Teaching inference


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making inference, teaching inferencing, inferential strategies, reading comprehension, HOTS,

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Teaching inference

  1. 1. Teaching Inference Ms. Belinda Moore, Literacy Coach HOT
  2. 2. Session Purpose is to: <ul><li>move instruction toward Higher Order Thinking Skills </li></ul><ul><li>focus on one of the most difficult skills for students to learn </li></ul><ul><li>look at best practices </li></ul><ul><li>look at differentiate instruction in the teaching of inference </li></ul><ul><li>broaden our knowledge and share ideas </li></ul>
  3. 3. Teacher Control High Student Activity Low Teacher Control Low Student Activity High Explicit Instruction Modeling Scaffolding Facilitating Participating
  4. 4. <ul><li>If you infer something has happened, you do not see, hear, feel, smell, or taste the actual event, but from what you know, it makes sense to think that it has happened. </li></ul><ul><li>You make inferences everyday, most of the time you do so without thinking about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s try one: You are riding in the car. The car in front of you is moving extremely slow. You move into the next lane and look over. Her window is down and you see her talking, and laughing. Her lips are moving, but there is no music. </li></ul><ul><li>What can you infer? </li></ul>MAKING INFERENCES “READ BETWEEN THE LINES”
  5. 5. <ul><li>Writers often tell you more than they say directly. They give you hints or clues that help you “read between the lines.” Using these clues to get a deeper understanding of your reading is inferring . </li></ul><ul><li>When you infer you go beyond the surface details to see other meanings that the details suggest or imply (not stated). </li></ul><ul><li>Remember : You must find at least one sentence in a paragraph or selection to support your inferences. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Inferences Skilled Readers Use <ul><li>Recognize the antecedents for pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Provide explanations for events or ideas that are presented in the text </li></ul><ul><li>Figure out meaning of unknown words and phrases from context clues </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the author’s view of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Relate what is happening in the text to their own knowledge of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Offer conclusions from facts presented in the text </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Inferences Skilled Readers Use Figurative language Context clues Poetry K - 8 Infer meaning from context After attending law classes during the day, Anita spent long hours at night completing her written assignments and studying for exams. Most of her classmates also burned the midnight oil in order to keep their grades up. English Reading Comprehension (scaffolding) K-8 Recognize the antecedents for pronouns Tom has a dog. His dog is black. Synonyms Antonyms Homonyms K-8 K: Up is to down as Day is to Night Understand relationships Handlebar is to bicycle As steering wheel is to: Instructional Skills Instructional Grades Inference Example:
  8. 8. Comments Teachers Can Make to Help Students Make Certain Types of Inferences <ul><li>“ Look for pronouns and figure out what to connect them to.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Figure out explanations for these events.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Think about the setting and see what details you can add.” </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Think about something that you know about this (insert topic) and see how that fits with what’s in the text.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Comments Teachers Can Make to Help Students Make Certain Types of Inferences <ul><li>“ After you read this section, see if you can explain why the character acted this way.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Look at how the character said (insert a specific quote).  How would you have interpreted what that character said if he had said (change how it was said or stress different words)?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Look for words that you don’t know and see if any of the other words in the sentence or surrounding sentences can give you an idea for what those unknown words mean.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ As you read this section, look for clues that would tell you how the author might feel about (insert a topic or character’s name).”  </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Importance of Strategic Teaching <ul><li>Effective teachers plan and teach strategies and techniques that support students’ reading for understanding. They analyze how every aspect of the lesson will contribute to the instructional goal and select teaching and learning strategies that will enhance student learning. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Teaching Inference Using Picture Books Text + Schema = Inference Clues Print Pictures What I already know about the… What is being said… I can figure it out
  12. 12. Text Question: What do we see? What can we infer about Mom?
  13. 13. Explanation for events presented in text <ul><li>They stood looking at the door and saw it tremble from her beating and throwing herself against it. They heard her muffled cries. Then, smiling, they turned and went out and back down the tunnel, just as the teacher arrived. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Be Kind and Ask Before Using Email: bennie.moore08@gmail.com