• Australia officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is
an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of
the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and
numerous smaller islands.
• Neighboring countries include Papua New
Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north;
the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east;
and New Zealand to the south-east.
• The currency of Australia is Australian Dollar.
• 1 Australian Dollar equals 0.74 US Dollar.
• Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated
to have begun between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago.
• These first inhabitants may have been ancestors of
modern Indigenous Australians.
• The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited
sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
• Australia's landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometers is
on the Indo-Australian Plateau . Surrounded by the
Indian and Pacific oceans.
• The world's smallest continent and sixth largest country
by total area , Australia—owing to its size and isolation—
is often dubbed the "island continent", and is sometimes
considered the world's largest island.
• The largest towns are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and
• Canberra is the capital city of Australia with a population
of 381,488, it is Australia's largest inland city and
the eighth-largest city overall.
• A resident of Canberra is known as a "Canberran".
• The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef
system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900
islands stretching for over 2,300 kilometres (1,400 mi)
over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres
(133,000 sq. mi). The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off
the coast of Queensland, Australia.
• Australia is a wealthy country; it generates its income
from various sources including mining-related exports,
telecommunications, banking and manufacturing.
• It has a market economy, a relatively high GDP per
capita, and a relatively low rate of poverty.
• Australia is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine.
The Barossa Valley is a major wine-producing region
in South Australia.
• Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of
agricultural products, particularly wheat and wool,
minerals such as iron-ore and gold, and energy in the
forms of liquefied natural gas and coal.
• Australia's largest export markets are Japan, China, the
US, South Korea, and New Zealand.
• The climate of Australia is significantly influenced by
• With periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low-
pressure system that produces cyclones in northern
• Much of the northern part of the country has a tropical,
predominantly summer-rainfall (monsoon) climate.
• The Australian Mega fauna includes a wide variety of
mammals, birds and reptiles.
• Mammals : Red Kangaroo, Eastern grey Kangaroos,
Antilopine kangaroo, Eastern wallaroos, common
wombats, southern hairy-nosed wombat.
• Birds: Emu and dwarf cassowaries
• Reptiles: goanna, saltwater crocodile
and freshwater crocodile
• Australian terrestrial flora is divided into 30 major
Vegetation Groups and 67 Major Vegetation Subgroups.
• Main vegetation are Eucalypt woodlands, Acacia shrub
lands, Tussock grasslands and Chenopod.
• POPULATION : 23.13 million
• SEX RATIO : 1.01 male(s)/female
• URBAN POPULATION : 21,392,649
• RURAL POPULATION : 2,530,452
• Australian English is the most spoken language, with
a different accent and few manipulations in spelling
• Australia has no state religion. The majority of the
population are Roman Catholics.
• Australia has the third and seventh highest life
expectancy of males and females respectively in the
• Life expectancy in Australia in 2010 was 79.5 years for
males and 84.0 years for females.
• Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer in the
world, while cigarette smoking is the largest preventable
cause of death and disease, responsible for 7.8% of the
total mortality and disease.
• The basis of Australian culture has been strongly
influenced by Anglo-Celtic Western culture and by the
mid 20th century the American culture influenced
Australian culture through television, medias and
• The rock art of Australia's Indigenous peoples is the
oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as
60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands
• Australian literature grew slowly in the decades following
European settlement though Indigenous oral traditions,
many of which have since been recorded in writing, are
• Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a federal division of
powers. It uses a parliamentary system of
government with Queen Elizabeth II at its apex as the Queen
of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch
of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen resides in the
United Kingdom, and she is represented by her viceroys in
Australia (the Governor-General at the federal level and by
the Governors at the state level), who by convention act on the
advice of her ministers.
• . Supreme executive authority is vested by the Constitution of
Australia in the sovereign, but the power to exercise it is
conferred by the Constitution specifically on the Governor-
General. The most notable exercise to date of the Governor-
General's reserve powers outside the Prime Minister's request
was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in
the constitutional crisis of 1975.
The Prime Minister
Peter Cosgrove, the
Their basic meal is the Sunday roast.
Other popular dishes include Vegemite, pavlova,
lamingtons and meat pies are regarded as iconic Australian
• Tourism is a major field that brings in income.
• For the year ending on April 2015 there were 7.1 million
• Gold Coast is the most popular place for surfing. Its
called the Surfer’s Paradise.
• Kangaroos are endemic to Australia.
• . The Australian government estimates that 34.3 million
kangaroos lived within the commercial harvest areas of
Australia in 2011, up from 25.1 million one year earlier.