History of Imperialism• China (independence in 1000 C.E.)• French in the 1600s • Creation of Indochina• Japan 1940-45• China and England 1945• French Part Deux! (1946-1954)
Fork in the Road• Ho Chi Minh declared independence in 1945• US DOS was divided• France asks for and gets the return of its colonies• Viet Minh defeat in the French in 1954: Battle of Dienbienphu• What if?
And the U.S. picks... Ngo Dinh Diem!• Catholic• Friend of the French• Torturer• Corrupt• Boycotts Elections 1956
Fear of Communism• Truman Doctrine (1945-53): containment• Eisenhower (1953-1961): domino theory• 1960 U.S. Presidential Elections
John Fitzgerald Kennedythe Democrats take control of the White House
JFK: A New Path?• his appearance was symbolic• view towards Diem• boots on the ground (increase to 16,000 “advisors”)• Diem and the power of the press• McNamara’s (DoD) belief about the future of Vietnam
Change of Plans• Fall Assassinations• JFK’s plans for next term?
Kennedy Quotes About Vietnam• “But I can’t do it until 1965--after I’m reelected...or there would be a wild conservative outcry against [my reelection]”• “If I tried to pull out completely now from Vietnam, we would have another Joe McCarthy red scare on our hands...”• “We don’t have a prayer of staying in Vietnam. Those people hate us.”
Lyndon Baines Johnson• relationship with JFK• LBJ maintains the status quo--the U.S. had “to win [the] contest against the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy.”• Gulf of Tonkin resolution (July 1964)• Election in 1964
Escalation Part II 54,791 sorties in 1965 (Frankum 34)• Operation Rolling Thunder• “search and destroy” raids• implementation of the draft (1965)• Operation Phoenix (1967) Ronald B. Frankum Jr. Like Rolling Thunder. Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littleﬁeld Publishers, INC., 2005.
Effects of Escalation• increased protests in the U.S.• Tet Offensive (1968)• LBJ decides not to run for reelection