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Response to Literature
 through Inferencing
Character Inference
           Points
• Character Analysis—take actions, thoughts, spoken words,
  interactions with other characters, and draw conclusion
  about the character’s
   – Feelings
   – Values
   – Beliefs
   – Personality
   – Experiences
   – Likes/Dislikes
   – Motivations
   – Wisdom about people/life
Making Inferences
• Authors can’t tell you everything they want you to
  know about the story
• You have to use clues from the text and draw own
  conclusions/inferences
• Your conclusions/inferences are your own
  thoughts not stated in the text
• Inference = text clues (actions, thoughts, spoken
  words, interactions with other characters) + your
  background knowledge
Characterization
1. Author tells us
   Ex. Kino felt weak and afraid and angry.
2. How a character acts
   Ex. When the doctor discovered where Kino hid
   his pearl, Kino wisely waited until the doctor
   left. Then, he dug another hole in the dirt floor
   so no one would find it.
   This act show that Kino was a wise man.
Characterization
3.   Character’s thoughts or words
     Ex. Kino says that because of the pearl Juana will have a
     new shawl and skirt while Coyotito will go to school.
     This indicates that Kino is a good man and loves his
     family.
4.   Reaction of others
     Ex. When Kino found the great pearl, men said of him
     that his eyes shone and that he had become “a great
     man.”
     From those words you can tell that people thought well of
     him.
Justifying/Commentary
1.    Compare events/thoughts/actions/etc. in
      the story to your own life:
     a. What did you think/feel/want
     b. Why did you think/feel/want what you did?
     c. ** Remember to not use “I”, “me”, “my”, etc.
Justifying/Commentary
2. Compare events/thoughts/action etc. from the
    story to wisdom from others.
    a. Think of fables/parables or other stories
    you’ve been with obvious lessons about life that
    match your inference/thesis
    b. Weave those lessons about life into your
    justification
Justifying/Commentary
3. Use a definition to support your inference/thesis.
    a. Define word used to describe character
    b. Explain how the actions, thoughts, feelings,
    etc. of the character match the definition
Justifying/Commentary
                            In General
a.    Put yourself in character’s situation
b.    What do you think they would feel/think/want if they
      could control their situation and make it better
c.    What makes the character feel/think/want that way
d.    What do you think the character
      realizes/recognizes/wants/will do in the future
Explicit Example
• The Bear and the Travelers
  – Characters: Traveler 1, Traveler 2, Bear
  – Conflict: Bear appears as two people are walking down a
    road
  – Plot: Traveler 1 hops up a tree and leaves the other to
    fend for himself
  – Traveler 2 pretends to be dead
  – Bear leaves traveler 2 alone—thinks he’s dead, whispers
    advice in his ear.
The Bear and the
         Travelers
Two travelers were on the road together, when a bear
suddenly appeared on the scene. Before he observed them,
one made for a tree at the side of the road, and climbed up
into the branches and hid there. The other was not so
nimble as his companion; and, as he could not escape, he
threw himself on the ground and pretended to be dead. The
bear came up and sniffed all round him, but he kept
perfectly still and held his breath; for they say that a bear
will not touch a dead body. The bear took him for a corpse,
and went away. When the coast was clear, the traveler in
the tree came down, and asked the other what it was the
bear has whispered to him when he put his mouth to his ear.
 The other replied, “he told me never again to travel with a
friend who deserts you at the first sign of danger.’
Text                  Background                Inference
                               Knowledge
“ . . .one made for a     Got caught down the      Traveler 1 is selfish,
tree on the side of       hill doing something     because he didn’t stay
the road . . . and hid    bad—friends took off     behind to help/check
there.”                   and left me alone to     on his buddy.
                          suffer in isolation
“ . . .not as nimble as   When people take         Traveler 2 is pretty
his companion . . .       care of themselves       clever and is self-
threw himself on the      and don’t get help       reliant—but probably
ground and pretended      from others they’re      isn’t too trusting of
to be dead.”              independent—by           traveler 1 now.
                          weary

“He told me to never      I’ve had relationships   Traveler 2 will be
                          that breakdown when      skeptical of Traveler
travel with a friend
                          difficulties arise.      1. He’ll feel proud of
who deserts you at
                          Once people abandon      himself for escaping
the first sign of         you once, they usually   danger but may
trouble.”
Phase I--Response to
   Literature Paragraph
• Sentence 1 & 2—Introduce short story
• Sentence 3—Inference about
  character=Thesis
• Sentence 4—Quote that inspired
  inference
• Sentence 5 & 6—Justification of how the
  quote illustrates the inference
• Sentence 7—Conclusion—restatement of
  inference
Example Paragraph
     The fable, “The Bear and Travelers” by Aesop tells the
story of two people on a journey who encounter a bear. As
the two men deal with their life threatening situation, their
friendship is tested. Traveler 2 experiences abandonment
by Traveler 1 and realizes he has made an unwise choice in
his friendship. For example, when the bear leaves the
travelers, the first traveler wonders what the bear said to
him, Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a
friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.”
Traveler 2 realizes that he must take care of himself and
he can’t count on Traveler 1 helping him out. When friends
are in danger, they usually work together to get out of their
problem. Traveler 1 abandoned him at the first sign of
danger , so he is most likely to abandon him again if another
troubling situation arises. Traveler 2 knows the best
predictor for future behavior is past behavior and now
knows that Traveler 1 was a poor choice in friends.
Justifications
1.   Compare events/thoughts/action in story to own life
     Example:
        Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and
     realizes he has made an unwise choice in his freindship.
     For example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the
     first traveler wonders what the bear said to him.
     Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a
     friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.”
     Those who abandon friends in need once will most likely
     repeat that behavior. Nothing is worse than having to
     confront danger alone when there is an expectation of
     support. If people are untrustworthy once, they will most
     likely disappoint again.
Justifications
2. Use a definition or examples/non-examples to support your
     inference/thesis
     Example:
        Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and
     realizes he has made an unwise choice in his friendship.
     For example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the
     first traveler wonders what the bear said to him,
     Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a
     friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.”
     Traveler 1 realizes that Traveler 2 is not a friend.
     Friends support each other in times of trouble. A true
     friend will take control, abandon control, make decisions,
     and guide their friend in need into a place of safety and
     security.
Justifications
3. Compare events/thoughts/actions/etc. from the story to
     wisdom from others.
     Example:
        Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and
     realizes he has made an unwise choice in his friendship.
     For example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the
     first traveler wonders what the bear said to him,
     Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a
     friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.” As
     the saying goes, a friend in need is a friend indeed. This
     old saying defines friendship as a role of service to fellow
     man. Traveler 2 abandoning Traveler 1 defies the spirit
     of friendship. Knowing that Traveler 2 walks away from
     the responsibilities of friendship, Traveler 1 will know not
     to count on him again.
Types of Problems with
Response to Lit Paragraphs
1. Generic justification
2. Justification is off topic
3. Justification is really a concrete detail
4. Justification is repetitious
5. Justification contradicts topic sentence
Justification is Really Just
          a Detail
   Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and
realized he has made an unwise choice in his friendship. For
example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the first
traveler wonders what the bear said to him. Traveler 2
replies, “He told me to never travel with a friend who
deserts you at the first sign of trouble.” The first traveler
just jumped up a tree and never looked out for his friend.
Thank goodness the other friend found a tree to jump into.
Justification Drifts from
  the Topic Sentence
   Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1
and realized he has made an unwise choice in his
friendship. For example, when the bear leaves the
travelers, the first traveler wonders wheat the bear
said to him. Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never
travel with a friend who deserts you at the first sign
of trouble.” Traveling can be dangerous. It’s always
good to keep track of dangers.
Generic Justification

   Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by
Traveler 1 and realized he has made an unwise
choice in his friendship. For example, when the
bear leaves the travelers, the first traveler
wonders what the bear said to him. Traveler 2
replies, “He told me to never travel with a friend
who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.”
Traveler 2 has to make better friends. He is not
good at friend choosing.
Justification is Repetitious
   Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1
and realized he has made an unwise choice in his
friendship. For example, when the bear leaves the
travelers, the first traveler wonders what the bear
said to him. Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never
travel with a friend who deserts you at the first sign
of trouble.” The bear told the second traveler to not
choose friends who are deserters. The first traveler
did abandon him.
Justification Contradicts
     Topic Sentence
   Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and
realized he has made an unwise choice in his friendship. For
example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the first
traveler wonders what the bear said to him. Traveler 2
replies, “He told me to never travel with a friend who
deserts you at the first sign of trouble.” However, the
friend didn’t exactly abandon him. He was in the tree near
where the first traveler pretended to be dead. He didn’t
actually leave him.
Thank You, Ma’am
    By Langston Hughes
She was a large woman with a large purse that had
everything in it but a hammer and nails. It had a long
strap, and she carried it slung across her shoulder. It
was about eleven o’clock at night, dark and she was
walking alone, when a boy ran up behind her and tried to
snatch her purse. The strap broke with the sudden
single tug the boy gave it from behind. But the boy’s
weight and the weight of the purse combined caused him
to lose his balance. Instead of taking off full blast as he
had hoped, the boy fell on his back on the sidewalk and
his legs flew up, right square in his blue-jeaned sitter.
Then she reached down, picked the boy up by his shirt
front, and shook him until his teeth rattled.
After that the woman said, “Pick up my pocketbook, boy and
  give it here.”

She still held him tightly. But she bent down enough to permit
  him to stoop and pick up her purse. Then she said, “Now ain’t
  you ashamed of yourself?”

Firmly gripped by his shirt front, the boy said, “Yes’m.”

The woman said, “what did you want to do it for?”

The boy said, “I didn’t aim to.”

She said, “You a lie!”
By that time two or three people passed, stopped, turned to
   look, and some stood watching.
“If I turn you loose, will you run?” asked the woman.
“Yes’m,” said the boy.
“Then I won’t turn you loose,” said the woman. She did not
  release him.
“Lady, I’m sorry,” whispered the boy.
“Um-hum!” Your face is dirty. I got a great mind to wash your
  face for you. Ain’t you got nobody to tell you to wash your
  face?”
“No’m,” said the boy.
“Then it will get washed this evening,” said the large woman,
  starting up the street, dragging the frightened boy behind
  her.
He looked as if he were fourteen or fifteen, frail and willow-
  wild, in tennis shoes and blue jeans.
The woman said, “You ought to be my son. I would teach you
  right from wrong. Least I can do right now is to wash your
  face. Are you hungry?”
“No’m,” said the being-dragged boy. “I just want you to turn
  me loose.”
“Was I bothering you when I turned that corner?” asked the
  woman.
“No’m.”
“But you put yourself in contact with me,” said the woman. “If
   you think that that contact is not going to last awhile, you
   got another thought coming. When I get through with you,
   sir, you are going to remember Mrs. Luella Bates Washington
   Jones.”
Sweat popped out on the boy’s face and he began to struggle.
   Mrs. Jones stopped, jerked around in front of her, put a half
   nelson about his neck, and continued to drag him up the
   street. When she got to her door, she dragged the boy
   inside, down a hall, and into a large kitchenette-furnished
   room at the rear of the house. She switched on the light
   and left the door open. The boy could hear other roomers
   laughing and talking in the large house. Some of their doors
   were open, too, so he knew he and the woman were not alone.
    The woman still had him by the neck in the middle of her
   room.
She said, “What is your name?”
“Roger,” answered the boy.
“Then, Roger, you go to that sink and wash your
  face,” said the woman, whereupon she turned him
  loose -- at last. Roger looked at the door -- looked
  at the woman -- looked at the door -- and went to
  the sink.
“let the water run until it gets warm,” she said.
   “Here’s a clean towel.”
‘You gonna take me to Jail?” asked the boy, bending
   over the sink.
“Not with that face. I would not take you nowhere,”
  said the woman. “here I am trying to get home to
  cook me a bite to eat, and you snatch my
  pocketbook! Maybe you ain’t been to your supper
  either, late as it be. Have you?”
“There’s nobody home at my house,” said the boy.
“Then we’ll eat,” said the woman. “I believe you’re
  hungry -- or been hungry -- to try to snatch my
  pocketbook!”
“I want a pair of blue suede shoes,” said the boy.
“Well, you didn’t have to snatch my pocketbook to
  get some suede shoes,” said Mrs. Luella Bates
  Washington Jones. ‘You could of asked me.”
“Ma’am?”
The water dripping from his face, the boy looked at
  her. There was a long pause. A very long pause.
  After he had dried his face and not knowing what
  else to do, dried it again, the boy turned around,
  wondering what next. The door was open. He could
  make a dash for it down the hall. He could run,
  run, run!
The woman was sitting on the day bed. After a while she said,
  “I were young once and I wanted things I could not get.”

There was another long pause. The boy’s mouth opened. Then
  he frowned, not knowing he frowned.

The woman said, “Um-hum! You thought I was going to say but
  didn’t you? You thought I was going to say, but I didn’t
  people’s pocketbooks. Well, I wasn’t going to say that.”
  Pause. Silence. “I have done things too, which I would not
  tell you, son, neither tell God, if He didn’t already know.
  Everybody’s got something in common. So you set down while
  I fix us something to eat. You might run that comb through
  your hair so you will look presentable.
In another corner of the room behind a screen was a gas plate
   and an icebox. Mrs. Jones got up and went behind the
   screen. The woman did not watch the boy to see if he was
   going to run now, nor did she watch her purse, which she left
   behind her on the day bed. But the boy took care to sit on
   the far side of the room, away from the purse, where he
   thought she could easily see him out of the corenr of her
   eye if she wanted to. He did not trust the woman not to
   trust him. And he did not want to be mistrusted now.

“Do you need somebody to got to the store,” asked the boy,
  “maybe to get some milk or something?”
“Don’t believe I do,” said the woman, “unless you just want
  sweet milk yourself. I was going to make cocoa out of this
  canned milk I got here.”

“That will be fine,” said the boy.

She heated some lima beans and ham she had in the icebox,
  made the cocoa, and set the table. The woman did not ask
  the boy anything about where he lived, or his folks, or
  anything else that would embarrass him. Instead, as they
  ate, she told him about her job in a hotel beauty shop that
  stayed open late, what the work was like, and how all kinds of
  women came in and out, blondes, redheads, and brunettes.
  Then she cut him a half of her ten-cent cake.
“Eat some more, son,” she said.
When they were finished eating, she got up
 and said, “Now here, take this ten dollars
 and buy yourself some blue suede shoes.
 And next time, do not make the mistake of
 latching onto my pocketbook nor nobody
 else’s -- because shoes got by devilish ways
 will burn your feet. I got to get my rest
 now. But from here on in, son. I hope you
 will behave yourself.”
She led him down the hall to the front door
 and opened it. “Good night! Behave
 yourself, boy!” she said, looking out into the
 street as he went down the steps.
The boy wanted to say something other than,
 “Thank you, ma’am,” to Mrs. Luella Bates
 Washington Jones, but although his lips
 moved, he couldn’t even say that as he
 turned at the foot of the barren stoop and
 looked up at the large woman in the door.
 Then she shut the door.
Literary Analysis Essay
• Introduction
  – Title, Author, Character Setting
  – Very Brief Summary —include conflict
  – Character analysis thesis statement
     • Idea that weaves essay together
  – Transition to 2nd Paragraph
Body Paragraph 1
• Sentence 1—Inference about character/Topic
  sentence
• Sentence 2—Quote 1 that inspired inference
• Sentence 3 & 4—Justification of how the quote
  illustrates the inference
• Sentence 5—Transition + Quote 2 that inspired
  inference
• Sentence 6 & 7—Justification of how the quote
  illustrates the inference
• Sentence 8—Conclusion—restatement of
  inference and transition to inference #2
Body Paragraph 2
• Sentence 1—Inference about character/Topic
  sentence
• Sentence 2—Quote 1 that inspired inference
• Sentence 3 & 4—Justification of how the quote
  illustrates the inference
• Sentence 5—Transition + Quote 2 that inspired
  inference
• Sentence 6 & 7—Justification of how the quote
  illustrates the inference
• Sentence 8—Conclusion—restatement of
  inference & transition to inference #3
Body Paragraph 3
• Sentence 1—Inference about character/Topic
  sentence
• Sentence 2—Quote 1 that inspired inference
• Sentence 3 & 4—Justification of how the quote
  illustrates the inference
• Sentence 5—Transition + Quote 2 that inspired
  inference
• Sentence 6 & 7—Justification of how the quote
  illustrates the inference
• Sentence 8—Conclusion—restatement of
  inference
Conclusion Paragraph
• Restate Thesis (in different words)
• How the character changes
• Commentary—on what the character
  learned from experiences in the story
• Concluding thought—insightful statement
Character Analysis
    Thank You Ma’am
    The story, “Thank You Ma’am” by Langston
Hughes takes the reader on a mystifying
encounter with a woman, Luella Bates Washington
Jones, who was almost robbed. Instead of
running away from her would-be purse snatcher,
she confronted him and taught him a lesson he
won’t soon forget. Through her bravery,
compassion, and desire for reconciliation Luella
Bates was able to make a formidable impression
on an adolescent street child, Roger.
As the story begins, Ms. Jones shows tremendous
bravery when her purse is snatched by Roger. Unfortunately
for Roger, he stumbles in his attempt to steal the purse.
“Then she reached down, picked the boy up by his shirt
front, and shook him until his teeth rattled (pg.1)” Most
people would be so shaken up by the experience of an
attempted robbery, they would run away at the first
opportunity, Ms. Jones didn’t run. She courageously stays
put and confronts her attacker despite the possibility of
physical harm. Once she grabs him she asks, “Now ain’t you
ashamed of yourself? . . . What did you want to do it for?
(pg.1)” Through her fear and rush of adrenaline, Ms. Jones
wants her questions answered. She’s not afraid to use
physical intimidation to get the answers she desires.
Ms.Jones’s bravery and insistence on gaining information
brings a change in her heart for the young boy, Roger.
As Ms. Jones gets to know more about Roger and his
motives for robbery, she begins to build a bridge of
compassion between herself and the boy. As Ms. Jones is
questioning the boy, she notices his dirty face, “Ain’t you got
nobody to tell you to wash you face . . . Then it will be
washed this evening (pg.2)”. Through her questioning, Ms.
Jones realizes that Roger is not cared for by an adult at
home. She understands that he is left to take care of
himself and know the pain of having to fend for oneself at
such a young age. She tells him, “I were young once and
wanted things I could not get (pg.3)”. Instead of scolding
the boy and telling him to get a job, she recalls her pain and
feels a change in her heart for the boy knowing the sadness
and struggle he must also endure. Knowing the pain of
another human led Ms. Jones to understand Roger’s
motivation and caused her to remember her own youthful
indiscretions.
Once Ms. Jones recalls the tinge of her own past
actions, she want to reconcile. Ms. Jones confesses to
Roger, “I’ve done things too, which I would not tell you, son,
neither tell God, if He didn’t already know (pg.3).” She feels
the guilt of past bad deeds. She knows she can’t take them
away, but perhaps she can take action to make up for those
prior acts. As Ms. Jones is recalling her past actions, she
does several surprising things, she no longer watches Roger,
she leaves her purse in plain sight of him, feeds him dinner,
and most surprisingly when Roger is leaving says, “Now here
take this ten dollars and buy yourself some blue suede shoes
(pg.4)”. Ms. Jones gives him money to make up for past
mistakes. Through this act, Ms. Jones hopes to influence
Roger to find better ways to get what he desires and he also
hopes it heals past guilt for poor choices in the past. Ms.
Jones sends Roger on his way with much to consider as he
goes to buy his new shoes.
The actions of Ms. Luella Bates Washington Jones
may puzzle readers at first. Why, would a person who
was almost robbed, end up giving her robber money? It
is not the natural tendency in our eye-for-an-eye
mentality of a world. Through Ms. Jones’s puzzling
actions, she helps the reader understand the pain of
poverty, the desire to fit in, and the gift of
compassion. Through taking the time to understand
the motivation of “devilish ways”, people can show
compassion. This connection to others can lead to an
opportunity to teach them wisdom of their own
mistakes. If people took the opportunity to reach out
to others compassionately, imagine the comfort people
would feel knowing others have experienced their pain.

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Making inferences

  • 1. Response to Literature through Inferencing
  • 2. Character Inference Points • Character Analysis—take actions, thoughts, spoken words, interactions with other characters, and draw conclusion about the character’s – Feelings – Values – Beliefs – Personality – Experiences – Likes/Dislikes – Motivations – Wisdom about people/life
  • 3. Making Inferences • Authors can’t tell you everything they want you to know about the story • You have to use clues from the text and draw own conclusions/inferences • Your conclusions/inferences are your own thoughts not stated in the text • Inference = text clues (actions, thoughts, spoken words, interactions with other characters) + your background knowledge
  • 4. Characterization 1. Author tells us Ex. Kino felt weak and afraid and angry. 2. How a character acts Ex. When the doctor discovered where Kino hid his pearl, Kino wisely waited until the doctor left. Then, he dug another hole in the dirt floor so no one would find it. This act show that Kino was a wise man.
  • 5. Characterization 3. Character’s thoughts or words Ex. Kino says that because of the pearl Juana will have a new shawl and skirt while Coyotito will go to school. This indicates that Kino is a good man and loves his family. 4. Reaction of others Ex. When Kino found the great pearl, men said of him that his eyes shone and that he had become “a great man.” From those words you can tell that people thought well of him.
  • 6. Justifying/Commentary 1. Compare events/thoughts/actions/etc. in the story to your own life: a. What did you think/feel/want b. Why did you think/feel/want what you did? c. ** Remember to not use “I”, “me”, “my”, etc.
  • 7. Justifying/Commentary 2. Compare events/thoughts/action etc. from the story to wisdom from others. a. Think of fables/parables or other stories you’ve been with obvious lessons about life that match your inference/thesis b. Weave those lessons about life into your justification
  • 8. Justifying/Commentary 3. Use a definition to support your inference/thesis. a. Define word used to describe character b. Explain how the actions, thoughts, feelings, etc. of the character match the definition
  • 9. Justifying/Commentary In General a. Put yourself in character’s situation b. What do you think they would feel/think/want if they could control their situation and make it better c. What makes the character feel/think/want that way d. What do you think the character realizes/recognizes/wants/will do in the future
  • 10. Explicit Example • The Bear and the Travelers – Characters: Traveler 1, Traveler 2, Bear – Conflict: Bear appears as two people are walking down a road – Plot: Traveler 1 hops up a tree and leaves the other to fend for himself – Traveler 2 pretends to be dead – Bear leaves traveler 2 alone—thinks he’s dead, whispers advice in his ear.
  • 11. The Bear and the Travelers Two travelers were on the road together, when a bear suddenly appeared on the scene. Before he observed them, one made for a tree at the side of the road, and climbed up into the branches and hid there. The other was not so nimble as his companion; and, as he could not escape, he threw himself on the ground and pretended to be dead. The bear came up and sniffed all round him, but he kept perfectly still and held his breath; for they say that a bear will not touch a dead body. The bear took him for a corpse, and went away. When the coast was clear, the traveler in the tree came down, and asked the other what it was the bear has whispered to him when he put his mouth to his ear. The other replied, “he told me never again to travel with a friend who deserts you at the first sign of danger.’
  • 12. Text Background Inference Knowledge “ . . .one made for a Got caught down the Traveler 1 is selfish, tree on the side of hill doing something because he didn’t stay the road . . . and hid bad—friends took off behind to help/check there.” and left me alone to on his buddy. suffer in isolation “ . . .not as nimble as When people take Traveler 2 is pretty his companion . . . care of themselves clever and is self- threw himself on the and don’t get help reliant—but probably ground and pretended from others they’re isn’t too trusting of to be dead.” independent—by traveler 1 now. weary “He told me to never I’ve had relationships Traveler 2 will be that breakdown when skeptical of Traveler travel with a friend difficulties arise. 1. He’ll feel proud of who deserts you at Once people abandon himself for escaping the first sign of you once, they usually danger but may trouble.”
  • 13. Phase I--Response to Literature Paragraph • Sentence 1 & 2—Introduce short story • Sentence 3—Inference about character=Thesis • Sentence 4—Quote that inspired inference • Sentence 5 & 6—Justification of how the quote illustrates the inference • Sentence 7—Conclusion—restatement of inference
  • 14. Example Paragraph The fable, “The Bear and Travelers” by Aesop tells the story of two people on a journey who encounter a bear. As the two men deal with their life threatening situation, their friendship is tested. Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and realizes he has made an unwise choice in his friendship. For example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the first traveler wonders what the bear said to him, Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.” Traveler 2 realizes that he must take care of himself and he can’t count on Traveler 1 helping him out. When friends are in danger, they usually work together to get out of their problem. Traveler 1 abandoned him at the first sign of danger , so he is most likely to abandon him again if another troubling situation arises. Traveler 2 knows the best predictor for future behavior is past behavior and now knows that Traveler 1 was a poor choice in friends.
  • 15. Justifications 1. Compare events/thoughts/action in story to own life Example: Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and realizes he has made an unwise choice in his freindship. For example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the first traveler wonders what the bear said to him. Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.” Those who abandon friends in need once will most likely repeat that behavior. Nothing is worse than having to confront danger alone when there is an expectation of support. If people are untrustworthy once, they will most likely disappoint again.
  • 16. Justifications 2. Use a definition or examples/non-examples to support your inference/thesis Example: Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and realizes he has made an unwise choice in his friendship. For example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the first traveler wonders what the bear said to him, Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.” Traveler 1 realizes that Traveler 2 is not a friend. Friends support each other in times of trouble. A true friend will take control, abandon control, make decisions, and guide their friend in need into a place of safety and security.
  • 17. Justifications 3. Compare events/thoughts/actions/etc. from the story to wisdom from others. Example: Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and realizes he has made an unwise choice in his friendship. For example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the first traveler wonders what the bear said to him, Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.” As the saying goes, a friend in need is a friend indeed. This old saying defines friendship as a role of service to fellow man. Traveler 2 abandoning Traveler 1 defies the spirit of friendship. Knowing that Traveler 2 walks away from the responsibilities of friendship, Traveler 1 will know not to count on him again.
  • 18. Types of Problems with Response to Lit Paragraphs 1. Generic justification 2. Justification is off topic 3. Justification is really a concrete detail 4. Justification is repetitious 5. Justification contradicts topic sentence
  • 19. Justification is Really Just a Detail Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and realized he has made an unwise choice in his friendship. For example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the first traveler wonders what the bear said to him. Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.” The first traveler just jumped up a tree and never looked out for his friend. Thank goodness the other friend found a tree to jump into.
  • 20. Justification Drifts from the Topic Sentence Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and realized he has made an unwise choice in his friendship. For example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the first traveler wonders wheat the bear said to him. Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.” Traveling can be dangerous. It’s always good to keep track of dangers.
  • 21. Generic Justification Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and realized he has made an unwise choice in his friendship. For example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the first traveler wonders what the bear said to him. Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.” Traveler 2 has to make better friends. He is not good at friend choosing.
  • 22. Justification is Repetitious Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and realized he has made an unwise choice in his friendship. For example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the first traveler wonders what the bear said to him. Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.” The bear told the second traveler to not choose friends who are deserters. The first traveler did abandon him.
  • 23. Justification Contradicts Topic Sentence Traveler 2 experiences abandonment by Traveler 1 and realized he has made an unwise choice in his friendship. For example, when the bear leaves the travelers, the first traveler wonders what the bear said to him. Traveler 2 replies, “He told me to never travel with a friend who deserts you at the first sign of trouble.” However, the friend didn’t exactly abandon him. He was in the tree near where the first traveler pretended to be dead. He didn’t actually leave him.
  • 24. Thank You, Ma’am By Langston Hughes She was a large woman with a large purse that had everything in it but a hammer and nails. It had a long strap, and she carried it slung across her shoulder. It was about eleven o’clock at night, dark and she was walking alone, when a boy ran up behind her and tried to snatch her purse. The strap broke with the sudden single tug the boy gave it from behind. But the boy’s weight and the weight of the purse combined caused him to lose his balance. Instead of taking off full blast as he had hoped, the boy fell on his back on the sidewalk and his legs flew up, right square in his blue-jeaned sitter. Then she reached down, picked the boy up by his shirt front, and shook him until his teeth rattled.
  • 25. After that the woman said, “Pick up my pocketbook, boy and give it here.” She still held him tightly. But she bent down enough to permit him to stoop and pick up her purse. Then she said, “Now ain’t you ashamed of yourself?” Firmly gripped by his shirt front, the boy said, “Yes’m.” The woman said, “what did you want to do it for?” The boy said, “I didn’t aim to.” She said, “You a lie!”
  • 26. By that time two or three people passed, stopped, turned to look, and some stood watching. “If I turn you loose, will you run?” asked the woman. “Yes’m,” said the boy. “Then I won’t turn you loose,” said the woman. She did not release him. “Lady, I’m sorry,” whispered the boy. “Um-hum!” Your face is dirty. I got a great mind to wash your face for you. Ain’t you got nobody to tell you to wash your face?” “No’m,” said the boy.
  • 27. “Then it will get washed this evening,” said the large woman, starting up the street, dragging the frightened boy behind her. He looked as if he were fourteen or fifteen, frail and willow- wild, in tennis shoes and blue jeans. The woman said, “You ought to be my son. I would teach you right from wrong. Least I can do right now is to wash your face. Are you hungry?” “No’m,” said the being-dragged boy. “I just want you to turn me loose.” “Was I bothering you when I turned that corner?” asked the woman. “No’m.”
  • 28. “But you put yourself in contact with me,” said the woman. “If you think that that contact is not going to last awhile, you got another thought coming. When I get through with you, sir, you are going to remember Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones.” Sweat popped out on the boy’s face and he began to struggle. Mrs. Jones stopped, jerked around in front of her, put a half nelson about his neck, and continued to drag him up the street. When she got to her door, she dragged the boy inside, down a hall, and into a large kitchenette-furnished room at the rear of the house. She switched on the light and left the door open. The boy could hear other roomers laughing and talking in the large house. Some of their doors were open, too, so he knew he and the woman were not alone. The woman still had him by the neck in the middle of her room.
  • 29. She said, “What is your name?” “Roger,” answered the boy. “Then, Roger, you go to that sink and wash your face,” said the woman, whereupon she turned him loose -- at last. Roger looked at the door -- looked at the woman -- looked at the door -- and went to the sink. “let the water run until it gets warm,” she said. “Here’s a clean towel.” ‘You gonna take me to Jail?” asked the boy, bending over the sink.
  • 30. “Not with that face. I would not take you nowhere,” said the woman. “here I am trying to get home to cook me a bite to eat, and you snatch my pocketbook! Maybe you ain’t been to your supper either, late as it be. Have you?” “There’s nobody home at my house,” said the boy. “Then we’ll eat,” said the woman. “I believe you’re hungry -- or been hungry -- to try to snatch my pocketbook!” “I want a pair of blue suede shoes,” said the boy.
  • 31. “Well, you didn’t have to snatch my pocketbook to get some suede shoes,” said Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones. ‘You could of asked me.” “Ma’am?” The water dripping from his face, the boy looked at her. There was a long pause. A very long pause. After he had dried his face and not knowing what else to do, dried it again, the boy turned around, wondering what next. The door was open. He could make a dash for it down the hall. He could run, run, run!
  • 32. The woman was sitting on the day bed. After a while she said, “I were young once and I wanted things I could not get.” There was another long pause. The boy’s mouth opened. Then he frowned, not knowing he frowned. The woman said, “Um-hum! You thought I was going to say but didn’t you? You thought I was going to say, but I didn’t people’s pocketbooks. Well, I wasn’t going to say that.” Pause. Silence. “I have done things too, which I would not tell you, son, neither tell God, if He didn’t already know. Everybody’s got something in common. So you set down while I fix us something to eat. You might run that comb through your hair so you will look presentable.
  • 33. In another corner of the room behind a screen was a gas plate and an icebox. Mrs. Jones got up and went behind the screen. The woman did not watch the boy to see if he was going to run now, nor did she watch her purse, which she left behind her on the day bed. But the boy took care to sit on the far side of the room, away from the purse, where he thought she could easily see him out of the corenr of her eye if she wanted to. He did not trust the woman not to trust him. And he did not want to be mistrusted now. “Do you need somebody to got to the store,” asked the boy, “maybe to get some milk or something?”
  • 34. “Don’t believe I do,” said the woman, “unless you just want sweet milk yourself. I was going to make cocoa out of this canned milk I got here.” “That will be fine,” said the boy. She heated some lima beans and ham she had in the icebox, made the cocoa, and set the table. The woman did not ask the boy anything about where he lived, or his folks, or anything else that would embarrass him. Instead, as they ate, she told him about her job in a hotel beauty shop that stayed open late, what the work was like, and how all kinds of women came in and out, blondes, redheads, and brunettes. Then she cut him a half of her ten-cent cake.
  • 35. “Eat some more, son,” she said. When they were finished eating, she got up and said, “Now here, take this ten dollars and buy yourself some blue suede shoes. And next time, do not make the mistake of latching onto my pocketbook nor nobody else’s -- because shoes got by devilish ways will burn your feet. I got to get my rest now. But from here on in, son. I hope you will behave yourself.”
  • 36. She led him down the hall to the front door and opened it. “Good night! Behave yourself, boy!” she said, looking out into the street as he went down the steps. The boy wanted to say something other than, “Thank you, ma’am,” to Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones, but although his lips moved, he couldn’t even say that as he turned at the foot of the barren stoop and looked up at the large woman in the door. Then she shut the door.
  • 37. Literary Analysis Essay • Introduction – Title, Author, Character Setting – Very Brief Summary —include conflict – Character analysis thesis statement • Idea that weaves essay together – Transition to 2nd Paragraph
  • 38. Body Paragraph 1 • Sentence 1—Inference about character/Topic sentence • Sentence 2—Quote 1 that inspired inference • Sentence 3 & 4—Justification of how the quote illustrates the inference • Sentence 5—Transition + Quote 2 that inspired inference • Sentence 6 & 7—Justification of how the quote illustrates the inference • Sentence 8—Conclusion—restatement of inference and transition to inference #2
  • 39. Body Paragraph 2 • Sentence 1—Inference about character/Topic sentence • Sentence 2—Quote 1 that inspired inference • Sentence 3 & 4—Justification of how the quote illustrates the inference • Sentence 5—Transition + Quote 2 that inspired inference • Sentence 6 & 7—Justification of how the quote illustrates the inference • Sentence 8—Conclusion—restatement of inference & transition to inference #3
  • 40. Body Paragraph 3 • Sentence 1—Inference about character/Topic sentence • Sentence 2—Quote 1 that inspired inference • Sentence 3 & 4—Justification of how the quote illustrates the inference • Sentence 5—Transition + Quote 2 that inspired inference • Sentence 6 & 7—Justification of how the quote illustrates the inference • Sentence 8—Conclusion—restatement of inference
  • 41. Conclusion Paragraph • Restate Thesis (in different words) • How the character changes • Commentary—on what the character learned from experiences in the story • Concluding thought—insightful statement
  • 42. Character Analysis Thank You Ma’am The story, “Thank You Ma’am” by Langston Hughes takes the reader on a mystifying encounter with a woman, Luella Bates Washington Jones, who was almost robbed. Instead of running away from her would-be purse snatcher, she confronted him and taught him a lesson he won’t soon forget. Through her bravery, compassion, and desire for reconciliation Luella Bates was able to make a formidable impression on an adolescent street child, Roger.
  • 43. As the story begins, Ms. Jones shows tremendous bravery when her purse is snatched by Roger. Unfortunately for Roger, he stumbles in his attempt to steal the purse. “Then she reached down, picked the boy up by his shirt front, and shook him until his teeth rattled (pg.1)” Most people would be so shaken up by the experience of an attempted robbery, they would run away at the first opportunity, Ms. Jones didn’t run. She courageously stays put and confronts her attacker despite the possibility of physical harm. Once she grabs him she asks, “Now ain’t you ashamed of yourself? . . . What did you want to do it for? (pg.1)” Through her fear and rush of adrenaline, Ms. Jones wants her questions answered. She’s not afraid to use physical intimidation to get the answers she desires. Ms.Jones’s bravery and insistence on gaining information brings a change in her heart for the young boy, Roger.
  • 44. As Ms. Jones gets to know more about Roger and his motives for robbery, she begins to build a bridge of compassion between herself and the boy. As Ms. Jones is questioning the boy, she notices his dirty face, “Ain’t you got nobody to tell you to wash you face . . . Then it will be washed this evening (pg.2)”. Through her questioning, Ms. Jones realizes that Roger is not cared for by an adult at home. She understands that he is left to take care of himself and know the pain of having to fend for oneself at such a young age. She tells him, “I were young once and wanted things I could not get (pg.3)”. Instead of scolding the boy and telling him to get a job, she recalls her pain and feels a change in her heart for the boy knowing the sadness and struggle he must also endure. Knowing the pain of another human led Ms. Jones to understand Roger’s motivation and caused her to remember her own youthful indiscretions.
  • 45. Once Ms. Jones recalls the tinge of her own past actions, she want to reconcile. Ms. Jones confesses to Roger, “I’ve done things too, which I would not tell you, son, neither tell God, if He didn’t already know (pg.3).” She feels the guilt of past bad deeds. She knows she can’t take them away, but perhaps she can take action to make up for those prior acts. As Ms. Jones is recalling her past actions, she does several surprising things, she no longer watches Roger, she leaves her purse in plain sight of him, feeds him dinner, and most surprisingly when Roger is leaving says, “Now here take this ten dollars and buy yourself some blue suede shoes (pg.4)”. Ms. Jones gives him money to make up for past mistakes. Through this act, Ms. Jones hopes to influence Roger to find better ways to get what he desires and he also hopes it heals past guilt for poor choices in the past. Ms. Jones sends Roger on his way with much to consider as he goes to buy his new shoes.
  • 46. The actions of Ms. Luella Bates Washington Jones may puzzle readers at first. Why, would a person who was almost robbed, end up giving her robber money? It is not the natural tendency in our eye-for-an-eye mentality of a world. Through Ms. Jones’s puzzling actions, she helps the reader understand the pain of poverty, the desire to fit in, and the gift of compassion. Through taking the time to understand the motivation of “devilish ways”, people can show compassion. This connection to others can lead to an opportunity to teach them wisdom of their own mistakes. If people took the opportunity to reach out to others compassionately, imagine the comfort people would feel knowing others have experienced their pain.