From Water Problems to Water Solutions


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Jeremy Bird, Director General of IWMI, discusses the huge water management challenges facing India and shows how IWMI’s research can contribute to effective and sustainable solutions.

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From Water Problems to Water Solutions

  1. From Water Problems to Water Solutions Photo: Prue Loney/IWMI Water for a food-secure world
  2. Humanity’s greatest challenge• To feed 9 billion people in 2050, we need to produce 70% more food and raise nutrition levels without destroying the environment• Rising demands are already contributing to: – Water scarcity – Land degradation – Loss of ecosystem services Water for a food-secure world
  3. Global Demography, GDP and Water Withdrawals 1900 - 2000• Population increase about 3.6 times• Water withdrawals increased 6.8 times• GDP increased 19 times , about 3% per year (constant prices, IMF) Water for a food-secure world
  4. Poverty and PopulationPopulation growth,dietary change andpoverty andmalnutrition will bekey drivers withrespect to Pop. m Pop. m Growthagriculture 2009 2050 Africa 1010 1998 98% Asia 4121 5231 27% Europe 732 691 - 5% LA and 582 729 25% Caribbean Water for a food-secure world
  5. Land and water availability are reducing0.80 100 Thousands 90 Myanmar0.70 Cambodia 80 Indonesia Malaysia0.60 70 Lao PDR Philippines Watger availability (000m3/cap)0.50 Vietnam 60 500.40 400.30 300.20 200.10 10 00.00 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Land area (ha) per person Water availability 1000m3 per person
  6. Water scarcityPhysical scarcity:Water resourcesdevelopmentapproaching orexceedingsustainable limitsEconomic Scarcity:Water resources canmeet needs; buthuman, institutionaland financial capitallacking to actuallyharness and usethese resources Source: Water for Food, Water for Life, IWMI, 2007
  7. Consumption and income 1961-2000 These trends are continuing 120 100meat consumption Meat (kg/cap/yr) 80 60 China USA 40 20 0 India 10 100 1000 10000 100000 GDP per capita (2000 constant dollars per year) 120 100 India USAmilk consumption (kg/cap/yr) 80 60 Milk 40 20 0 China 10 100 1000 10000 100000 GDP per capita (2000 constant dollars per year) Water for a food-secure world
  8. Wheat in South Asia will be strongly affected by climate change • 2025: USD 15-20 billion losses pa (12–16%) • 2050: USD 32-48 billion losses pa (20–30%) • 10% Yield potential loss for every C0 increase Courtesy Dr M Banziger, CIMMYT Water for a food-secure world
  9. …problems are more than just scarcity0.80 6,0000.70 5,0000.60 4,0000.500.40 Water & Slow 3,0000.30 land growth of 2,0000.20 scarcity productivity 1,0000.10 00.00 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 Unequal Unequal sharing of sharing of benefits risks INDIA NEWS CTOBER 1, 2009 Indias Drought Worst Since 1972
  10. Impressive growth, but unsustainable trends in resource use GW pumps in Indus- Ganges basin Map: Sharma et al, 2009Photos: Fred Pearce Water for a food-secure world
  11. Sanitation – Water – Food Challenge in India• About 128 million septic tanks and latrines in India contribute to 80% of the pollution of India’s surface waters due to the lack of septage treatment facilities.• Inadequate sanitation costs India Rs. 2.4 trillion (US$ 53.8 million) per year or 6.4 percent of India’s 2006 GDP.
  12. Food safety and health at risk Can we turn a threat into an opportunity?
  13. The ChallengeIt is not so muchthat water isscarce…but more about howit is managed andaccessed by themost vulnerable Water for a food-secure world
  14. Looking forward ….. some reasons for optimism? Photo: Prue Loney/IWMI Water for a food-secure world
  15. Food security and water scarcity• We can produce enough food for 9 billion – it is about access to food and improved nutrition• Feeding more people is not simply a question of bio-physical innovation• Water is as much a social issue as a physical one and therefore we have to look to governance and institutional solutions• A critical aspect is scaling up R&D outcomes Water for a food-secure world
  16. Global Water Withdrawals:historical and projected (after Peter Gleick)
  17. Increases in productivity 6000  more crop per drop in irrigated and rainfed 5000 systemsCereal Production per Area (Kg/ha) Arab World 4000 Sub-Saharan Africa (developing only) Burkina Faso Bangladesh 3000 India Pakistan 2000 China Vietnam Thailand 1000 Brazil Colombia 0 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 Area (Km2) Thousands Courtesy Simon Cook Water for a food-secure world
  18. Sustainable intensification – the coming challenge across many scales• Closing the actual vs potential yield gap (on farm issue)• Twice the yield off half the area? (on-farm issue)• Capitalizing on natural infrastructure (national policy issue)• Recognizing the value of ecosystem services (river basin/regional level issue)• The water-food-energy-environment nexus (national-transboundary issue) Water for a food-secure world
  19. Reasons for optimism #1: Upscaling the recoveryof groundwater tables and reduced electricityusageThe problem in Gujarat‘Free’ electricity encouragedgroundwater overuseResulted in groundwateroverdraft Safe Semi-critical Critical Over exploited Saline
  20. Jyotigram in Gujarat, India• Issue was over-pumping of groundwater because of subsidized electricity• Pragmatic solution suggested by IWMI and partners was separation of electricity supply to villages and pumps• Outcome was reduced electricity use, less groundwater use, improved power supply Similar schemes now proceeding in to domestic users neighboring states Water for a food-secure world
  21. Jyotigram: technical solutionsSeparate reliable power feeds for farm and non-farm useGives villages 24 hour metered, three-phase power supply fordomestic uses, in schools, hospitals, village industriesTargets high-quality power supply on 30-50 days of peak irrigationdemandSupports on-farm storage, rewards groundwater recharge,subsidizes drip-irrigation
  22. Result in GujaratHalved subsidy to agricultureReduced groundwater overdraftIncreased yieldsSpurred rural non-farm enterprisesNow rolling out in other states
  23. Reasons for optimism #2: Ground Water Policy change• Agricultural growth in West Bengal had slumped by more than half• Research identified that a major obstacle to agricultural productivity was getting access to groundwater• New policies recommended by IWMI were adopted to reduce ‘red-tape’ and improve groundwater access for smallholder farmers.• The policy change could benefit more than 5.6 million smallholders Water for a food-secure world
  24. Why did we think of groundwater based solution for Bengal? Groundwater use status in India High GW potential Only 42% of its potential is used and less than 10% blocks are critical, none are over-exploited 80% of farmers depend on GW Water for a food-secure world
  25. Reasons for optimism #3: Renewedcommitment to irrigated agriculture• Most countries are committed to revitalize irrigation systems• In Asia – Modernization – Capacity Building – Policy Reforms underway• In Africa, – Investments in expansion – Rehabilitation – PPP Models Water for a food-secure world
  26. Realities of meeting future demand Limited new cultivable areas 80 - 90% of increased production will come from existing cultivated area  higher yield per ha, double or triple cropping  installation of irrigation and/or drainage systems in areas without a system  modernization of existing irrigation and drainage systems  installation of drainage in irrigated areas  installation of irrigation in rainfed areas with drainage 10 - 20% from land reclamation Water for a food-secure world
  27. Why Irrigate? • Area per capita is decreasing • Approximately 20% irrigated • It produces 45% of cereals • Irrigation increases yield by about 300% per unit of landWater for a food-secure world
  28. Reasons for optimism #4: Revitalizingsurface irrigation in areas ofgroundwater over- exploitation Water for a food-secure world
  29. Surface Storage and Conjunctive Use to Minimize Power Subsidies and Carbon Footprint of Irrigation Deep groundwater areas are where large canal systems operate 75-80 b kWh of power valued at US $ 9.0 billion/year used for groundwater pumping Surface storages and conjunctive use can reduce power and carbon footprint Water for a food-secure world
  30. E.g. new approaches to rehabilitate and adapt • For example, encourage distributed storage to improve system flexibility and reliability e.g. Rajasthan: farm-storages; Gujarat, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh: village tanks replenished by canal water • Modernize irrigation systems e.g. pressurized systems Water for a food-secure world
  31. Reasons for optimism #5: Re-visit Participatory Irrigation ManagementSome results from research:• Small sized schemes serving lesser number of farmers (lower transaction costs)• Schemes with simple distribution systems (easy to operate)• Non-paddy systems where accurate water control is very important• Schemes producing high value crops (higher capacity of farmers to pay for professional help)• Systems that have been rehabilitated before transfer• In India, PIM succeeded where NGOs were involved Water for a food-secure world
  32. Distribution of success/failure based on case study author’s criteriaRegion Success FailureS Asia 18 20E Asia 7 2SE Asia 12 24C Asia 4 14 Water for a food-secure world
  33. Indicators of success that were considered for creating a composite success score – Outcome indicators (7) • ISF collection; • financial viability; • maintenance; • equity; • reliability and adequacy; • participation and reduction in disputes – Impact indicators (2) • Crop related (production, yields, cropping intensity) • Livelihoods related (poverty, wages, employment) Water for a food-secure world
  34. Reasons for optimism #6: Environmental Flows – initial steps on the Ganga• Iconic river – lots of cultural and religious angles never explored before• Expert Panel approach – 10 different specialists representing various disciplines. First time in India - large capacity building component• Endorsed by newly formed National Ganga River Basin Authority and input to future Basin plans• RBMP).
  35. Reasons for optimism #7: Policy influence - the example of Urban Agriculture and Safe Wastewater Use in GhanaIWMI research results directly or indirectly influenced thesestrategies and policies:• Food & Agriculture Sector Development Policy II (2007)• Strategic Agenda for Urban & Peri-urban Agriculture (2008)• Ghana Buffer Zone Policy (2008)• Agriculture Sector Investment Plan 2009-2015• Ministry of Food and Agriculture MTP 2009-2013• Vision statement on Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture (Accra)• National Environmental Sanitation Strategy and Action Plan (NESSAP) (2010) -input provided-• Accra Agricultural Bye-law revision (still in progress)• National Irrigation Policy, Strategy, and Regulations (2011) Water for a food-secure world
  36. Wastewater ReuseCan we develop effective businessmodels that promote safe recyclingand reuse? Courtesy Pay Drechsel Water for a food-secure world
  37. Farm based options for risk • Drip and furrow irrigationreduction • Sedimentation ponds • Cessation of irrigation • Filter • Limited soil splash • Improved water fetching • Increased retention time • On-farm treatment ponds Water for a food-secure world
  38. SolutionsAssessing risks, developing and applying low-cost options for risk reduction in line with WHO and FAO Guidelines.
  39. Opportunities for urban poor• Urban demand for perishable vegetables is very high.• Urban horticulture can be effectively promoted through intensified (vertical) urban farming and business models for waste resource recovery.• Beneficiaries can be in particular women. Resource Recovery & Reuse Water for a food-secure world;
  40. Success story #8: Smallholder irrigation is back on the agendaA Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) sponsored projectassessed the potential of smallholder irrigation across Sub-SaharanAfrica and South AsiaA first set of impacts: – on the ground policy and investment changes in Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh – online tools for policymakers and investors (investment visualizer, gender mapper, technology database) – data and products for development agencies and national policymakers (livelihood maps, participatory watershed mapping, multi-stakeholder policy dialogues) Water for a food-secure world
  41. Targeted Investment in Tanzania• Research and dialogue at policy level result in increased funds and visibility for agricultural water management (AWM).Outcomes• The Parliamentary Committee pledged to support budgetary increase in the Ministry of Agriculture around proposed AWM solutions.• Ministry of Agriculture budget increased by Tsh 10 billion (USD 6 million). Additional support possible.• Permanent AWM discussion platform established at Sokoine University. Key partners: Eng. Mbogo Futakamba, Deputy Permanent Secretary; Dr. Nuhu Hatibu, CEO, Kilimo Trust; Prof. Mahoo, Sokoine University Water for a food-secure world
  42. Potential Impact: Number of rural households • Low Cost Motorized In-situ Rainwater Harvesting: 1.4 million Pumps: 780,000 Terracing: 315,000 Water for a food-secure world
  43. Potential Impact: Number of rural households River Diversions: 500,000 Water for a food-secure world
  44. CGIAR Research Agenda
  45. CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) Our vision A world in which agriculture thrives within vibrant ecosystems and where rural communities enjoy a decent living and have access to everything they need to continually improve their livelihoods..Photo: David Brazier/IWMI Water for a food-secure world
  46. What the Water,Land andEcosystemsprogram documentsays: Water for a food-secure world
  47. 5 Strategic Research Programs (SRPs) Water for a food-secure world
  48. SRP 1 : Irrigated Systems Solutions: • Enhancing Success of Irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) • Revitalizing public irrigation systems • Expanding water management in the Eastern Gangetic Basin • Managing salt–water balance in Indus and Central Asian irrigation systems • Encouraging peri-urban Agricultural Water ManagementPhoto: Tom Van Cakenberghe/IWMI Water for a food-secure world
  49. SRP 2: Rainfed SystemsSolutions:• Sustainable intensification of rainfed landscapes• Recapitalizing soils and reducing degradation of landscapes• Diversifying and increasing resilience of farming systems• Enhancing access to water and Photo :Akica Bahri/IWMI land for pastoralists• Improving agricultural water management Water for a food-secure world
  50. Continuum of rainfed to irrigated Water for a food-secure world
  51. SRP 3: Resource, Recovery and ReuseSolutions:• Exploiting business opportunities for resource recovery and reuse of waste and wastewater• Safer wastewater and excreta Photo: Andrea Silverman/IWMI reuse – improved health Water for a food-secure world
  52. SRP 4 : BasinsSolutions: Photo: Bioversity International (IWMI)• Managing water resources’ variability and re-thinking storage in basins• Resource allocation and sharing for the benefit of all• Considering both water and energy for food (WE4FOOD)• Water data and accounting in basins Water for a food-secure world
  53. SRP5 : Information and Decision MakingSolutions:• Decision Analysis — forecasting interventions’ impacts on development outcomes• Agro-ecosystem health Photo: CIMMYT metrics and monitoring to support intervention decisions Water for a food-secure world
  54. Ecosystems approach • Integrated resource management solutions delivering multiple ecosystem services (provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services) • Modelling multiple ecosystem services (linked to water) and trade-offs at landscape scales to address multidimensional poverty issues in a more targeted manner. • Incorporating “ecosystem services” into resource management decisions, using trade-off analysis and using spatial modelling tools.Photo: Tom Van Cakenberghe/IWMI Water for a food-secure world
  55. WLE’s focus on gender…WLE aims to achieve gender equitableoutcomes by:• Analyzing data from a gender and equity perspective• Understanding gender-specific barriers for adoption• Developing gender-sensitive policies Photo: Faseeh Shams/IWMI• Identifying ways to improve women’s access to, and involvement in land and water management Water for a food-secure world
  56. Communication & Knowledge Management 1. Communication linked to outcome pathways: Ensure communication is linked to change processes 2. Build upon knowledge/capacity of partners: Not reinventing the wheel 3. Repackaging knowledge for different target groups 4. Innovation and ICTs: Many ICTs/Comms processes canPhoto: Sajjad Ali Qureshi/IWMI support innovation. 5. Effective face to face interaction is essential: Ways to improve interactions at all levels Water for a food-secure world
  57. India is taking up the challenge• “Resilience of ecosystems to become a central plank of policy”• “20% increase in water use efficiency of irrigation”• “National Aquifer Management Programme”• “ cut energy losses and stabilise groundwater”• “convert watershed management programme into a productivity enhancing instrument”• “management of liquid and solid waste promoted together with recycling and reuse”• “Indian cities and industries have to reinvent their water trajectory”• “paradigm shift in flood management away from building more embankments”• State Water Regulatory Authorities – “autonomy and accountability”• Model Bill for Protection, Conservation, Management and Regulation of Groundwater Water for a food-secure world
  58. Visit our website andthe Agriculture & Ecosystem Blog