CLIL 4: Communication


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Which language should we cater for? How can we support our students' language?

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CLIL 4: Communication

  1. 1. LET’S CLIL SESSION 5 & 6 The 4 Cs: Communication Let's CLIL
  2. 2. Let's CLIL
  3. 3. Find someone who ... Let's CLIL
  5. 5. CONTENTS  Communication   BICS and CALPS Language      Language for Language of Language through Scaffolding Cummins Matrix Let's CLIL
  7. 7. 1.- Content 2.- Cognition Let's CLIL 3.Communication
  8. 8. Let's CLIL
  9. 9. Make your students use English communicatively and effectively Let's CLIL
  10. 10.  What’s the point of knowing when to use a verbal There si no point in learning howis not tense if it to use the verbal tenses used in if they don’t know how to use them communication? communicatively Let's CLIL
  11. 11. Which language? CLIL is NOT simply “translating“ content learning from the first language into another language. So, what is language learning in CLIL? Let's CLIL
  12. 12. Communication Many CLIL learners have a cognitive level higher than their linguistic level of the vehicular CLIL language. So, what can we do to allow our learners to access language fully and use it?
  13. 13. Communication CLIL teachers need to give a special support for language, and, therefore, plan language carefully, analysing what kind of language learners will be using.
  14. 14. Using language demands teachers systematically plan for, teach, monitor and evaluate Language of Language for LEARNING Language through Let's CLIL
  15. 15. Let's CLIL
  16. 16. 3 stages: Analyse, Add & Apply ANALYSE    Analyse content for the language needed Identify key words (specialised contextualised vocabulary) Identify phrases, grammatical functions for concept formation and comprehension. language of learning stage 1.
  17. 17. 3 stages: Analyse, Add & Apply ADD  Language experiences which enable the learner to operate effectively in a CLIL setting (eg strategies for reading & understanding a difficult text).  meta-cognitive or learner strategies, classroom talk, discussion, task demands  scaffold e.g. through the use of language frames language for learning stage 2 (puts the focus on the learner)
  18. 18. 3 stages: Analyse, Add & Apply APPLY / ASSURE     Emerges from the active involvement of learners thinking and asking. Spontaneous language Captured during the learning process, then recycled and developed later It cannot be predicted in advance language through learning stage 3.
  19. 19. BICS or CALPS Let's CLIL
  20. 20. BICS and CALPS Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Let's CLIL
  21. 21. BICS and CALPS Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills The language necessary for day to day living, including conversations with friends, informal interactions. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency The language necessary to understand and discuss content in the classroom . Let's CLIL
  22. 22. It’s all abour CALP   Specific subject-related discourse (‘photosynthesis’/’hypotenuse’)  General academic discourse, (‘thus/whereas’) Formal, abstract, context reduced. Let's CLIL
  23. 23. And what about BICS? It helps for interaction…… Let's CLIL
  24. 24. School to university is a gradual process of increasing CALP (input & output) Without CALP, students fail. We have to make CALP salient Let's CLIL
  25. 25. - The 3rd harmonic in the inverter output voltage - - - disappears It’s a real feat of engineering. The ship? There she would be today, but for the controversy stirred up by Greenpeace. The CDIO initiative is an educational framework for producing the next generation of engineers. What is a toxic substance ? It drives me nuts to see someone take a data point from a 2-inch 0-10000 psig pressure gauge as 119.547 psig when it is calibrated in 250 psig increments Let's CLIL
  26. 26. BICS or CALPS?  a. Our names are Imma and Montse.  b. I am thirsty. May I please have a drink of water?  c. After we finished school in June, my family spent our summer vacation visiting relatives in Eritrea. Let's CLIL
  27. 27. BICS or CALPS?  d. Worms are called decomposers. They have a special job, which is to eat leaves, grass, and other things in nature to help break them down into smaller pieces. We are going to study worms more closely by making a compost bag. Let's CLIL
  28. 28. BICS or CALPS?  e. Your math homework sheet is a review of everything we have learned so far this year: working long-division problems with double-digit divisors, calculating the area and perimeter of various quadrilaterals, working with fractions and decimals, and calculating averages. Let's CLIL
  29. 29. Issues of acquisition  CALP skills take a lot longer to develop than BICS skills.  Learners with fluent BICS may be surprisingly slow in the subject classroom because they haven't yet developed L2 CALP.  CALP skills transfer from one language to another.  Explicit CALP teaching in L1 is good for all learners, but especially for those learning in L2. Adapted from
  31. 31. Language of learning Linked to the content - linked to an analysis of content, thematic, syllabus demands grammar, vocabulary, structures, functions Let's CLIL
  32. 32. Language of learning    Type of language (genre)? Content-obligatory language? Effective way of teaching? Let's CLIL
  34. 34. Language for learning Linked to the task. Classroom language builds up learner repertoire linked to meta-cognitive skills & talk for learning in contexts real for the learners CLASS-TALK MUMIS-ENGLISH Let's CLIL
  36. 36. Language through learning    Emerging through language. Unexpected emergent knowledge building & skill development, cognitive development Let's CLIL
  37. 37. Analyse the language of Let's CLIL
  38. 38. SCAFFOLDING Let's CLIL
  39. 39. Defining scaffolding Let's CLIL
  40. 40. Scaffolding  teaching technique that involves providing students with the supports needed to complete a task or facilitate their learning of new concepts. Let's CLIL
  41. 41. Do we need to plan scaffolding? Let's CLIL
  42. 42. Yes!!!! Let's CLIL
  43. 43. Need to scaffold learning Need to provide the students with: The need of scaffolding is essential for CLIL, because CLIL aims to guide language processing and support language production in the same way as ELT by teaching strategies for reading and listening and structures and lexis for spoken or written language. Let's CLIL
  44. 44. Language Support for Speaking + Writing • What language the task requires? (Language Demands) • Which strategies will you use to help them to use English to perform the task? (Language Support). Let's CLIL
  45. 45. Language Support for Reading + Listening 1. Filling the gaps exercises are ideal to focus on key words or on critical information of a text. 2. Matching exercises are good to reinforce the information of a text, and help to retain it in a more permanent way. 3. Fill in a chart provide one of the best reading or listening scaffolding. They are perfect to have a sense of the connections between the relevant information of a text, and to explore the way it is organised. Flow charts are usually harder to prepare than matrices. 4. Pictures / Diagrams / Maps: 'Labelling' exercises are perfect to have a visual support of what is listened of read on a text ('a picture is worth a thousand words'). They also highlight the most relevant information of a text.
  46. 46. Language Support for Reading + Listening 5. 'Taking notes' Consists basically on writing frames. They are a good support to pay attention in advance to the information of the text. They are also good to establish relations between key sentences. 6. 'Sequence' exercises force the learners to read a text more than once. Therefore, they provide a good support to retain the information longer. They are also good to think about the coherence of a text when trying to put the different paragraphs or sentences in the right order. 7. 'Sorting cards' exercises imply classification of information in most of the cases. They are therefore high order thinking tasks, and are usually a challenge for learners. Often, more than one answer is possible 8. 'Text marking' exercises are the easiest tasks to prepare, and do not even require extra handouts. You can make learners highlight key words or relevant information.
  47. 47. Make language salient  Let's CLIL Highlight the language  to learn  for learning  through learning
  48. 48. Control Teacher Talk       Use body language Use simple language Question ALL students Check understanding Signposting Summarise Let's CLIL
  49. 49. Grade tasks, not texts   Give a reason for reading / listening to the text Make them pay attention to what they already know (key words, context, grammatical knowledge, etc) Let's CLIL
  50. 50. Difficult text?  On the theory of relativity Einstein stated that the theory of relativity belongs to the class of principle theories. As such, it employs an analytic method. This means that the elements which comprise this theory are not based on hypothesis but on empirical discovery. The empirical discovery leads to understanding the general characteristics of natural processes. Mathematical models are then developed which separate the natural processes into theoretical mathematical descriptions. Therefore, by analytical means the necessary conditions that have to be satisfied are deduced. Separate events must satisfy these conditions. Experience should then match the conclusions. The special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity are connected. As stated below, special theory of relativity applies to all physical phenomena except gravity. The general theory provides the law of gravitation, and its relation toLet's CLIL forces of nature. other
  51. 51. Give Receptive Skills Strategies      Prepare the context Pre teach key vocabulary Ask them to infer & predict Set task in advance Use reading techniques explicitly Let's CLIL
  52. 52. Guide input Complete the mind map by reading the text. Let's CLIL
  53. 53. Provide productive skills strategies      Provide models Highlight key words Use visual organisers Use word banks, tables or sentence starters Encourage collaborative work Let's CLIL
  54. 54. Support output GOOD OR BAD ENERGY? Before you can fill in the table below, you need to consider some criteria for judging the issue of positives and negatives. Use these Five: (a)Ecological consequences (b)Availability (c)Renewability (d)Expense (e)Practicality So, for example: Looking at Hydro-Electric energy, we could work through the criteria then try to decide whether it is a ‘Candidate for the future’. In other words, does it have a valid future as a source of energy? (a)Ecological consequences? Seems ok. Uses naturally flowing water to generate electricity. Does not cause any pollution. Dams sometimes cause controversy because they divert rivers. (b) Availability? It depends on the country and its type of landscape. Mountains and rivers are needed. (c) Renewability? Good. (d) Expense? Cheap, because it uses a natural resource. Let's CLIL (e) Practicality? (c) Phil Ball
  55. 55. Work in groups on other energies Energy Advantages Disadvantages A candidate for the future Hidro-electric No pollution, cheap, abundant, … Only in some countries yes geothermical Although hydroelectricity has some disadvantages such as the problem of needing mountains and rivers, it has many more advantages such as ... Let's CLIL
  56. 56. Scaffolding and embedding Let's CLIL © Keith kelly
  57. 57. Let's CLIL
  58. 58. Diet and disease – core content Let's CLIL
  59. 59. Let's CLIL
  60. 60. Visuals: flow charts, Let's CLIL
  61. 61. Visual: graphic organiser Let's CLIL
  62. 62. Frames Let's CLIL
  63. 63. Speaking Frame (PE lesson on long jump) Your Run up Take off Position in the air landing is Let's CLIL Too slow Unsteady Too early Too late With the wrong foot Too high Not high enough On one foot Excellent Good Fine perfect
  64. 64. Resources to create own reading / listening scaffolding tasks  Teacher's Pet is a toolbar for word processor for making fun and effective worksheets in DOC or PDF format. This resource allows you to create:     Pair-matching puzzle (matching heads and tails) Paragraph breaker (sequence) Move selected words to the end (fill in gaps) Hot Potatoes enables you to create interactive Web-based teaching exercises which can be delivered to any Internetconnected computer equipped with a browser.
  65. 65. Visuals Visual aids can be used to: Provide interest and motivation for students. Increase retention of information and learning. Clarify something difficult. Aid communication Help students to organise concepts and ideas. Save instructional time and preparation time because they can be reused.
  66. 66. Possible sources: Graphic organisers Flow charts Diagrams Maps CD-roms Flashcards
  67. 67. To Sum up Let's CLIL
  68. 68. CUMMINS’ MATRIX Let's CLIL
  69. 69. Teacher’s tools in clil  4Cs framework – a guide for subject matter/project/theme  3As lesson planning tool  Cummins’ matrix – a tool for task and materials design and evaluation
  70. 70. Cummins Matrix The CLIL Matrix adapted from Cummins (1984) by Coyle et al (2010:43-44) is a useful tool which enables the teacher to balance linguistic and cognitive demands, generally aiming to avoid either low or high cognitive demands on both content and language at the same time, and thus to prevent demotivation being caused by tasks which are either too easy or too difficult. 3 High cognitive demands 4 Low linguistic demands High linguistic demands 1 2 Low cognitive demands
  71. 71. CUMMINS MATRIX High cognitive demands new language and new content recycled language introducing abstract concepts whilst using visuals Low linguistic demands familiar work practise the new language in different ways 3 4 2 1 cooperative group work instilling confidence Low cognitive demands High linguistic demands
  72. 72. CLIL – Language Matrix High cognitive 3 4 Low Linguistic High Linguistic 2 1 Low cognitive Let's CLIL
  73. 73. Analysis of activities Let's CLIL
  74. 74. Let's CLIL