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World war I


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World war I

  1. 1. World War I The War To End All Wars
  2. 2. The Face of Europe
  3. 3. Spoiling for War • Militarism-Belief that war and combat are good and moral. • Alliances-Germany and Austria-Hungary verse England, France, and Russia. • Imperialism-The lust to gain more power and territory. • Nationalism-Hatred for other countries and love for one’s own.
  4. 4. Powder Keg of Europe • The Balkans had numerous ethnic groups all demanding freedom. • Austria-Hungary was a declining power in the early 20th century. To gain power they bullied the weaker powers in the Balkans. • The Serbians were the number one enemy to the Austrians.
  5. 5. Assassin in Sarajevo • Franz Ferdinand was the Arch-Duke of Austria. His assassination by Serbian nationalists gave Austria the excuse to crush the “Serbian Viper.”
  6. 6. The Guns of August • Austria invaded Serbia with the promise of full support from Germany, in Response Russia defended Serbia. This in turn led to Germany attacking France, Russia’s ally. • The German plan was to attack knock France out of the War and then turn all their armies on Russia.
  7. 7. The Slaughter • For 4 years both sides massacred one another in a war of attrition. • Germany bore the brunt of the war for the Central Powers while Russia, France, and England carried the war for the allies. • Both sides used new weapons such as tanks and gas warfare to break the stalemate. • Germany eventually used unrestricted submarine warfare to starve England into submission. In 1915 they sank the cruise ship Lusitania killing many Americans. For a while the Germans backed off.
  8. 8. The Argonne
  9. 9. Lusitania
  10. 10. U-Boat
  11. 11. Russia Collapses • In 1917 the Russian Empire could no longer take the strains of war. The Russian army simply got up and walked out of the trenches back to their villages. • In Petrograd a food riot led to the eventual overthrow of the Tsar. A provisional government tries to continue the war but they were overthrown by the Bolsheviks.
  12. 12. Nicholas II • Nicholas and his family were overthrown and eventually killed by the Bolsheviks.
  13. 13. Lenin Promising Peace
  14. 14. Over There • With extra troops from the Russian front the German's decided to knock France and England out of the War. • Part of the plan included using submarines on all ships, including American, that entered English waters. • In response the American president Woodrow Wilson declared war on Germany.
  15. 15. The End • A final German attack was beaten back with the help American reinforcements in 1918. • The defeat of Germany meant the end of the war and quickly the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Ottoman empire were all overthrown. • The victorious powers then meant at the palace of Versailles outside of Paris.
  16. 16. Versailles • The Big Three Powers were England, France, and the United States. Germany and Russia were not invited. • Germany was to pay reparations(Money) to pay fro the war damage and accept responsibility for starting the war.. • Wilson believed in Self-Determination, so many different ethnic groups got their own countries. Especially in Eastern Europe where Austria and Russia so their empires turned into many different countries.
  17. 17. Wilson, Clemenceau, and David Lloyd George
  18. 18. League of Nations • To prevent another war the world formed a League of Nations where countries could come together to hammer out problems. • The United States although an architect of the Treaty of Versailles did not ratify the Treaty from fear it would lead to constant American involvement in European affairs.
  19. 19. Effects of the War • Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Yugoslavia, Poland, Hungary,and Finland are a few of the countries created after World War I. • The Germans were invited only to sign the treaty, and many Germans felt the Treaty was unjust. • Millions were killed in the fighting and billions of dollars of damage occurred. • All of Germanys colonies were put under the mandate (control) of Britain and France.
  20. 20. German Dead •
  21. 21. British Amputees
  22. 22. Polish Dead
  23. 23. The Man with no Face
  24. 24. The End