Nationalism France England • rivalries among nations to be the best • militarism • collapsing empires Austria-Hungary • bad blood between nations (FR & GR, A/H & RUS, A/H & Serbia)Germany Russian Empire Serbia
Nationalism• nations compete for industrial rivalries among nations to be the best: output, colonies, size of their military, leading international trade and for global influence• nations increase the size of their militaries to militarism: generate nationalism and enable them to influence the world• Russia & Austria were weak, Ottomans fighting collapsing empires: nationalism in its empire, Austria and Serbia are trying to expand their influence• bad blood between nations: Franco-Prussian War (1870-1); Germany won & took land from France; Austria & Serbia competing for influence in the Balkans; Russia supported Serbia and competed with Austria Hungary for influence
The Balkan Powder Keg• competition for control of the Balkans
The Balkan Powder Keg• competition for control of the Balkans: This was one of the big sparks to start the war = nationalism! As the war intensifies, this issue of control of the Balkans fades into the background.
The Spark June 28, 1914• Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s visit to Bosnia• the Black Hand (Gavrilo Princip)• did Serbia know?!?• Austria-Hungary’s demands• mobilizations
The Spark• Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s visit to Bosnia: Heir to the thrown visits Bosnia to flex Austria’s strength.• It’s a Serbian “terrorist” group that wants the Black Hand (Gavrilo Princip): Austria-Hungary out of the Balkan region. They assassinate the Archduke which leads to an Austrian invasion of Serbia.• Historians believe the gov knew, but it wouldn’t did Serbia know?!? have been popular to warn its enemy about the attack.• Allow us to investigate the assassination Austria-Hungary’s demands: and confront anti-Austrian groups; Serbia says no!• mobilizations: A/H declares war on Serbia, Russia mobilizes against A/H and GR, GR declares war on FR and Russia, England mobilizes to support FR and protect Belgium.
Entangling AlliancesAllied Powers Central Powers• England • Austria-Hungary• France • Germany• Russia • Ottoman Empire• Italy* (switched sides)• Serbia• Belgium
Entangling AlliancesAllied Powers Central Powers • England • Austria-Hungary • France • Germany • Russia • Ottoman Empire • Italy* (switched sides) • Serbia • Belgium
The War Starts--29 July 1914• Austria Hungary invades Serbia• Schlieffen Plan• two front war• men were excited!
The War Starts--29 July 1914• After securing its German alliance, A/H Austria Hungary invades Serbia: invades and draws first blood.• German plan to destroy France and then Russia. Schlieffen Plan: Attack FR through Belgium, flank French forts and capture Paris. Then, move east and crush Russia before they can mobilize.• After the failure of the Schlieffen Plan, Germany must two front war: fight a two front war: France in the West and Russia in the East. History has shown this is extremely difficult to win.• At the start of the war, men were filled with men were excited! nationalism and wanted to crush their enemies. Everyone thought it was going to be a short war.
Stalemate• military “strategies”• ﬁrst industrial war• trench warfare
Stalemate• 19th century ideas with 20th century military “strategies”: weapons = MASSIVE amounts of casualties.• Mass production of weapons = better quality ﬁrst industrial war: and more of them.• Fighting on the Western Front between trench warfare: England and France vs Germany. Both sides dig in and fight an absolutely brutal war.