Causes of World War I--annotated version

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Causes of World War I--annotated version

  1. 1. What Caused the First World War? Why does this war matter?
  2. 2. What Caused the First World War? Why does it matter? • The war will change the global balance of power. • Debut of new and improved weapons: arty, machine guns, air planes, battleships, chem weapons, tanks, flame thrower and trained snipers. • This war will pave the way to WW II. • Europeans will change boundaries in the Middle East which will contribute to 21st century conflicts in the region. •Historians have long debated whether the war could’ve been prevented •You will know the two main causes by the end of this presentation
  3. 3. Nationalism • rivalries among nations to be the best • militarism • collapsing empires • bad blood between nations (FR & GR,A/H & RUS,A/H & Serbia) Serbia Austria-Hungary Russian EmpireGermany France England
  4. 4. Nationalism • rivalries among nations to be the best: Nations compete for industrial output, colonies, size of their military, leading international trade and for global influence. Many leaders are related • militarism: nations increase the size of their militaries to generate nationalism and enable them to influence the world; especially Germany • collapsing empires: Russia & Austria were weak, Ottomans fighting nationalism in its empire, Austria and Serbia are trying to expand their influence • bad blood between nations: Franco-Prussian War (1870-1); Germany won & took land from France; Austria & Serbia competing for influence in the Balkans; Russia supported Serbia and competed with Austria Hungary for influence
  5. 5. Pre-War Fears Divide the Continent • Triple Alliance (1882) • Germany, Austria & Italy • Required aid if attacked by FR or RUS • Tripe Entente (1904) • England iffy about FR, but worried about GR • French already don’t like GR and fear it growing • Russia doesn’t like A/H, fears GR and is friends with Serbia
  6. 6. Pre-War Fears Divide the Continent • Triple Alliance (1882) • Germany, Austria & Italy: GR and Italy and new nations and want to expand. Austria is a rival of Russia, wants to protect its back so it can focus on the Balkans • Required aid if attacked by FR or RUS • Tripe Entente (1904): Response to Triple Alliance • England iffy about FR, but worried about GR: History of conflict w/ ENG and FR, but shared enemy of GR • French already don’t like GR and fear it growing: They fought in the 1870s • Russia doesn’t like A/H, fears GR and is friends with Serbia: RUS & Serbs have cultural similarities • didn’t require aid
  7. 7. The Balkan Powder Keg • competition for control of the Balkans
  8. 8. The Balkan Powder Keg • competition for control of the Balkans: This was one of the big sparks to start the war = nationalism! • Both A/H and Serbia want to control it. • As the war intensifies, this issue of control of the Balkans fades into the background.
  9. 9. TheSpark June28,1914 • Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s visit to Bosnia • the Black Hand (Gavrilo Princip) • did Serbia know?!? • Austria-Hungary’s demands • mobilizations
  10. 10. The Spark • Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s visit to Bosnia: Heir to the thrown visits Bosnia to flex Austria’s strength. • the Black Hand (Gavrilo Princip): It’s a Serbian “terrorist” group that wants Austria-Hungary out of the Balkan region. They assassinate the Archduke which leads to an Austrian invasion of Serbia. • did Serbia know?!? Historians believe the gov knew, but it wouldn’t have been popular to warn its enemy about the attack. • Austria-Hungary’s demands: Allow us to investigate the assassination and confront anti-Austrian groups; Serbia says no! • Mobilizations: Austria prepares for war which prompts Russia, Germany, and France to do the same
  11. 11. The War Starts--29 July 1914 • Austria Hungary invades Serbia • Schlieffen Plan • two front war • men were excited!
  12. 12. The War Starts--29 July 1914 • Austria Hungary invades Serbia: After securing its German alliance, A/H invades and draws first blood. • Schlieffen Plan: German plan to destroy France and then Russia. Attack FR through Belgium, flank French forts and capture Paris. Then, move east and crush Russia before they can mobilize. • two front war: After the failure of the Schlieffen Plan, Germany must fight a two front war: France in the West and Russia in the East. History has shown this is extremely difficult to win. • men were excited! At the start of the war, men were filled with nationalism and wanted to crush their enemies. Everyone thought it was going to be a short war.
  13. 13. Entangling Alliances: The Path to World War • England • France • Russia • Italy* (switched sides) • Serbia • Belgium • Austria-Hungary • Germany • Ottoman Empire Allied Powers Central Powers
  14. 14. Entangling Alliances • England • France • Russia • Italy* (switched sides) • Serbia • Belgium • Austria-Hungary • Germany • Ottoman Empire Allied Powers Central Powers • A/H invades Serbia, Russia mobilizes against A/H and GR, GR declares war on FR and Russia, England mobilizes to support FR and protect Belgium. Italy attacks A/H. A/H attacks Russia
  15. 15. Stalemate • military “strategies” • first industrial war • trench warfare
  16. 16. Stalemate • military “strategies”: 19th century “strategy” with 20th century weapons = MASSIVE amounts of casualties. • first industrial war: Mass production of weapons = better quality and more of them. • trench warfare: Fighting on the Western Front between England and France vs Germany. Both sides dig in and fight an absolutely brutal war.
  17. 17. Your Exit Ticket • Write down one thing that you learned (or was confirmed). • Write down one thing that you are still left wondering about.

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