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Implementing clil programmes


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Implementing clil programmes

  1. 1. II ENCUENTRO FORMATIVO PARA PROFESORES DE INGLÉS From blackboards to whiteboards: from skills to competences Granada English Teachers Association, April 24th 2010 <ul><li>INPLEMENTATION OF MULTILINGUAL TEACHING PROGRAMMES: </li></ul><ul><li>USING CLIL APPROACHES RESPECTFULLY </li></ul><ul><li>Víctor Pavón Vázquez </li></ul><ul><li>University of Córdoba (Spain) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Getting into the unknown… <ul><li>Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is taking English language teaching by storm, but why? Is CLIL the new methodological revolution, comparable to the impact that the communicative approach had on ELT years ago? Or is CLIL simply a new teaching trend that is here today and gone tomorrow? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The context <ul><li>According to the Eurobarometer 2005, Spain holds post no. 21 among the 25 members of the European Union. (Eurobarometer 237-Wave 63.4: Europeans and Languages. European Commission. 2005. p. 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas there are some different cases in Spain, the multilingual model proposed by the European Union is also being applied in the region of Andalusia with a long-term project. </li></ul>
  4. 4. A piece of warning <ul><li>“ In communities struggling with language issues, undisciplined thinking can generate myths that are presented as fact, backed up with skewed logic, with circumstancial evidence, with the use of false and unsupported assumptions, and by the agendas of politics that smother real debate. All this makes it hard for objective more constructive well-researched realities to take hold. ” (Mehisto, P. 2009. “Managing Multilingual Education: structuring stakeholder dialogue and collaboration”. V. Pavón, J. Ávila (eds.), Aplicaciones didácticas para la enseñanza integrada de lengua y contenidos. Consejería de Educación, Junta de Andalucía-Universidad de Córdoba. 9-27 ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mainstays of application of CLIL <ul><li>1. What does “content and language integrated learning” mean? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What type of curricular design? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Methodological aspects: what’s the role of language and content teachers? </li></ul>
  6. 6. What does CLIL mean? <ul><li>“ CLIL ( Content and Language Integrated Learning ) advocates assimilating the academic content of nonlinguistic subjects via a foreign language, which simultaneously promotes the acquisition of content knowledge and the use of the target language. It involves a methodological style that encourages teachers and students to use the language as a means of communication, thus promoting language and content development in the process.” (Gerdes, T. & Pavón, V. 2008. “Talking CLIL”, It’s for Teachers Magazine, 110: 14-17) </li></ul><ul><li>There are many different ways of implementing CLIL, whatever the term is used (immersion, bilingualism, multilingualism, language across the curriculum, etc.) all the different models propose to teach content subjects through a foreign language in one way or another. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Basics of CLIL <ul><li>The foreign language is used as a vehicle for accessing information. </li></ul><ul><li>The foreign language is used for instruction and communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning the language and learning content are part of the same process. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of cognitive flexibility and reflection upon the linguistic and communicative functioning of both languages is key. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes the promotion of additive bilingualism (Lessow-Hurley, J. 2000. The Foundations of Dual Language Instruction. 3rd edition. New York: Longman). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Benefits <ul><li>The learning of a foreign language is seen as more attractive when we use linguistic resources that offer a means of acquiring information. </li></ul><ul><li>Metalinguistic and intellectual improvement: students are forced to use a greater variety of communication strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on the creative use of the language provides stimulation in the learning process. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Benefits <ul><li>CLIL increases of quantity and quality of exposition to the L2. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning the language becomes more functional and communicative in a CLIL context. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Benefits <ul><li>CLIL encourages teachers to use a ‘learning by doing’ approach, as well as developing Multiple Intelligences. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Benefits <ul><li>The intercultural connection: language use develops positive attitudes towards other languages, people and cultures. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Benefits <ul><li>CLIL taps into preferred language learning styles for which there is often too little time available in formal language lessons (Cummins’ b asic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language processing (CALP). (Cummins, J. 1984. Bilingualism and Special Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters) </li></ul>
  13. 13. The different types of CLIL <ul><li>Content-based language instruction: bringing academic content into the language classes. </li></ul><ul><li>L anguage-sensitive content instruction: c hanging strategies, techniques and materials to facilitate the assimilation of contents. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Implementing a CLIL programme: first decisions <ul><li>A) Dual model (same contents are treated in both languages). </li></ul><ul><li>B) Cross-curricular model (only some sections of different subjects are taught with an L2). </li></ul><ul><li>C) Reinforcement model (teaching content with an L2 is preceeded by specific linguistic work in language classes). </li></ul><ul><li>(Adapted from Pérez-Vidal, C., N. Campanale (Ed.). 2005. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Europe . Barcelona: Universidad Pompeu Fabra. 29-30) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Implementing a CLIL programme: first decisions <ul><li>“ What is certain is that there is no single model for CLIL and that for approaches to be effective they have to be contextualised, evaluated and understood in situ and ‘owned’ by all those involved ” (Coyle, D. 2009. CLIL Across Educational Levels . Madrid: Richmond / Santillana, vii) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Implementing a CLIL programme: initial stages <ul><li>Consider some fundamental aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>teachers’ linguistic and methodological competence; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students’ linguistic knowledge; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the cognitive demands of the subjects involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The main concerns should be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to give some flexibility in the selection of the subjects to be taught through the foreign language; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to progressively increase the time devoted to the instruction through the foreign language. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Implementing a CLIL programme: the basics <ul><li>1. Aim for the gradual increase of the schools involved every year. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Make a sensible selection of the subjects to be taught and learnt through a foreign language. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Implementing a CLIL programme: the basics <ul><li>3. Consider curricular design: Languages Integrated Curriculum and Content-Language Integrated Curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  19. 19. Implementing a CLIL programme: the basics <ul><li>4. Tailor of each particular educational context: coordination and elaboration of Integrated Units as the cornerstone of CLIL </li></ul>
  20. 20. Implementing a CLIL programme: the basics <ul><li>5. Plan training programs for the linguistic and methodological training of teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Integrate ICT with CLIL </li></ul>
  21. 21. Problems (I) <ul><li>Could CLIL be frustrating for a student who is good at history but not good at English? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Very often teachers experience anxiety about getting quick results, thus leading to CLIL models with a ready-to-start plan, which translates into simply changing the language of instruction in class. Unfortunately, students who are non-linguistically proficient are doomed to academic failure when using the target language.” (Gerdes & Pavón, 2008. Talking CLIL”, It’s for Teachers Magazine, 110:17) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Problems (II) <ul><li>How do we navigate the troubled waters of language accuracy and comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Will quantity and quality of contents be reduced? What is essential ? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Problems (III) <ul><li>Quality of the training program. </li></ul><ul><li>And the big question: ‘closed’ curriculum or ‘open’ curriculum? </li></ul><ul><li>- advantages and disadvantages of following a guide </li></ul><ul><li>- the problem of language instrumental diversity </li></ul>
  24. 24. Changes in methodology for content teachers <ul><li>Change from lecturing to participative classes: it is not teaching “things” with another language but teaching to understand, manipulate and use: from lecturer to facilitator . </li></ul><ul><li>Develop activities to promote BICS and CALP. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Changes in methodology for content teachers <ul><li>Use of a task-based approach: explaining a graph, describing a process, reporting an event, interpreting scientific, artistic or cultural texts, telling the solution to a problem, justification of individual opinions, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Put emphasis on collaborative/cooperative work </li></ul>
  26. 26. Changes in methodology for content teachers <ul><li>Plan for double or multiple processing of texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Train learners to discover: tasks which promote noticing. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Changes in methodology for language teachers <ul><li>Focus on fluency activities and on the oral aspect of the language. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop strategies and techiques to help transmission of information. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Changes in methodology for language teachers <ul><li>Re-structure language contents to support the assimilation of academic content. </li></ul><ul><li>Give feedback on language and language progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Change the perception of the foreign language: from a subject to a tool . </li></ul>
  29. 29. And… what about the materials? <ul><li>It is important to use visuals to establish context and provide stimulating learning: ICT, Flashcards, Posters, hands on experiments, etc. </li></ul>
  30. 30. And… what about the materials? <ul><li>ICT offers a practical classroom application: useful websites </li></ul>
  31. 31. And… what about the materials? <ul><li>Websites can be used by both teachers, in planning, and students for hands-on activities such as Web Quests. </li></ul>
  32. 32. And… what about the materials?
  33. 33. <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>II ENCUENTRO FORMATIVO PARA PROFESORES DE INGLÉS From blackboards to whiteboards: from skills to competences Granada English Teachers Association, April 24th 2010