Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Making inferences
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Making inferences

12,888
views

Published on

A shortened version of the Powerpoint from KSRA 2010.

A shortened version of the Powerpoint from KSRA 2010.

Published in: Education, Business, Technology

2 Comments
15 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
12,888
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
103
Comments
2
Likes
15
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Making Inferences, Making Meaning Emily Kissner elkissn@yahoo.com http://emilykissner.blogspot.com KSRA 2010
  • 2. About me • I am the author of two books for Heinemann: Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Retelling, and The Forest AND the Trees
  • 3. Agenda 1. What is an inference? 2. Reader-based inferences 3. Text-based inferences 4. Animating the process
  • 4. The role of inferences in reading • As students transition into reading more complex, difficult text, they need to make more inferences to understand what is going on • In fact, some researchers estimate that a reader needs to make 12-14 inferences just to understand a paragraph of text (Weaver and Kintsch, 1991)
  • 5. Making inferences • Readers need to draw on their knowledge of how text works • Readers need to draw on their knowledge of the world
  • 6. Text-Based Inferences A text-based inference is an inference that a reader makes based on knowledge of how text works Kara walked into the garden. She saw what looked like spit on a goldenrod plant
  • 7. Text-Based Inferences Who saw the spit on the plant? Kara walked into the garden. She saw what looked like spit on a goldenrod plant
  • 8. Text-Based Inferences Who saw the spit on the plant? Kara walked into the garden. She saw what looked like spit on a goldenrod plant
  • 9. Text-Based Inferences Obviously, it was Kara! You knew this because you were able to match pronouns with their antecedents. Kara walked into the garden. She saw what looked like spit on a goldenrod plant
  • 10. Resolving pronouns As more characters move into the mix, the task of matching pronouns becomes more difficult Studies have shown that less-skilled readers often have trouble matching pronouns to their antecedents. Think about how this affects their comprehension!
  • 11. Resolving pronouns Aunt Jessica must not have heard me, because she was walking over to the counter. I guess she was telling them that we wanted to buy a fish. “I don’t want a fish,” Leah said. “I want a chin-chih-a. And I will name him Wor-wy. And…” “Yes, I know,” I said, cutting her off. “Leah, you can’t get a chinchilla today. They are very expensive. Look, the sign says 85 dollars. We can’t pay that.” I have to persuade Leah to do things at least three times a day, so I’m an expert. Mom says I’m the only one that she listens to. I lowered my voice, like I was telling her a secret. “But in the back they have really cool fish. I saw one that’s blue.” “Fish are yucky,” Leah said. “I don’t want a fish. I want a chin-chih-a. And I will name him…”
  • 12. Resolving pronouns Aunt Jessica must not have heard me, because she was walking over to the counter. I guess she was telling them that we wanted to buy a fish. “I don’t want a fish,” Leah said. “I want a chin-chih-a. And I will name him Wor-wy. And…” “Yes, I know,” I said, cutting her off. “Leah, you can’t get a chinchilla today. They are very expensive. Look, the sign says 85 dollars. We can’t pay that.” I have to persuade Leah to do things at least three times a day, so I’m an expert. Mom says I’m the only one that she listens to. I lowered my voice, like I was telling her a secret. “But in the back they have really cool fish. I saw one that’s blue.” “Fish are yucky,” Leah said. “I don’t want a fish. I want a chin-chih-a. And I will name him…”
  • 13. Resolving pronouns Aunt Jessica must not have heard me, because she was walking over to the counter. I guess she was telling them that we wanted to buy a fish. “I don’t want a fish,” Leah said. “I want a chin-chih-a. And I will name him Wor-wy. And…” “Yes, I know,” I said, cutting her off. “Leah, you can’t get a chinchilla today. They are very expensive. Look, the sign says 85 dollars. We can’t pay that.” I have to persuade Leah to do things at least three times a day, so I’m an expert. Mom says I’m the only one that she listens to. I lowered my voice, like I was telling her a secret. “But in the back they have really cool fish. I saw one that’s blue.” “Fish are yucky,” Leah said. “I don’t want a fish. I want a chin-chih-a. And I will name him…” A reader struggling with pronouns would have trouble with this very simple text
  • 14. Helping readers Researchers test whether readers can match pronouns by giving readers texts with internal inconsistencies
  • 15. Helping readers You can link this kind of inference to the strategy of self-monitoring by using these kinds of texts I walked on board the ship. The captain gave me a stern look. “You were supposed to come back an hour ago,” he said. I shrugged. “I had other things to do,” I said. “Well, you can get started with helping to load the gear,” he said. “We’re sailing at nightfall.” The captain turned and walked away. I said, “I’ll get right to it.” He started loading the gear.
  • 16. Helping readers During read aloud or shared reading, make a pronoun mistake on purpose to see if students notice I walked on board the ship. The captain gave me a stern look. “You were supposed to come back an hour ago,” he said. I shrugged. “I had other things to do,” I said. “Well, you can get started with helping to load the gear,” he said. “We’re sailing at nightfall.” The captain turned and walked away. I said, “I’ll get right to it.” He started loading the gear.
  • 17. Tracking dialogue Tracking dialogue is another kind of text-based inference Meg dragged the tent out of the car. Justin pulled out the tent stakes. “Give that to me!” Justin said. He grabbed for the tent. “I can do it!” Meg said back. She pulled on her side of the tent. “You do one side, and I’ll do the other,” Justin grumbled. “Here are five tent stakes for you.” “Don’t just throw them at me!” “Then come and get them.” “Bring them over.” “I don’t want to!”
  • 18. Tracking dialogue To help students track dialogue, try giving them pictures of the characters to point to as they read Meg dragged the tent out of the car. Justin pulled out the tent stakes. “Give that to me!” Justin said. He grabbed for the tent. “I can do it!” Meg said back. She pulled on her side of the tent. “You do one side, and I’ll do the other,” Justin grumbled. “Here are five tent stakes for you.” “Don’t just throw them at me!” “Then come and get them.” “Bring them over.” “I don’t want to!”
  • 19. Tracking dialogue If you are working with a photocopied text, you can highlight different characters’ dialogue with different colors
  • 20. Text-based inferences The chicken said, “Who stole my Halloween candy?” “Not me,” said the sheep. “Then why do you have a candy wrapper in your hand?” “Um…well….” “I knew it was you! Hand it over!” You can use puppets to act out dialogue
  • 21. Text-based inferences The chicken said, “Who stole my Halloween candy?” “Not me,” said the sheep. “Then why do you have a candy wrapper in your hand?” “Um…well….” “I knew it was you! Hand it over!”
  • 22. What have you learned? What have you learned about text-based inferences? What might help you in the classroom?
  • 23. Reader-based inferences Reader-based inferences depend on a reader’s background knowledge of the world What season is it in this picture? How do you know?
  • 24. Reader-based inferences It’s easy to see how students can have trouble with these inferences. If their background knowledge is lacking, or if they have different experiences than the author does, they may not make the expected inference
  • 25. Reader-based inferences As you work with students, always ask: What were the text clues that made you think this? How did you use your background knowledge?
  • 26. Character Inferences Some important reader-based inferences involve characters— their traits, their emotions, their motives, what they will do next
  • 27. Character Inferences Character emotion skits can help students to see how they use text clues to infer emotions
  • 28. Character Inferences Students can also practice writing dialogue to show character traits. When they do this, they realize how much a reader can learn from dialogue!
  • 29. Inferences and Visualizing Visualizing is a kind of inference…authors never tell all of the details needed to create a visual image
  • 30. Inferences and Visualizing For students who are having trouble with making inferences, visualizing is a good place to start Dalton and his mom walked down the path. Dalton stared around him. A monkey screeched from a cage. A sign with pictures of different animals and arrows loomed in front of them. “Where shall we start?” asked Mom. Dalton didn’t know. It all looked like fun!
  • 31. Inferences and Visualizing For students who are having trouble with making inferences, visualizing is a good place to start Dalton and his mom walked down the path. Dalton stared around him. A monkey screeched from a cage. A sign with pictures of different animals and arrows loomed in front of them. “Where shall we start?” asked Mom. Dalton didn’t know. It all looked like fun! Where is Dalton? How did you know?
  • 32. Inferences and Visualizing For students who are having trouble with making inferences, visualizing is a good place to start Dalton and his mom walked down the path. Dalton stared around him. A monkey screeched from a cage. A sign with pictures of different animals and arrows loomed in front of them. “Where shall we start?” asked Mom. Dalton didn’t know. It all looked like fun! What else might Dalton see or do?
  • 33. Inferences and Visualizing You can see how a mental image gives a reader new information to use to make inferences To find out if kids are visualizing, you can try a quick visualizing assessment. Simply give kids a descriptive passage, and have them sketch what they visualize.
  • 34. Inferences and Visualizing From The Forest and the Trees by Emily Kissner
  • 35. Inferences and Visualizing Unexpected detail
  • 36. Inferences and Visualizing Which picture shows a better understanding of the text? Which pulls on background knowledge?
  • 37. Improving Visualizing • Use stories with a pay-off for visualizing • Work with readers to cope with texts that have no pictures • Look for unexpected or critical details…like the shiny doorbell, these are often big signals of what is important
  • 38. Animating the Process We’ve looked at text-based inferences and reader-based inferences…but the real key to inference success is within the reader
  • 39. Animating the Process A student can know all about HOW to make inferences…but still NOT actually make them
  • 40. Questions lead to inferences Every teacher struggles with students who seem to understand how to make inferences, but does not actually do so
  • 41. Questions lead to inferences Giving students opportunities to ask questions and speculate on answers is a way to build curiosity
  • 42. Looking at photographs Share photos with your students…either from your own collection or another source
  • 43. Old Documents Old documents are another way to stimulate curiosity and get kids making inferences…in spite of themselves!
  • 44. Old Documents PDF versions of old documents are available from a variety of sources, including the National Archives But real documents do have a special appeal. Old letters and scrapbook pages are also good sources!
  • 45. Making Inferences: A Quick Guide
  • 46. Making meaning At the end of the day, making inferences is all about making meaning from text By helping students to understand text- based inferences, reader-based inferences, and visualizing, we can help them to build meaning
  • 47. Making meaning More resources can be found at my blog: http://emilykissner.blogspot.com Classroom-ready assessments and tools can be found in my book The Forest AND The Trees: Helping Readers Identify Details in Texts and Tests