• Australia is located in the
and situated south of
Asia, between the Pacific
and the Indian Oceans.
• Australia is a continent, a
country and an island all
at the same time.
• The name "Australia" is
derived from the Latin
word Australis, meaning
“of the South”.
• Located 1,200 miles
southeast of Australia,
New Zealand is an
comprising mainly of
two large islands
(North and South)
which make up 99% of
Australia, New Zealand and Oceania
• Along with
Ocean make up
The Formation of Australia
• The island continent of
Australia was formed
by ancient volcanic
activity, plate tectonics
and continental drift
• Australia became
isolated from other
continents millions of
• As an island, the country is surrounded by oceans on all sides.
• To the west is the Indian Ocean, to the east is the Pacific and
to the south is the frigid Southern Ocean.
• Australia is the earth’s smallest,
• In the east, there is the Great
Dividing Range and in the west
there are ranges of plains and
• The interior consists of very
dry, arid, deserts which makes
up most of the land in the
• The dry interior is more
commonly referred to as
• The climate of Australia varies but
large portions of the country is a
desertlike, arid or semiarid climate.
• Cold waters off the west coast of the
continent cause this because the
colder air it creates holds less
• On the northern and eastern coasts;
however, the Eastern Australian
Current provides warm air and
• These climates are more tropical and
• Towards the south, the climate is temperate
New Zealand Geography
• New Zealand is
somewhat of a physical
• It has sandy beaches,
ancient forests, snow
peaks, rich soil,
and hot springs, winding
rivers, deep lakes,
glaciers and even fjords!
• Because Australia and New
Zealand are in the southern
hemisphere, life is slightly
• For example, the seasons are
the exact opposite of what
we are used to in the U.S.
– Summer: December to
– Autumn: March to May
– Winter: June to August
– Spring: September to
The Coriolis Effect
• The Coriolis Effect is a
created by the spinning
of the earth on it’s axis.
• Wind in the northern
hemisphere deflect one
direction, while in the
south, the wind deflects
in the opposite.
• This effect is most
noticeable in hurricanes.
The Toilet Flush Mystery
• Does the Coriolis Effect
cause toilets and sinks
in Australia to drain
The Toilet Flush Mystery
• The truth is, toilet flushes are not
influenced by the Coriolis Effect.
• The direction in which a drain swirls has to
do with the shape of the drain, and any
motion in the water.
• Most toilets in Australia typically have
larger drains than American toilets, and the
water drains more down the sides rather
than in a swirling motion.
An Ancient Land
• For thousands of
years, forces of
reduced the landscape
of Australia without
building it up.
• As a result, Australia
desert conditions with
constant erosion of the
An Ancient Land
• Additionally, the
ancient and isolated
lands of varied soils
and landscapes have
created unique and
diverse plants and
animals that are
particularly adapted to
the unique and harsh
• Marsupials (over 140
wallabies and koalas,
who can adapt to the
extremely dry, harsh
• Koalas are marsupials
native to Australia.
• The animals are found in
the eastern woodland
areas because their diet
consists mainly of leaves.
• They are sedentary
animals and spend
upwards of 20 hours a
• They may look cute and cuddly,
but the Tasmanian Devil is the
largest, carnivorous marsupial.
• They are highly aggressive,
territorial and competitive when it
comes to food and mates.
• They are even known to eat their
• The Kangaroo is the
symbol of Australia.
• The marsupials give
birth to a live baby the
size of a bean. The
“joey” lives in the pouch
feeding on mother’s
milk until it’s big
enough to be on its
• Kiwis are flightless birds native
to New Zealand.
• The kiwi lay the largest egg in
relation to their body size of any
species of bird in the world.
• Their habitat has been negatively
effected by deforestation and are
• The kiwi is a national symbol of
New Zealand, and the association
is so strong that the term Kiwi is
used internationally as the
nickname for New Zealanders.
• Native to Australia, the
emu is the second largest
living bird in the world next
to the ostrich.
• The are large, flightless
birds that can reach a
height of around 6ft.
• They are known to travel
great distances and sprint
as fast as 30mph when
they need to.
The Duckbilled Platypus
• Perhaps the most interesting and
odd animal native to Australia is
the duckbilled platypus.
• When it was first encountered,
many people thought it was an
elaborate hoax or a joke.
• It is indeed very bizarre looking
with the beak of a duck, beaver
tail and otter feet.
• It is also a monotreme, a type of
mammal that lays eggs.
• Believe it or not, it actually has
spurs on it’s hind legs that are
• Crocodiles have been
around for millions of
• They continue to thrive
because there are no other
• Crocodiles live in rivers,
lakes and billabongs.
• Australian salt water crocs
can reach around 20ft in
length and 3000lbs!
• The largest salt water
crocodile ever held in
captivity was Gomek, at
the St. Augustine Alligator
• Gomek was nearly 18 ft.
long and over 2000 lbs.
• He died in 1997 and was
estimated to be around 80
• Australia is also home to 10
out of the 15 most deadliest
snakes in the world!
The inland taipan is the world’s most deadliest
snake. Luckily no human death has been
reported probably due to the fact that the
snake lives in far, remote areas of Australia.
An Ancient Land
• Not only did plants
and animals adapt to
also had to adapt and
suitable to their
• The Aborigines are the
Australian natives that had
been living there for
thousands of years before
the first Europeans came
to Australia in the 1600’s.
• They arrived there about
40,000 years ago from
southern Asia on canoes,
rafts or land bridges that
have since disappeared.
The First Australians
The First New Zealanders
• It is thought that around
Islanders) settled the
islands of New Zealand
and developed the
unique and original
Maori people that
survive to this day.
• For centuries, the Maori
fended off their enemies
and were known as
• Australia had been happened upon
by many sailors as early as the 1600’s.
• Captain James Cook claimed
Australia and New Zealand for England
in 1769-1770. He was sent to discover
and map out the huge land masses
that many people believed were south
of the equator.
• After news of these unspoiled islands
spread across the far-reaches of the
globe, groups of traders and whalers
were quick to arrive.
Did you know?
• One of the prime reasons for
British colonization of Australia
was to establish a penal colony
• Penal colonies helped alleviate
the overcrowding in British
• For about 80 years, over
165,000 British prisoners were
sent to Australia.
• Many of Australia’s largest
cities were once penal
• Many Australians today trace
their heritage back to the
The Gold Rush
• In 1851 gold was discovered
about 200 miles west of
– Found in New Zealand in
• People rushed to the gold
fields to find their fortunes.
This attracted people from
all over the world.
• Over 350,000 immigrants
came to Australia during the
gold rush, looking to strike it
The Commonwealth of Australia
• In 1907, Australia’s six
independent territories joined
together to become the
Commonwealth of Australia.
• The flag of Australia is the only
one to fly over a whole
continent. The small Union
Jack represents the historical
link with Britain, the large
seven-pointed star represents
the seven States and
Territories, and the small stars
form the Southern Cross – a
prominent feature of the
southern hemisphere night
The Dominion of New Zealand
• For many years, New Zealand was
technically part of Australia before
becoming a separate colony in 1841.
• In 1893 New Zealand was the first
nation in the world to grant all
women the right to vote.
• In 1907, at the request of the New
Zealand Parliament, the King of
England proclaimed New Zealand a
dominion within the British Empire,
reflecting its self-governing status.
Australia and New Zealand Today
• Both Australia and New Zealand are
relatively small countries.
• There are only 22 million inhabitants in
Australia and 4.5 million in New Zealand,
(compared to 300+ million in the USA).
• Both countries are highly urbanized and
85% of the people live in cities.
• Australia’s largest cities are Adelaide,
Melbourne, Brisbane, Sydney and Perth.
• New Zealand’s largest are Auckland,
Wellington and Christchurch.
• Many of New Zealand’s cities are quiet,
uncrowded and pollution free.
Capital of South Australia. A pretty
and industrial city. Population:
Victoria Square Fountain
Capital of Victoria. The
world’s most livable city.
Capital of New South Wales.
Leading industrial city.
St. Maria Cathedral
The Harbour Bridge
Sydney AMP Tower
Capital of Queensland. It is a year-round
vacation place. Population is about
Capital of Western Australia.
One of the best climates in
Canberra is the capital of Australia. It is very young city.
Population is about 320,000 people.
Capitol Hill Canberra Fountain
Largest city of North Island and New
Zealand. Population: 1,400,000
Largest city of South Island.
Oldest city in New Zealand.
Population: 381,000 people.
Capital of New Zealand. One
of the best in the world to
visit. Population: 400,000
• Australia has a diverse culture built by
immigrants much like the United
• 90% of the people can trace their
heritage back to Europe with a vast
majority being of British and Irish
• Aborigines only make up 1%.
• Other nationalities include German,
Italian, Greek, Chinese and
• Australia continues to be a nation of
immigrants. A recent survey showed
that nearly 1 in 5 Australians was born
New Zealand Today
• The majority of New
Zealanders are of British
• 15% of the people are
• Large groups of New
Zealanders are of mixed
British and Maori
• Because of the heavy British
influence, most all Australians
and New Zealanders speak
• Both have their own unique
• Australian English; however, has
a unique accent and a small
number of unique terms to that
of British or American English.
American EnglishAmerican English Australian EnglishAustralian English
hurricanehurricane willy willywilly willy
freewayfreeway main roadmain road
• Australia and New Zealand’s
government is a constitutional
• Technically, both countries are a part
of Great Britain, but are self governing
and act independently (like Canada).
• Australia is a commonwealth while
New Zealand is a dominion (essentially
the same thing).
• They each have their own parliament
and a prime minister; however,
Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of State.
The 1999 Referendum
• In 1999, Australians
voted to remain a
Great Britain rather
than become an
with an elected
president as the head of
state and not the
monarchy of Great
Australia’s States and Territories
• Australia has six states: New
South Wales, Queensland,
South Australia, Tasmania,
Victoria, and Western Australia.
• And two territories: the
Northern Territory and the
Australian Capital Territory
• Each state has its own
parliament and acts as an
independent unit; however, it
can be overridden by the
• Sports in Australia and New
Zealand are very important in
• Most all Australians and Kiwis
participate in some sort of
organized sport activity.
• The most popular sports are
Rugby, Australian Rules
Football, Cricket and Soccer.
• Other popular sports are horse
racing, motocross, and surfing.
• Australia is rich in natural resources.
• Australia has diamonds, lead, zinc,
- also bauxite, coal, copper, gold, iron
• Deposits are far from cities so
mining operations are costly.
• The “Super Pit” is Australia’s largest
open-cut gold mine.
• It is around 3 miles long, 1 mile wide
and over 1,000 ft. deep.
• It is so large that you can see it from
• Because of the poor soil,
agriculture is not a large industry
• Instead, herding livestock such as
sheep and cattle is a much more
important industry in both New
Zealand and Australia.
• In 1998, there were 15x more
livestock than there were
• Australia’s sheep ranching makes
it the largest wool producing
The Great Barrier Reef
• The Great Barrier Reef is the
largest coral reef in the
• It is over 1500 miles long,
stretching along the
northeast coast of Australia.
• It is estimated to be 25
million years old!
• There are over 1800 species
of life on these coral reefs
including fish, plant life,
turtles and many other
Great Barrier Reef From Space
The Great Barrier
Reef is so large
that it can be seen
Uluru (Ayers Rock)
• Uluru is one of Australia's most recognizable natural icons.
• It is the largest exposed rock in the world.
• Many tourists flock to the remote area in the heart of Australia’s Outback
to gaze upon and climb the giant rock.
• Native aborigines believe Uluru is sacred and do not climb the rock.
• They have protested tourists from climbing it due to the cultural and
spiritual significance of it.
Sydney’s Harbour Bridge
• One of the most notable
features in Sydney is the
• It is the world’s widest and
largest steel arch bridge.
• It is over 440 ft. from the
water to the top!
• You can climb to the top of
the bridge and have a
view of Sydney.
Sydney Opera House
• The Sydney Opera
House is probably
one of the most
• It’s unique sail or
shell like design
makes it a marvel of
• Daintree Rainforest in Queensland
is the largest, continuous forest in
• It is home to many thousands of
types of plants and animals
including birds, frogs, reptiles,
marsupials, bats, insects, etc.
• The Daintree Rainforest is
estimated to be 135 million years
old! That makes it the oldest
rainforest on the planet!
• Conservation efforts are being
made to protect this unique and
• You can explore the
rainforest by truck,
boat or skyrail!
• You can even stay
the night in a tree
The 12 Apostles
• The Twelve Apostles is a
collection of limestone stacks
off the coast of Victoria,
• The endless beating of the
waves caused erosion and
thus created this natural
• As the bases continue to
erode away, the “apostles”
are in danger to fall. In 2005,
a 150ft. stack fell into the sea.
• Wallaman Falls in
• It has a single drop
• Tourists flock for the
…and the occasional
New Zealand Points of Interest
• Because of the uniqueness of the
landscape, tourism is big in New Zealand.
• The famous “Lord of the Rings” movies
were made in New Zealand and some of
the sets are still available for tourists to
• Jaw-dropping landscapes of New Zealand
were seen by millions around the world.
In this land of fjords, glaciers, geysers,
rain forests, toothy-edged mountains,
volcanoes, endless miles of unspoiled
beaches and welcoming cities and
towns, it's obvious why tourism is the
country's largest growing industry.
• Much like Native Americans,
Australian Aborigines and
Maoris have suffered greatly
since the arrival of Europeans.
• Their population significantly
dwindled due to disease and
• Today, they make up only a
small portion of the
• The natives suffer from a
higher rate of alcoholism,
crime and poor education.
Aboriginal Land Claims
• The Aborigine people have suffered greatly
since the arrival of the Europeans.
• The Aborigines had survived for thousands of
years off the land.
• When the Europeans came, they declared the
land to be terra nullius or “empty” and took
Aborigine land without making treaties.
• The Europeans took the most fertile land
which was very limited.
• There have been many pleas to return
Aboriginal land, much of which is sacred.
• Recently, some lands have been returned
through legal actions and court cases, the
struggle continues for aboriginal land rights.
Uluru Land Claim
• The Aborigines believe the land
surrounding Uluru is sacred.
• In 1983, the Prime Minister of
Australia promised to hand
back the land to the original
• The government of Australia
signed a 99 year lease to have
access to the land before the
title is officially handed back to
The Stolen Generation
• Between 1909 and 1969,
100,000 mixed-race children
were forcibly taken from their
homes and placed in the care
of white families.
• This was done to promote
• Aborigines angrily call these
children the Stolen Generation.
• Aborigines, themselves, weren't
even considered full citizens
• Similarly to the Aborigines in Australia,
the Maori have also faced much
persecution since the arrival of
• In fact, the Maori fought the British for
control of the land in the New Zealand
Wars, but European technology forced
the Maori to sign treaties that gave up
• In a recent move, seven Maori tribes
signed a historic treaty with the New
Zealand government, a treaty that
compensates them financially for some of
the lands taken during the 19th century.
• Another hot button issue in
Australia is that of whaling.
• Whaling was once a big,
commercial enterprise off
the coast of Australia in the
• Many species of whales
were hunted nearly to the
brink of extinction.
• In 1986, the International
Whaling Commission was
founded and placed a
worldwide ban on whaling.
• The ban on whaling greatly effected
the Japanese fishing economy.
• In Japan, whale meat is a delicacy and
is sold at very high prices.
• Today, the Japanese are allowed to
whale for research purposes only; yet
much of the meat is still packaged
and sold in Japanese fish markets.
• This has outraged many people,
especially environmental groups who
are trying to save the whales.
• Much pressure has been put on the
Australian government to intervene
and stop the whaling.
• Some protests have even become
• One particular group, Sea Shepherd,
use militant tactics.
• They can be seen on the tv Whale
New Zealand and the Ring of Fire
• New Zealand lies at the south-west end of
the Ring of Fire, a vast zone of intense
volcanism and earthquakes.
• As a result, New Zealand is often at the
mercy of mother nature and frequently
experiences earthquakes, tsunamis and
• In 2011, the city of Christchurch was hit by a
magnitude 6.3 earthquake which killed 185
• The shattered city center was boarded up
like a war zone.
• This is the second worst disaster in the
nation’s history. Only a deadly tsunami in
the 1800’s killed more.