world war i


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Class Notes on World War I given 2/18/13 and 2/19/13

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world war i

  1. 1. Inevitability of war• June 28, 1914 – Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand causes a crisis• The alliances in Europe caused a “World War” that spread quickly
  2. 2. 1914 – 1915: False Beliefs• Many Europeans were excited about war! – Both sides thought they were the “good guys”
  3. 3. 1914 – 1915: False Beliefs • Most thought the war would be over in a few weeks – Ignored the length and brutality of the American Civil War (a model for World War I)
  4. 4. 1914 – 1915: False Beliefs• Belief that Modern industrial war could not be conducted for more than a few months• Most said they’d be “Home by Christmas”
  5. 5. 1914 – 1915: False Beliefs• Many European nations thought the war would be “fun” – A glorious adventure – War would rid the nations of selfishness – War could make people “heroes”
  6. 6. The Schlieffen Plan
  7. 7. The Schlieffen Plan• Invade western front 1st• After defeating France concentrate on the Eastern front• Avoid fighting a 2 front war
  8. 8. The Schlieffen Plan• Germany made an encircling movement through Belgium to enter Paris• But the British quickly sent troops to France
  9. 9. The Schlieffen Plan• Battle of Marne – Sept 6-10, 1914 – France stopped the Germans but were exhausted – Both sides dug trenches for shelter -Caused a Stalemate
  10. 10. Stalemate - A position counting as a draw,or a “Dead-End”
  11. 11. The Trenches• 6,250 miles of Trenches were dug• 6 to 8 feet deep• This immobilized both sides for 4 years
  12. 12. The Trenches
  13. 13. Life in the Trenches• Elaborate systems of defense – barbed wire – Concrete machine gun nests – Mortar batteries – Troops lived in holes underground
  14. 14. Life in the Trenches• Boredom – Soldiers read to pass the time
  15. 15. Life in the Trenches• Death numbed the soldier’s minds• Shell shock – Could cause panic or even paralysis “We all had on us the stench of dead bodies.”
  16. 16. Life in the Trenches• Mustard gas – Carried by the wind – Burned out soldier’s lungs – Deadly in the trenches where it would sit at the bottom
  17. 17. Life in the Trenches– Millions of young men sacrificed attempting to break the lines
  18. 18. Battle of Verdun• 10 months• 700,000 men killed
  19. 19. Battle of Verdun• 10 months• 700,000 men killed
  20. 20. The changes of war• New weapons were made because of new technology (industrial revolution) – Poison gas (mustard gas) – Hand grenades – Flame throwers – Tanks – Airplanes – Tanks – Subs
  21. 21. The changes of war• Airplanes – Dog fights in the air – Bombing inaccurate – Paris and London bombed – Pilots fired pistols and threw hand grenades
  22. 22. The Eastern Front• Russian army moved into Eastern Germany on August 30, 1914 – Russia has major losses• The Austrians were chased out of Serbia• Germany came to Austrian aid and pushed Russians back 300 miles into own territory • 1915: 2.5 million Russians killed, captured, or wounded
  23. 23. The Eastern Front• Germany and Austria Hungary joined by Bulgaria in Sept. 1915 – Attacked and eliminated Serbia from war
  24. 24. The Home Front• Women took war factory jobs• Received lower wages than males• Food shortages made things at home hard also
  25. 25. The Home Front• Censorship – The Public was not told about high death toll – Made the dead “legendary”
  26. 26. QUESTIONWhy do you think thegovernmentsinvolved in WorldWar I did not tell thepublic people aboutthe number ofsoldiers killed?
  27. 27. The Home Front• Censorship – Newspapers described troops as “itching to go over the top” – Made “trench warfare” seem like a nice adventure
  28. 28. The Home Front• Taking Leave (getting a break from the war and visiting home)• Troops would stay togetherWhy?• so they could sympathize with each other
  29. 29. The Home Front• Impossible to hide death – Women in mourning, lost husbands and sons – Badly wounded soldiers began to return home – Opposition to the war began
  30. 30. The war ends• 1917 – Russia surrenders• U.S. joins the war on the Allied side• Nov. 11, 1918 Armistice – End of Fighting
  31. 31. Death Toll of War Allied Central Powers Powers42 million served 23 million served 22 million 15 million casualties casualties
  32. 32. Social Impact• Men lost limbs and were mutilated• Birthrate fell markedly• Invalids unable to work• Ethnic hostility• Influenza epidemic