The Great War was called World War I becauseit was fought primarily in Europe but spread tothe colonies, Asia, and the Middle East.LEQ: How and where was World War Ifought?
The goal was to create a quick victory in the west whileRussia was mobilizing and thus avoid a two-front war.Russia mobilized on the Eastern Front morequickly than Germany had expected.German generals responded by shifting troops from theWestern Front to fight the Russians.The British fought with French troops in the Marne,making a quick German victory impossible.Germany utilized their Schlieffen Plan to attackFrance. The plan failed.
Both sides dug vast systems of deep trenchesfor protection, creating a four-year-long deadlystalemate on the Western Front.• The area between opposing trenches became a“no man’s land.”• Each side would launch attacks andcounterattacks but very little territory would begained.• stalemate – a deadlock in which neither side is able to defeatthe other
Millions ofsoldiers ate,slept, andfought in thetrenches.
Newly developed weapons made the fightingmuch more deadly. In some battles, hundredsof thousands were killed.Weapon ResultsRapid-fire machine guns Waves of soldiers weremowed down.Long-range artillery guns Flying debris killed orwounded many.Poison gas Blinding and choking causedmany fatalities.
New technology changed the sites of battles,from the ground to the air and under water.Technology ResultsTanks Moved above and through trenchesZeppelins Observed enemy movementsAirplanes Engaged in dramatic fights but did notaffect the outcome of the warU-boats Sank ships carrying vital supplies; Alliesorganized convoys to defend against them• zeppelin – large gas-filled balloon• U-boat –German submarine• convoy – a group of merchant ships protected by warships
On the Eastern Front, the casualties were alsohigh and the outcome was just as indecisive.• Russia suffered disastrous losses.• Russia was not as industrialized as otherEuropean nations. Soldiers were poorly equippedbut were sent out anyway, sometimes evenwithout rifles.
Fighting broke out in the Balkans andsouthern Europe in 1915.• Bulgaria sided with the Central Powers againstSerbia.• Romania joined the Allies to fight against Hungary.• Italian troops joined the Allies in 1915, but neededhelp from British and French troops to protect theirpositions.
The Ottoman empire sided with the CentralPowers in late October 1914. They soon cutoff a crucial Allied supply route to Russia.• The Allies became trapped trying to open up theDardanelles connecting the Black Sea to theMediterranean.• The Allies suffered defeat and withdrew aftersustaining more than 200,000 casualties.• Dardanelles – a vital strait connecting the Black Sea and theMediterranean Sea
• The Ottoman empire alsofaced an Arab uprising in theMiddle East.• After fighting with Britishtroops led by T. E. Lawrence,the Ottoman empire lostterritory to Arab nationalists.Turkish Armenians, living in the Ottoman empire,tried to help the Russians and as a result enduredmassacres and deportations.• T. E. Lawrence – British colonel sent to support the Arab revolt
• French West Africa• India• Australia• New Zealand• CanadaWorld War I spread to include many Europeancolonies throughout the world:
It was fought using new weapons, causing a largenumber of casualties. The war was fought on theWestern Front, Eastern Front, in southern Europe,Turkey, the Middle East, and in other parts of Asiaand Africa.LEQ: How and where was World War I fought?