Australia: The Land Down Under


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A presentation for 5th grade students in California for their World Fair. Content includes Fast Facts, Geography, Aboriginal Culture, Constitutional Monarchy, Australian Money, History, Australia Day, Bush Rangers, Immigration, Climate, Time & Dates, Landmarks, Flag, Coat of Arms, National Flower, Anthems, Poetry, Forna, Sports, Religion, Music & Art, Famous Aussies, Recreation, Road Trips, Clothing, Food, School Life, Aussie Slang

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  • States 1. New South Wales (Sydney) = 7.2M people 2. Victoria (Melbourne) = 5.5M people 3. Queensland (Brisbane) = 4.5M people 4. Western Australia (Perth) = 2.3M people 5. Tasmania (Hobart) = .5M people Internal Territories 1. Northern Territory (Darwin) = 2.3m people 2. Australian Capital Territory (Canberra) = .4M people 3. Jervis Bay Territory (Jervis Bay Village) = 611 people External Territories (including 6 island territories) 1. Norfolk Island (Kingston) = 2100 people 2. Christmas Island (Flying Fish Cove) =1500 people 3. Australian Antarctic Territory (Mawson Station) = 1000 people 4. Cocos (Keeling) Islands (West Island) = 630 people 5. Coral Sea Islands (Willis Island) = 4 people 6. Ashmore and Cartier Islands (West Islet) = 0 7. Heard Island and McDonal Islands (Atlas Cover) = 0
  • There are 15 Commonwealth Realms in addition to the UK: Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Papua New Guinea, St Christopher and Nevis, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Tuvalu, Barbados, Grenada, Solomon Islands, St Lucia and The Bahamas.
  • The $100 note features world-renowned soprano Dame Nellie Melba (1861–1931), and the distinguished soldier, engineer and administrator General Sir John Monash (1865–1931). The $50 note features Aboriginal writer and inventor David Unaipon (1872–1967), and Australia’s first female parliamentarian, Edith Cowan (1861–1932). The $20 note features the founder of the world’s first aerial medical service (the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia ), the Reverend John Flynn (1880–1951), and Mary Reibey (1777–1855), who arrived in Australia as a convict in 1792 and went on to become a successful shipping magnate and philanthropist. The $10 note features the poets AB "Banjo" Paterson (1864–1941) and Dame Mary Gilmore (1865–1962). This note incorporates micro-printed excerpts of Paterson’s and Gilmore’s work. The $5 note features Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and Parliament House, Canberra , the national capital. (Note that a special centenary issue of the $5 note featured Sir Henry Parkes and Catherine Helen Spence in 2001.) All Australian coins depict Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse, with different images on the reverse of each coin: The $2 coin depicts an Aboriginal tribal elder set against a background of the Southern Cross and native grasstrees. The $1 coin depicts five kangaroos. The 50 cent coin carries the coat of arms of Australia : the six state badges on a central shield supported by a kangaroo and an emu, with a background of golden wattle , Australia's floral emblem . The 20 cent coin carries a platypus , one of only two egg-laying mammals in the world. It has webbed feet and a duck-like bill that it uses to hunt for food along the bottom of streams and rivers. The 10 cent coin features a male lyrebird dancing. A clever mimic, the lyrebird inhabits the dense, damp forests of Australia’s eastern coast. The 5 cent coin depicts an echidna , or spiny anteater, the world’s only other egg-laying mammal.
  • Captain Arthur Phillip and the First Fleet , comprising 11 ships and around 1,350 people, arrived at Botany Bay between 18 and 20 January 1788. However, this area was deemed to be unsuitable for settlement and they moved north to Port Jackson on 26 January 1788, landing at Camp Cove , known as 'cadi' to the Cadigal people. Governor Phillip carried instructions to establish the first British Colony in Australia. The First Fleet was under prepared for the task, and the soil around Sydney Cove was poor. The young colony relied upon both the development of farms around Parramatta , 25 kilometres upstream to the west, and also trading food with local Aboriginal clans. The Second Fleet 's arrival in 1790 provided badly needed food and supplies; however the newly arrived convicts were too ill, with many near to death, to be useful to the colony. The Second Fleet became known as the 'Death Fleet' - 278 of the convicts and crew died on the voyage to Australia, compared to only 48 on the First Fleet. The colony experienced many other difficulties, including the fact that there were many more men than women - around four men for every woman - which caused problems in the settlement for many years.
  • Once a jolly swagman camped by a billabong Under the shade of a coolibah tree, And he sang as he watched and waited till his billy boiled: "You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me." Waltzing Matilda, waltzing Matilda You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me And he sang as he watched and waited till his billy boiled: "You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me." Down came a jumbuck to drink at that billabong. Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him with glee. And he sang as he shoved that jumbuck in his tucker bag: "You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me." Waltzing Matilda, waltzing Matilda "You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me", And he sang as he shoved that jumbuck in his tucker bag: "You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me." Up rode the squatter, mounted on his thoroughbred. Down came the troopers, one, two, three. "Whose [N 1] that jolly jumbuck you've got in your tucker bag? You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me." Waltzing Matilda, waltzing Matilda "You'll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me" "Whose that jolly jumbuck you've got in your tucker bag? You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me." Up jumped the swagman and sprang into the billabong. "You'll never catch me alive", said he. And his ghost may be heard as you pass by that billabong: "You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me." Waltzing Matilda, waltzing Matilda "You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me" And his ghost may be heard as you pass by that billabong: "You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me.“ Glossary The lyrics contain many distinctively Australian English words, some now rarely used outside this song. These include: Waltzing  derived from the German term auf der Walz , which means to travel while working as a craftsman and learn new techniques from other masters before returning home after three years and one day, a custom which is still in use today among carpenters . [20] Matilda  a romantic term for a swagman's bundle. In the Australian bush a man's swag was regarded as a sleeping partner, hence his "Matilda". Swagman   a man who travelled the country looking for work. The swagman's " swag " was a bed roll that bundled his belongings. Billabong   an oxbow lake (a cut-off river bend) found alongside a meandering river. Coolibah tree   a kind of eucalyptus tree which grows near billabongs. Jumbuck   a sheep. [21] Billy   a can for boiling water in, usually 2–3 pints . Tucker bag   a bag for carrying food ("tucker"). Troopers   policemen. Squatter   Australian squatters started as early farmers who raised livestock on land which they did not legally have the right to use; in many cases they later gained legal use of the land even though they did not have full possession, and became wealthy thanks to these large land holdings. The squatter's claim to the land may be as uncertain as the swagman's claim to the jumbuck.
  • Mammals are members of class Mammalia (  / məˈmeɪli.ə / ), air-breathing vertebrate animals characterized by the possession of endothermy , hair , three middle ear bones , and mammary glands functional in mothers with young. Most mammals also possess sweat glands and specialized teeth. Marsupials are an infraclass of mammals living primarily in the Southern Hemisphere; a distinctive characteristic, common to most species, is that the young are carried in a pouch. Well-known marsupials include kangaroos, koalas, possums, opossums, wombats and the Tasmanian devil.
  • Australia: The Land Down Under

    1. 1. AustraliaThe Land Down Under
    2. 2. Fast Facts • OFFICIAL NAME: Commonwealth of Australia • CAPITAL: Canberra • TOTAL AREA: 7,700,000 (6th largest) • POPULATION: 22.5 million people (2011) • HEAD OF STATE: Queen Elizabeth II • PRIME MINISTER: Julia Gillard • GOVERNMENT: Constitutional monarchy • LONGEST RIVER: River Murray , NSW to SA (2,740 km) • HIGHEST POINT: Mount Kosciusko, NSW (2,375 km) • CURRENCY: Australian dollar (AUS $) • GDP (WEALTH): $1.6 Trillion (13th largest)Prime Minister Julia Gillard • RESOURCES: Coal, zink, nickel, gold, wool • EXPORT MARKETS: Japan, China, South Korea, India, US • NATIONAL HOLIDAY: Australian Day , 26th January • NATIONAL SYMBOLS: Kangaroo and emu • NATIONAL ANTHEM: Advance Australia Fair
    3. 3. GeographyAustralia is situated below the equator in the lower part of the southernhemisphere, between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. Australia is acontinent, a country, and an island at the same time. Australia has 6 states,3 internal territories, and 7 external territories. Indian Pacific Ocean Ocean ACT Jervis Bay Territory
    4. 4. Constitutional MonarchyThis is a form of government in which a monarch, (a person whoinherits a throne) has some limited power to rule. The main source ofpower is from Parliament, (a group of elected leaders who representthe people of the country). In addition to the UK, 15 other countries,including Australia, share the same monarch–Queen Elizabeth II. Badge of the The Queen’s personal flag House of Windsor The Queen’s Official Title in Australia: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
    5. 5. Australian MoneyThe Australian dollar (AUD) is the third-most-traded currency in the world.The $100 note features a singer and asoldier; $50–an aboriginal writer andinventor; $20–the Royal Flying Doctors,a priest, and a convict; $10 –poets;$5–the Queen and Parliament House.The coins all feature Queen Elizabeth II on one side. On the other side the$2 coin has an aboriginal tribal elder; the $1 coin has five kangaroos; the50c coin has the Coat of Arms; the 20c coin has a platypus; the 10c coinhas a lyre bird; the 5c coin has an echidna.
    6. 6. Aborigines Australia’s indigenous people have lived here for thousands of years, long before Europeans arrived.
    7. 7. History In 1770, Captain James Cook discovered Australia. He landed south of present day Sydney, and claimed the east coast for King George III of England, on August 22. In 1788, Captain Arthur Philip led the “First Fleet” into Port Jackson in Sydney. “Convicts” (prisoners from Britain’s over-crowded jails), were transported to Australia until 1848.In 1851, gold was discovered about 300 kmwest of Sydney. People rushed to the goldfields to find their fortunes. This attractedrobbers called “bushrangers”.
    8. 8. Australia Day – January 26January 26, 1788 marked the landing of Captain Arthur Phillip at PortJackson in present-day Sydney. “Australia Day” commemorates this eventand celebrates the country’s “multiculturalism,” diversity, and tolerance.
    9. 9. Bush RangersBush rangers were runaway convicts in the early years of the British settlement.They would hide from the authorities in the “bush” (the Australian country-side), and even though their crimes often included robbery and murder, manypeople think of them as “folk heroes”.More than 2000 bushrangers roamed the Australian bush but Ned Kelly is by farthe most well-known and romanticized outlaw. Like many other bushrangers,Ned Kelly was hanged–at Old Melbourne Gaol, in November 1880.
    10. 10. ImmigrationAustralia is a pluralistic society with more then 100 different cultures. People fromEnglish, Scottish, Irish, and Italian decent make up about 90% of the population. Peoplefrom China, India, and the Middle East make up about 7% of the population. Aboriginalpeople make up less than 1% of the population. Australia has the 15th highestmigration intake in the world.
    11. 11. ClimateThe climate of Australia varies widely due to its large geographical size, but the largestpart of Australia is desert or “semi-arid”. The south-east and south- west corners have a “temperate” climate and fertile soil. The northern part of Australia, with rainforests and grass-lands, is “tropical”. Australia often experiences heat waves, droughts, and bush fires, as well as floods and cyclones. Parts of Australia in Victoria, New South Wales, and Tasmania have heavy snow!
    12. 12. SeasonsAustralia’s seasons are in the opposite months of America’s seasons! Winter Spring June, July, and August September, October, and November Summer Autumn December, January, and February March, April, and May
    13. 13. Time and DatesSydney is 18 hours AHEAD of San Francisco!Dates are written using the day first followed by the month. So January 26 is: 26/01/12
    14. 14. LandmarksSome of Australia’s most famousdestinations are the Sydney Opera House,The Great Barrier Reef, and Ayers Rock.
    15. 15. Australia’s FlagThe Union Jack represents Australia’s historical link with Britain. Thelarge seven-pointed star represents Australia’s six states and oneterritory. The small stars form the Southern Cross–a prominent featureof the southern hemisphere night sky.
    16. 16. Australia’s Coat of ArmsThe official emblem of the Australian Government, Australia’s coat ofarms was granted by George V in 1912. The arms consist of a shieldcontaining the badges of the six states. The supporters are nativeAustralian fauna–a kangaroo and an emu. Australian native flora, wattle,also appears in the design.
    17. 17. Australia’s National FlowerThe Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha) was officially proclaimed theFloral Emblem of Australia on 1st September, 1988.
    18. 18. Australia’s Official National Anthem Advance Australia Fair Australians all let us rejoice Beneath our radiant Southern Cross, For we are young and free Well toil with hearts and hands, Weve golden soil and wealth for toil, To make this Commonwealth of ours Our home is girt by sea: Renowned of all the lands, Our land abounds in natures gifts For those whove come across the seas Of beauty rich and rare, Weve boundless plains to share, In historys page let every stage With courage let us all combine Advance Australia fair, To advance Australia fair. In joyful strains then let us sing In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia fair. Advance Australia fair.
    19. 19. Australia’s Unofficial National Anthem Waltzing Matilda Once a jolly swagman camped by a billabong Under the shade of a coolibah tree, And he sang as he watched and waited till his billy boiled: "Youll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me." The original lyrics were written in 1895 by poet, Banjo Paterson.
    20. 20. Poetry of Banjo Paterson Mulga Bill’s Bicycle Twas Mulga Bill, from Eaglehawk, that caught the cycling craze; He turned away the good old horse that served him many days; He dressed himself in cycling clothes, resplendent to be seen; He hurried off to town and bought a shining new machine; And as he wheeled it through the door, with air of lordly pride, The grinning shop assistant said, "Excuse me, can you ride?" The poem was written in 1896.
    21. 21. Mammals & MarsupialsMarsupials are a type of mammal that carry theiryoung in a pouch. Kangaroos, koalas, possums,wombats and the Tasmanian devil are all marsupials.
    22. 22. SportsAustralians love sport – especially cricket, swimming, tennis, and footy!
    23. 23. ReligionLess than a quarter of Australian Christiansattend church weekly, yet a quarter of allAustralian school students attend churchaffiliated schools, and the Christian festivalsof Easter and Christmas are public holidays.
    24. 24. Music & ArtClap sticks and the didgeridoo aretraditional aboriginal instruments.Traditional Aboriginal art typicallyrepresents the “Dreaming,” the wayAboriginal people explain life and howtheir world came into being. ModernAustralian art includes colorfulpaintings by designer, Ken Done.
    25. 25. Famous AussiesL to R:Russell Crowe (Gladiator),Nicole Kidman and HughJackman (Australia),Steve Irwin (CrocodileHunter ~ 2006), Bindi Irwin(Free Willy)
    26. 26. RecreationMany Australians live near a coastline and sothey like to spend their spare time at the beach–sunbaking, enjoying water sports, andbarbecuing with family and friends.
    27. 27. Road TripsAustralians love road trips – driving on the LEFT hand side of the road!
    28. 28. ClothingAustralians arevery proud ofAustralian madeproducts!An outback hatwith corks helpskeep the flies away.Driza-Bone jacketsstay dry even inthe wettestweather!Ugg sheepskinboots are nowpopular all overthe world.
    29. 29. FoodAustralians love to eat sausage rolls, meat pies, vegemite, and lamingtons!
    30. 30. School LifeThe school year in Australia starts in Januaryand ends in December. Most students wearschool uniforms. Hats are mandatory in mostschools and almost all children learn to swimat a very young age.
    31. 31. Aussie Slang Arvo Afternoon Barbie A barbecue Bobs Your Uncle There – done – easy! Not a problem! Billabong A watering hole G‘day Hello Heaps Lots and lots Onya, mate Good on you, well done Sanga Sandwich Shell be right mate It will all be OK Stone the crows! What a shock! True blue A true friend Uni University White cuppa Tea with milk added