Towards a dual language
WE PLACE LEARNING AT THE CORE OF
ALL WE DO
Learning at the International School of Stuttgart combines an individual’s
predisposition and experience with the acquisition of knowledge, skills
and understanding to nurture and develop character and intellect.
Wir stellen das Lernen in den Mittelpunkt
all dessen, was wir tun .
Das Lernen an der Internationalen Schule Stuttgart verbindet die
individuelle Begabung und Erfahrungen mit dem Erwerb von
Fähigkeiten, Wissen und Verstehen, indem Charakter und Verstand
gepflegt und entwickelt wird.
Herausragende Ausbildung für
Unsere Mission ist es, unsere Schüler und
einander zu inspirieren, zu fordern und aktiv zu
unterstützen, um positiv in einer sich ändernde
Leading education for internationallyminded families
Our mission is to inspire, challenge and actively
support our students and each other to become
positive participants in a changing world.
Innovation in Education
The question is:
How does our growing understanding of
how children learn lead to re-visioning
our approaches to teaching?
In other words ... What are our beliefs about learning and best practice
What does it look like in the
classroom? 3rd and 4th grade
1. Identify the learning challenge
2. The Idea
What do we want to achieve to improve learning?
3. The Practice
What do we need to do to achieve an improvement in
4. What have we learned? Programme
evaluation and planning
Identify the Learning
Closing the conceptual gap for
(German) EAL students
Raising expectations for
German as an Additional
Language students to master
Equity in respect of languages
David Gatley‘s vision:
ISS Director 2001-2006
• Additional language fluency in 3
• Total immersion is effortless
• Young children learn additional
languages much more quickly
Drawing from the Research
Development of competence in the native
language can be transposed to the
second language (Cummins’ Common
Underlying Proficiency Hypothesis)
Researchers believe that it takes 5 to 8 years to become bi-lingual
(Collier, 1992; Ramirez, 1992).
Students who do successfully complete bilingual instruction perform
better academically (Collier, 1992; Ramirez, 1992).
What do we want to
achieve to improve
We want an educational model that
… support conceptual as well as language
development in the individual child
… address issues of language equity in
education and promote international mindedness
… support educational innovation and reform
... Encourage English–speakers to learn
German with the same vitality that Germanspeakers learn
Defining our meaning of
The child’s conceptual development
takes place in their main language and
in the classroom their additional
language is supported through
team-teaching in an authentic,
Beyond the ‘sink or swim’
Jim Cummins (2004)introduced the terms:
BICS (basic interpersonal communicative skills)
5 years on ...
CALP (cognitive academic
to the discussion of educating
Jim Cummins teaches in the Department of Curriculum,
Teaching, and Learning of the Ontario Institute for Studies in
Education of the University of Toronto
What’s in a comma?
A panda walks into a cafe. He orders a sandwich, eats
it, then draws a gun and fires two shots in the air.
“Why?“ asks the confused waiter as the panda makes
towards the exit. The panda produces a badly punctuated
wildlife manual and tosses it over his shoulder.
“I‘m a panda,“ He says, at the door. “Look it up.“
The waiter turns to the relevant entry and, sure enough,
finds an explanation.
“Panda. Large black-and-white bear-like mammal, natural
to China. Eats, shoots and leaves.”
“Eats, Shoots and Leaves“ Lynne Truss 2004
The Practice – what do we need to do
to achieve an improvement in learning?
How does it work?
• 90/10% to 50/50%
• Team teaching
• Assessing, goal-setting,
The definition of the ISS Sindelfingen
dual language model encompasses the
following 4 critical components:
• Where possible, the child’s conceptual
development takes place in their mother
• the integration of main and second language
learners for instruction in and through two
• periods of instruction during which only one
language is used.
• both native English speakers and native
German speakers are participants.
The addiditonal language
learning continuum as an
for learning –
ISS Sindelfingen Additional Language Learning Continuum
New to A.L.
receptive, responses in main language
or non-verbal, “silent phase,” focus on
reads some environmental print,
recognizes some personally significant
contexts/personal experiences by
drawing pictures or by copying writing
Acquisition of A.L.
starts to produce single words,
formulaic phrases in A.L, focus on
reads short, simple texts with simple
repetitive vocabulary and picture cues,
set in familiar contexts
writes short, simple texts either copied
or modeled with peer/teacher support
on personally significant experiences
starts to produce/use language (short
phrases) in personal/familiar contexts,
focus on BICS (Cummins)
reads short, simple texts in familiar
writes short, simple texts on personally
significant contexts using models and
beginning understanding of spoken
and written language
starts to develop competencies in
CALP (Cummins), begins to use and
understand subject area language
begins to read controlled, simple
familiar as well as unfamiliar texts with
predictable, simple language
begins to use A.L. to write about
academic contexts using simple
language structures, writes short texts
on familiar contexts using simple
Competent in A.L.
develops competencies in CALP
(Cummins), gains more competence in
using A.L. in academic contexts,
spoken language in advance of literacy
reads controlled familiar and unfamiliar
texts with simple, predictable language
structures and familiar vocabulary
begins to develop competency at
writing short, organized texts of
different types, using simple sentence
structure and specific vocabulary
Proficient in A.L.
(Cummins), begins to use more
academic contexts, uses A.L. with
increasing confidence in social and
begins to read mainstream materials
with more complex language
begins to write organized texts of
different types, using more complex
language structure and specific
(Cummins), uses complex language
functions in academic contexts, uses
reads wide range of mainstream
writes more organized texts of different
types with more cohesion and
Fluent in A.L.
oral skills in A.L. equal to oral skills in
main language, e.g. bilingual
reading skills in A.L. equal to reading
skills in main language, e.g. biliterate,
spoken skills equal to literacy skills in
writing skills in AL equal to writing
in main language; e.g. Biliterate,
spoken skills equal to literacy skills in
What the students say …
Quinn: I like learning another language because
it makes it easier to communicate with other
people and learn. It is hard to learn it
sometimes. It takes a lot of effort and
Liana: I like learning because if you get stuck on
a word, no one laughs and it’s fun with
What the teachers say …
• The use of the two languages is a natural feature of
class discourse, children function simultaneously in
main and additional language, the two languages are
constantly "switched on". You can truly use the
children as a language resource and create
opportunities for the children to learn with and from
each other, e.g. language "buddy" projects. Jennifer king
• It is much more natural to have language lessons
during class than having a regular “pull-out” session
and the children “shutting down” beforehand.
• Children have the native speakers as models and
hear the correct language from peers, and not only
from teachers. Stephanie Langer
Self-evaluating our programme
Questions we are still playing with:
Does our programme have the flexibility required to foster the
language learning needs of every child from beginning additional
language learners to mother tongue learners?
• What are the characteristics in effective Dual Language teachers?
• Is there such a thing as a student who is not talented in learning
• What professional development can best support dual language
• What do the language experts say who are not supporting duallanguage teaching or mother-tongue support?
• What do the parents need to know in order to best support their
• How will we self-appraise and objectively reflect upon our
programme so that it is research-based and not just a beliefsystem?
• What evidence of effectiveness supports the dual language model?
Thanks to the students and
staff at ISS Sindelfingen
Thank you for your interest
•Bilingual Children’s Mother Tongue: Why is it important for Education
•Website with a large number of books on bilingualism
•Wayne P. Thomas & Virginia P. Collier, 1997/98 The National
Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (NCBE) School Effectiveness for
Language Minority Students
•Cummins, J. (1996). Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in
a diverse society. Ontario, CA: California Association for Bilingual
•Krashen, S. (1999). Condemned without a trial: Bogus arguments against
bilingual education. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
•Torres-Guzmán M (2002) Dual language Programs: Key Features and
Results. Directions. Spring 2002. No 14
•Denby J. Fieldwork Summer School 2006.
•The Case for Bilingual Education Why Bilingual Education? by Stephen Krashen
ERIC® Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation
•How effective is bilingual education?
Elizabeth Howard, Center for Applied Linguistics.
•James Crawford's Language Policy Web
Possibly the most in-depth bilingual education site on the web.
•Rethinking Schools: Online Urban Educational Journal. The Case for Bilingual Education
•Why Bilingual Education? by Stephen Krashen ERIC® Clearinghouse on Assessment and
Sarah Kupke ISS Sindelfingen September 2013