Quote only real short statements!! This was message was the one that convinced to look into how we can teach in a way that all children can benefit not only the native English speakers. There are harmfull side-effects which I will go into in the next slide. The aspect of identity is a vital point :The goal of international schools has to be to learn about who we are in the context of our school and globally. Our Japanese teacher told me that a lot of Japanese children have difficulty identifying with their identity especially in our English speaking community:Takayo Takayo
Making connects based on previous learning is essential for learning; comparing what words mean in their MT and English give them a better understanding of how language is used in each country/culture Many teachers and parents assume that more English is a guarantee for good English ; research hast confirmed the opposite (we will go into that later)
How are our students learning….there are problems that all teaschers encounter when teaching non native english speakers. We all know that we can do our very best in teaching but there are students in international school who have trouble understanding whats going on and that can take months and months.
This should be what we believe when teaching…..are we making this visible??
Thomas and Collier found out that those children who had MT support while learning English , learned English quicker and also developed faster academically as well. Learning is all about making connections to previous learning therefore social ,cognitive and cultural aspects have to considered . If we believe in educating the “whole child” as it is defined in our mission and confirmed in research , we have to include all parts of this prism in our pedagogy and program for our EAL students and all students.
write some notes here.
Show book by Eithne: quote children
This is the last slide …add connections ppp after this
We now are teaching Korean, Hindi ,Japanese, Spanish and Italian
( we tend to underestimate this powerful message)
PPP May 19th for visting teachers and for Krashen
The Importance of Mother-Tongue Development inInternational EducationBeatrice Morales-Bocksch and Anja Jungingerpresented on May the 19th 2010 to visiting teachers
Research that led us to reflect on how weteachThe importance of mother tonguedevelopment in international schoolsInternational-mindedness and the “wholechild” as a foundation for what we doOur MT Program at ISS
International-mindednessWhat does international-mindedness mean to you?What are you doing in yourclassroom to promoteinternational-mindedness?What does it “look” or “sound” like?Do the quadrant brainstorm and discuss in yourgroups.
Step 1: Becoming AwareThe ResearchThe research on children‘s language learning is powerfulin its message for us.Murphy: "What good is the best possible philosophy andcurriculum if they are a closed book to many of ourpupils?...We have a moral commitment to (develop) aneducational program that has little or no harmful side-effectsto our pupils...especially in the early years program wherechildren are still in the process of learning their mother tongue."Cummins: "To reject a childs language in the school is to rejectthe child. When the message, implicit or explicit,communicated to children in the school is "Leave yourlanguage and culture at the schoolhouse door", children alsoleave a central part of who they are-their identities-at theschoolhouse door."
What if we don‘t pay attention?Potential consequences of a substractiveprogram (MT is replaced by English):✘Loss of their mother-tongue, their „thinking“language✘Loss of identity and self-esteem✘Loss of access to the mainstream curriculum
• Thomas/Collier: “When children continue to develop theirabilities in two or more languages…..they gain a deeperunderstanding of language and how to use it effectively.They have more practice in processing language,especially when they develop literacy in both and they areable to compare and contrast the ways in which their twolanguages organize reality.”• Baker: “Mother tongue promotion in the school helpsdevelop not only the mother tongue but also childrensabilities in the majority school language. Spendinginstructional time through minority language in the schooldoes not hurt childrens academic development in themajority school language.”
Step 1: Becoming AwareOur populations•The population of our students has changed sinceour schools were founded. This is a currentphenomenon in international schools as mobility isincreasing and as host country nationals areincreasingly looking for alternatives andopportunities for bi/multilingualism.•It is not uncommon for more than 60% of ourstudents to not speak English as their mothertongue, but rather to be learning it as a newlanguage and learning through it.
Step 2: UnderstandingIt is precisely this population of EnglishLanguage Learners who make our schoolsplaces full of rich diversity and who are themajority of our learners. This diversity shouldlead to international-mindedness andbenefit all students when fostered in aparticular way.
Realizing the Facts!• We are all EAL teachers because weall teach students whose mothertongue is not English.• How we teach them is strongelyconnected to our beliefs, our vision,our mission, and our awareness ofpotential issues concerning howthese students can best learn.
• Research shows that what counts isnot just the quantity (total immersion inEnglish) but the quality of exposure.Second-language input must becomprehensible to promote second-language acquisition (Krashen 1996).EAL , mainstream and mother tonguelessons contribute to this kind of input.
What does international-mindednessmean to us for language learning?• There is an ethos of acceptance, nomatter where we are from. Everyone‘slanguage and background is of equalvalue.• That while English may be the commonmedium for education, no one languageis seen as being more important thananother and we must make this visible.
Step 4: What is expected of us asa PYP/IB School?• The school encourages student learning thatstrengthens the student’s own cultural identity,and celebrates and fosters understanding ofdifferent cultures.• The school actively supports the developmentof the mother-tongue language of all students.IBO Standards and Practices
“Pre-existing knowledge for English languagelearners is encoded in their home languages.Consequently, education should explicitlyteach in a way that fosters transfer ofconcepts and skills from the student’s homelanguage to English. Research clearly showsthe potential for this kind of cross-languagetransfer in school contexts that supportbiliteracy development.”-Cummins 2001;Reyes 2001Learning is all about MakingConnections!Cross Language TransferLearning is all about MakingConnections!Cross Language Transfer
Surface structuresCONCEPTS„The Curriculum“Mother TongueEnglishHow does supporting theMother Tongue helpchildren to access thecurriculum?
““When students take ownership of theirWhen students take ownership of theirlearning-when they invest theirlearning-when they invest theiridentities in learning outcomes –identities in learning outcomes –active learning takesactive learning takesplace….”Knowledge is more thanplace….”Knowledge is more thanjust the ability to remember. Deeperjust the ability to remember. Deeperlevels of understanding enablelevels of understanding enablestudents to transfer knowledge fromstudents to transfer knowledge fromone context to another…”one context to another…”(Stone,Warschauer,2004)(Stone,Warschauer,2004)
“Interlingual classrooms should become acommon feature of internationaleducation...Interlingual classrooms areplaces where international-mindedness isseen in action. Internationalism is felt andinterlingual children learn who they are inthe context of the classroom and thebroader society.”-Eithne GallagherHow can we foster international-mindedness and include aspects ofthe Prism Model ?
Our MT Program„The Three-Program Model“ based on Maurice CarderISSLower SchoolLanguage ModelISSLower SchoolLanguage ModelEnglish immersionwith effective,long-term EALsupportEnglish immersionwith effective,long-term EALsupportMother TongueSupportto make conceptsaccessible and com-prehensibleMother TongueSupportto make conceptsaccessible and com-prehensibleCultural andLinguisticAwareness programfor staff, students andparentsthrough intercultural activitiesthroughout the yearCultural andLinguisticAwareness programfor staff, students andparentsthrough intercultural activitiesthroughout the year
Step 6: Focusing our purposeAll students should be able to “Make Connections”: Making conceptual connections to ourcurriculum through their mother-tongue Making connections to our curriculum throughtheir prior cultural experiences Making connections in order to affirm theiridentity Making connections between the Englishlanguage and their mother-tongue in order tolearn English better/quicker Making connections to their prior knowledge
Step 7: How does our MT programwork?(based on Maurice Carder‘s proposals)• Our EAL and mother tongue departments are a centralfeature of Lower School Leadership• We are staffed by mother-tongue and EAL teachers whoare qualified , paid and attend some of the planningmeetings.• EAL, mainstream, and mother tongue teachers workclosely together, sharing information on students andcurriculum.• All educators are aware that developing the mothertongue is essential to learning English.• Mother-tongue lessons are time-tabled as an integralpart of the school day, as they are part of themainstream curriculum.• Mother Tongue support and EAL support are inverselyproportional to best meet the needs of the developinglanguage learner within a financially feasible framework.
Step 8: Making it visible andintegratedMT displays, both separately and integrated with classroom displays.Pass on the assessment to MT teachers to have students add to themin their MT. Translate some of it or help design assessment with MTteacher/EAL teacherMotivating and inspiring our community to get to know the variouscultural backgrounds and languages better through interculturalprogram.Allow MT teachers to play an important role when linking with parentswho will be able to approach MT teachers in their own MT withquestions and feedback. (ex. Conferences, reporting) MT and mainstream teachers will help to make students feelcomfortable and ‘at home’ in our school and in the ‘culturalhaven’ they will have created for them.
Making it visible and integrated Create identity/dual language booklets. (Cummins) UoI: Have students share what they did in their MT classes.(inassemblies and in class.) Mother-Tongue handbooks inform parents in all languages Create a class library made up of books from many differentlanguages, dual language books and bilingual dictionaries.Involve the librarian : Unit of Inquiry and fiction /non-fiction books inall languages
In Summary:Mother Tongue Literacy English Language SupportENGLISH IMMERSIONMulticultural and multilingual environment
Some Resources:• www.multiliteraies.ca Multiliteracies project web site; examples of duallanguage books (identity texts) written by ESL students (e.g., MichaelCranny [K-8] Elementary School).• http://http://thornwood.peelschools.org/Dual/thornwood.peelschools.org/Dual/: Thornwood (K-5) school DualLanguage Showcase site.• Bilingualism in International Schools A Model for Enriching LanguageEducation, Maurice Carder; Multilingual Matters, 2007.• Equal Rights to the Curriculum, Eithne Gallagher, 2008.• Supporting ELLs grades K-2 and 3 -12, Rojas, V.P. (1999), InternationalSchools.• Scaffolding Language/Scaffolding Learning: Teaching Second LanguageLearners in the Mainstream Classroom, Gibbons, P. (2002).• Monolingual international schools and the young non-English-speakingchild ,Edna Murphy.http:// sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/2/1/25