War in Iraq: Persian Gulf War II akaOperation Iraqi Freedom 2003-2011
Why did it start?• enforce peace agreement from PG War I• WMDs• ultimatum to Hussein• bring democracy• revenge?• 9/11?
Coalition of the Willing• Afghanistan • Ethiopia• Albania • Italy• Australia • Japan• Bulgaria • Nicaragua• Colombia • Philippines• Czech Republic • Romania• Denmark • S. Korea• El Salvador • Poland• Eritrea • Spain• Estonia • United Kingdom Who is missing?
Quotes Leading Up to War• ...”The Iraqi soldiers and ofﬁcers must ask themselves whether they want to die ﬁghting for a doomed regime.” --Rumsfeld • “I really do believe that we will be greeted as liberators.” --Cheney • “He has proven instead only his contempt for the United Nations and for all of his pledges. By breaking every pledge, by his deceptions and by his cruelties, Saddam Hussein has made the case against himself.”
President Bush Speech (17 March 2003)“[The Iraqi regime] has a deep hatred of America and our friends and it hasaided, trained and harboured terrorists, including operatives of al-Qaeda.” “The United States and other nations did nothing to deserve or invite this threat, but we will do everything to defeat it.” “The United States of America has the sovereign authority to use force in assuring its own national security.”“Saddam Hussein and his sons must leave Iraq within 48 hours. Their refusalto do so will result in military conﬂict commenced at a time of our choosing.”
Congress says...• House vote: 296 to 133• Senate vote: 77 to 23 (Wyden voted against)
Pre-War PR Blitz?• creation of Ofﬁce of Global Communication• $200,000,000 spent to “persuade critical target groups [at home and overseas] that the Iraqi leader must be ousted.”
Effects--On the bright side• “Shock and Awe”• horrible dictator (and his sons) were removed from power• no bio or chem weapons were used• introduction of democracy• most U.S. troops have rotated out
Costs• Human cost: KIA, PTSD, WIA, Iraqi civilians• Financial: $2 trillion and growing• Credibility gap: domestic and abroad • embedded reporters• fueled hatred of the USA by extremists