Global Water Crisis

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Global water crisis put into context - A2 Geography

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Global Water Crisis

  1. 1. Global Water Crisis<br />A2 Geography<br />
  2. 2. Learning Objectives<br />To understand that water is a global issue and not just within certain countries<br />That lack of water is not the only issue in water insecurity and stress<br />Access to sanitation is linked to poverty<br />Development can hinder water quality, access and supply<br />
  3. 3. Where do you feel there are areas that have issues of water Insecurity.Jot them down<br />
  4. 4. Asia and Pacific<br />1/3 of pop’n lacks access to clean drinking water<br />500,000 infant related deaths through diarrhoea<br />Levels of bacteria from human sources is 10x higher than recommended levels<br />Agriculture accounts for 90% of freshwater withdrawals in S. Asia<br />Aquifer depletion in Asia has reduced water availability per capita by over half<br />Withdrawals in W. Africa far exceed natural replacement levels<br />
  5. 5. Africa<br />25 out of the 57 countries will face either water stress or scarcity by 2025<br />Over 300 million lack access to clean water<br />Sub Saharan Africa this is much worse with over 51% without safe water and 41% without adequate sanitation<br />Agriculture accounts for 88% of all groundwater removed and has no protection<br />
  6. 6. Europe and Central Asia<br />Lack of access to clean water in E. Europe and Central Asia<br />Over half of all European cities over-exploit their groundwater reserves<br />Declining water quality in countries with groundwater pollution (Aral Sea) – the Med and Scandinavian Lakes<br />
  7. 7. Latin America and the Caribbean<br />Groundwater contamination and depletion from industrial, agriculture and mining waste<br />Poor sanitation on 2% of sewage is treated in Latin America<br />Economic Scarcity with conflict over access and use<br />
  8. 8. North America<br />Aquifer depletion in increasing due to urban pop’n growth, develp’t of industry and agriculture (Cotton in Texas)<br />Water pollution from agricultural runoff has contaminated some surface waters. (Salton Sea)<br />
  9. 9. Is that the whole world??<br />
  10. 10. Evaluate what can be done about this?<br />
  11. 11. What pattern do we see emerging?<br />The balance between human demand and availability is precarious<br />Access to clean water is not always guaranteed when it should be a fundamental right<br />Pop’n growth especially in the third world mean prospects are not good.<br />UN&apos;s world water development report<br />
  12. 12. Water Security Crisis<br />2nd world water forum in 2000 deemed water a key issue<br />Health, welfare and livelihoods depend on secure supplies<br />Demand and misuse are high<br />world water forum<br />
  13. 13. Millennium Development Goals<br />In 2000 had a target to halve by 2015 the proportion of people without access to sustainable water supplies<br />By 2005 only 12% of developing countries had managed to do this<br />In some LEDC’s fresh and waste water aren’t even separated. (Cholera and dysentery)<br />
  14. 14. How can Sanitation lead to better well being<br />Using a large piece of paper decide how improved sanitation can help well being<br />
  15. 15. International Year of Sanitation 2008<br />
  16. 16. Politics<br />Often politics and war can play a role in contamination and mass movement of people increasing the likelihood of water stress<br />
  17. 17. Access<br />Poverty and access are inextricably linked (Measured by GDP)<br />Why?<br />
  18. 18. Access to Sanitation<br />Global GDP’s<br />
  19. 19. Access to Sanitation<br />Global HDI<br />
  20. 20. Access Denied<br />Rajasthan India – Have enough water but Coca cola accused of extracting too much so farming has suffered.<br />Bolivia – Water supply company that is french owned was deemed too expensive 200,000 did not connect<br />40,000 in Detroit were too poor to pay their water bills and resorted to water tapping at night<br />
  21. 21. Quality<br />Development of LEDC’s and NIC’s has lead to a general decline in water quality<br />Manufacturing chemical waste often untreated and deposited into rivers only to be used further downstream for irrigation, cleaning and drinking water (R. Citarum West Java)<br />40% of world’s agriculture comes from irrigated land – this has salinity issues<br />
  22. 22. Activity<br />What are the factors that determine access to clean water?<br />How do you think women stand to gain most from improved sanitation?<br />
  23. 23. What have we learnt<br /><ul><li>That water is a global issue and not just within certain countries
  24. 24. That lack of water is not the only issue in water insecurity and stress
  25. 25. Access to sanitation is linked to poverty
  26. 26. Development can hinder water quality, access and supply</li></li></ul><li>Interesting fact<br />
  27. 27. Great Website<br />Inequity in access to clean water and sanitation<br />

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