The Causes of the Russian Revolution 1917 Part I: March and Part II: November
Brief Background of Russia• Russia was powerful in the 19th c.• very slow to modernize• absolutism: the rule of czars• Russo-Japanese War 1904• Revolution of 1905; false promises
March Revolution: Cause #1• leadership of Czar Nicholas II• feudalism• World War I = 9,000,000 casualties
March Revolution: Cause #2• World War I• worst equipped army• highest number of casualties
March Revolution: Cause #3• Starvation and poverty• lack of land for the masses• foreign owned factories• bread riots (March 1917)• Czar abdicated his thrown!
Provisional Government Takes Power • it slow to implement reforms • fateful decision... • division among revolutionaries: Bolsheviks versus Mensheviks
November Revolution• Lenin: “Peace, Land and Bread”• Marxist: communism now!• Treaty of Brest-Litovsk• not everyone is happy...
Russian Civil War 1918-1921• “whites” vs “reds”• Allies intervene• Czar was executed (July 1918)• Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922)
Why should you care?• ﬁrst communist revolution ever• step on the path to becoming a super power• seeds of animosity for the Cold War• fear of Communism inﬂuences USFP• fear of nuclear war 1949-1989