1The Causes of WW1By: Luna Pérez Muñiz, Rocío Hartmann and Estanislao Casas
2Militarism 1.• Germany was competingwith the UK to buildbattleships.• The British feared anattack on their Empire.• The Naval Race. Britaincompeted with Germanyby 1914
3Militarism 2.• Germany wascompeting withRussia and France toexpand their armies1880 1914• Germany 1.3m 5.0m• France 0.73m 4.0m• Russia 0.40m 1.2m
4Alliances• By 1914 all the majorpowers were linked bya system of alliances.• The alliances made itmore likely that a warwould start.• Once started, thealliances made it morelikely to spread.
5Imperialism• All the great powers were competing forcolonies / territory.• The British feared Germany in Africa.Because Germany wanted overseascolonies.• The Austrians feared Serbia / Russia inthe Balkans. Serbia emerged as the mostpowerful country in the balkans.
6Nationalism• This was an age when all nations wantedto assert their power and independence.Inspired by Napoleon’s ideas.• In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia andRussia, wanted to be free of Austrian rule.Serbia’snationalflag
7Significant Individuals 1.• Kaiser Wilhelm II• Built up German army andnavy• Aggressive foreign policy• Determined to makeGermany a top nation.• Distrusted by other powers.• In a conference, Britain andFrance plotted to leaveGermany behind.“Germany must have itsplace in the sun”“The world belongs tothe strong.”
8Significant Individuals 2• Count Berchtold• Austrian PrimeMinister.• After the murder ofan Austrian emperorAustria faultedSerbia. So she sentan ultimatum. Serbiadidn’t agree. Wardeclared 28 ofJuly,1914“Were the Serbs toagree to all thedemands, this would notbe to my liking”
9Significant Individuals 3• Bethmann Hollweg,German Prime Minister,gave very strong supportto Austria during the Julycrisis while Kaiser wascruising on his yacht “The Austrian demands aremoderate. Any interferenceby Britain, France andRussia would be followedby incalculableconsequences”
10The Crisis 1.• 28 June 1914• Heir to Austrianthrone FranzFerdinand visitsSarajevo.• Capital of Bosnia,recently grabbed byAustria.• Hotbed of SlavnationalismSeal of theBlack Handgroup
12The Crisis 3.• Austrians, supported byGermany, send Serbia a toughultimatum.• Serbia agrees to all but twoterms of the ultimatum.• Russia mobilises her troops tosupport Serbia• Germany demands thatRussia stands her armiesdown.• Germany declares war onRussia“Demands must beput to Serbia thatwould be whollyimpossible for themto accept …”
13Why did Britain get involved?• Britain had Ententeswith France and Russia.• If Germany won the war,she would be verypowerful and maybewanted more colonies.And maybe she wouldconquer Britain too.• The Schlieffen PlanSir Edward GreyBritish Foreign Secretary …“There’s some devilry goingon in Berlin”
14The Schlieffen Plan• Germany’s militaryplan to defeat Franceand Russia.• “Knock out blow”aimed at France first.• Avoid Frenchdefences by invasionof Belgium.• Germans thoughtBritain would notintervene.
15Britain’s Reaction• 1838- UK had signed aTreaty to protectBelgium.• Britain also scared ofGermany controllingChannel ports.• Did not want Germany todefeat France anddominate Europe.Britain next?• UK issued ultimatum toGermany to withdrawtroops from Belgium.War declared August 41914
16Morocco, 1905 and 1911• In 1905 the Kaiser visited Germany’scolonies on Africa. He was starting tobuild their own African Empire. Now hewas keen on show that Germany wasimportant in Africa as well.• France wanted to conquer Germany’sAfrican colonies. Kaiser made a speechsaying he supported Africa’sindependence.• France was furious.16
17International Conference 1906• The conference didn’t cool things down.• The Kaiser was humiliated. He wanted tobe seen as the mayor power in Africa.• His views were rejected. He was treated ashe didn’t have the right to give an opinion.• Britain and France plotted to don’t letGermany speak or give ideas.• This made the Kaiser bitter.17
18The Balkans 1• The balkans were an unstable area.• At first it was ruled by Turkey but she lostpower and she was now in decline.• New governments were constantly arguingwith each other• Both Russia and Austria wanted this areabecause it had access to theMediterranean.18