationshortages bring soil water deficits, reduced ground water or reservoir levels, and so on. Deficient topsoilmoisture at planting may stop germination, leading to low plant populations.Socioeconomic DroughtSocioeconomic drought occurs when the demand for an economic good exceeds supply as a result of aweather-related shortfall in water supply. The supply of many economic goods, such as water, forage, foodgrains, fish, and hydroelectric power, depends on weather. Due to variability of climate, water supply issufficient in some years but not satisfactory to meet human and environmental needs in other years. Thedemand for economic goods is increasing as a result of increasing population. Supply may also increasebecause of improved production efficiency and technology.
STRUGGLE FOR WATER The Barefoot College, Tilonia
Water sharing – strategies for survival-Community borewells-Apartments / complexes-Street borewells
• India has 2% of world’s land, 4% offreshwater, 16% of population, and10% of its cattle.• Geographical area = 329 Mha ofwhich 47% (142 Mha) is cultivated,23% forested, 7% under non-agriuse, 23% waste.• Per capita availability of land 50years ago was 0.9 ha, could be only0. 14 ha in 2050. uk-energy-saving.com
Out of cultivated area, 37% is irrigated which produces 55%food; 63% is rain-fed producing 45% of 200 M t of food.In 50 years (ultimate), proportion could be 50:50 producing75:25 of 500 M t of required food.
Freshwater management inIndiaWater ConservationWatershed managementWater quality conservationInter basin water transferGW managementRecycle and reuse of waterPublic involvement and capacity building Anupma Sharma
What Is Rainwater Harvesting?RWH technology consists of simple systems to collect, convey,and store rainwater. Rainwater capture is accomplishedprimarily from roof-top, surface runoff, and other surfaces.RWH either captures stored rainwater for direct use (irrigation,production, washing, drinking water, etc.) or is recharged into thelocal ground water and is call artificial recharge.In many cases, RWH systems are used in conjunction with AquiferStorage and Recovery (ASR). ASR is the introduction of RWHcollected rainwater to the groundwater / aquifer through variousstructures in excess of what would naturally infiltrate thenrecovered for use
Why Rainwater Harvesting?Conserve and supplement existing water resourcesAvailable for capture and storage in most global locationsPotentially provide improved quality of waterSupply water at one of the lowest costs possible for a supplementalsupply source.Capturing and directing storm water (run-off) and beneficially use itCommitment as a corporate citizen - showcasing environmentalconcernsPublic Mandate (India)Replenishing local ground water aquifers where lowering ofwater tables has occured
Why Not RWH?Not applicable in all climate conditions over the worldPerformance seriously affected by climate fluctuations that sometimes are hard to predictIncreasingly sophisticated RWH systems (ASR) necessarily increases complexities in cost, design, operation, maintenance, size and regulatory permittingCollected rainwater can be degraded with the inclusion of storm water runoffCollected water quality might be affected by external factorsCollection systems require monitoring and continuous maintenance and improvement to maintain desired water quality characteristics for water end-useCertain areas will have high initial capital cost
Condensation Let’s take a look at Precipitation The Water Cycle Evapotranspiration EvaporationInfiltration Surface Runoff Consumption Surface Water .ppt (16) Sea water intrusion
Collection AreaRainfallDemandPrimary Use (Direct Use, Artificial Recharge (AR) or AquiferStorage and Recovery (ASR))Storage capacityLevel of Security - risk of the storage tank running dry
Measure AreaRunoff Characteristics • Roof top 0.75 – 0.95 • Paved area 0.50 – 0.85 • Bare ground 0.10 – 0.20 • “Green area” 0.05 – 0.10 Water harvesting potential(m3) = Area (m2) X Rainfall (m) X Collection Efficiency
Quality Issues Roofs contain: bird droppings, atmospheric dust, industrial and urban air pollution
OperationalProcedures andDesignConsiderations Tar based roof coatings and materials should not Screen to prevent birds, Lead based paint must be used – Phenolics and animal and insects; not be used on the roof; other organics can leach from materials If roofs painted with acrylic paints, new concrete or metal roofing Clean the gutters and - first few rainfalls tank every 3 months should not be collected to avoid metals, detergents, and other chemicals
SANDCHARCOALGRAVEL AND SAND THREE 15 LITER TIN CANS, SAND, GRAVEL , TAP AND PVC PIPE
Operational Procedures and DesignConsiderations Storage tank – Tank in protected dark materials to Corrosion shaded area – exclude light and resistant materials lower temperature algae formation Regional wind For multiple direction and storage tanks – industrial activity design for – Lead, Mercury, frequent turnover other heavy metals
Storage1. Ponds and Reservoirs2. Artificial recharge of Groundwater3. Water Tanks4. Rainwater runoff in surface water5. Rainwater runoff in groundwater6. Rainwater runoff in tanks7. Effluent in surface water8. Effluent in ground water Every drop counts
Jn nurm – URBAN RAIN WATER HARVESTINGTackle water shortage during summersRecharge aquifersReduced power consumption in pumping waterReduced water logging and flooding in low lying areasReduced erosionImproved Groundwater quality through dilution. Eg: Coastal areas
Means of water conservation New dams - Groundwater - inter-basin underdeveloped transfer Water savings - Demand increase in Management efficiency, reduce evaporation.Water productivity Virtual water – - increases in Food production crop per drop
Water Conservation…Install small shower heads to reduce the flow of thewater. Water in which the vegetables & fruits havebeen washed - use to water the flowers & plants.At the end of the day if you have water left in yourwater bottle do not throw it away, pour it over someplants.Re-use water as much as possibleChange in attitude & habits for water conservation Prof. T. I. Eldho ,
Water Conservation Type of land ownership for soil 2% 5% 28% and water conservation measures 25% 65% 45% Contour bunding Gully plugging Staggered trenching Level terraces 30% Private land Fallow land Forest land Techniques of soil and water conservation measures Prof. T. I. Eldho