The computer isone of the wondersof human ingenuity.
With the invention of the microcomputer (now alsocommonly referred to as PCs orpersonal computers), the PC hasbecome the tool for programmed instruction.
Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI)• The computer can be a tutor, in effect, relieving the teacher of many activities in his personal role as classroom teacher.• The computer cannot totally replace the teacher since the teacher shall continue to play the major roles of information deliverer and learning environment controller.
The teacher must: Ensure that students havethe needed knowledge and skills for any computer activity.
The teacher must: Decide theappropriate learning objectives
The teacher must:Plan the sequential and structured activities toachieve the objectives
The teacher must: Evaluate the students’achievement by ways that tests specific expected outcomes
Students in CAI play their own roles as learners, as they: Receive information
Students in CAI play their own roles as learners, as they: Understand information for the computer activity
Students in CAI play their own roles as learners, as they: Retain/keep in mind the information and rules for the computer activity
Students in CAI play their own roles as learners, as they: Apply the knowledge and rules during the process of computer learning
The computer plays its roles as it: Acts as a sort of tutor (the role traditionally played by the teachers)
The computer plays its roles as it: Provides a learning environment
The computer plays its roles as it: Delivers learning instruction
The computer plays its roles as it: Reinforces learning through drill and practice
The computer plays its roles as it: Provides feedback
CAI integrated with Lessons•CAI computer learning shouldnot stop with the drill andpractice activities of students
CAI integrated with Lessons•CAI works best in reinforcinglearning through repetitiveexercises such that students canpractice basic skills or knowledgein various subject areas
CAI integrated with Lessons•In these programs, the computerpresents a question/problem first andthe student is asked to answer thequestion/problem. Immediate feedbackis given to the student’s answer
When and how can teachers integrate drill and practice programs with their lessons?• Use drill and practice programs for basic skills and knowledge that require rapid or automatic response by students
When and how can teachers integrate drill and practice programs with their lessons?• Ensure that drill and practice activities conform to the lesson plan/curriculum
When and how can teachers integrate drill and practice programs with their lessons?•Limit drill and practice to 20-30 minutes to avoid boredom
When and how can teachers integrate drill and practice programs with their lessons?• Use drill and practice to assist students with particular weakness in basic skills
The tutorial software should be able to:• Teach new content/information to students• Provide comprehensive information on concepts in addition to practice exercises
The tutorial software should be able to:• Can be effectively used for remediation, reviewing or enrichment
The tutorial software should be able to:•Allow the teacher to introducefollow-up questions to stimulatestudents’ learning•Permits group activity forcooperative learning
SIMULATION PROGRAMS• These are another kind of software that is constructivist in nature.
These simulation software:• Teaches strategies and rules applied to real-life problems/situations• Asks students to make decision on models or scenarios
These simulation software:• Allows students to manipulate elements of a model and get the experience of the effects of their decisions
INSTRUCTIONAL GAMES• While relating to low-level learning objectives, instructional computer games add the elements of competition and challenge.
PROBLEM-SOLVING SOFTWARE• These are more sophisticated than the drill and practice exercises and allow students to learn and improve on their problem-solving ability. Since problems cannot be solved simply by memorizing facts, the students have to employ higher thinking skills such as logic, recognition, reflection, and strategy- making.
MULTIMEDIA ENCYCLOPEDIA and ELECTRONIC BOOKS• MULTIMEDIA ENCYCLOPEDIA can store a huge database with texts, images, animation, audio and video. Students can access any desired information, search its vast contents and even download/print relevant portions of the data for their composition or presentation.
MULTIMEDIA ENCYCLOPEDIA and ELECTRONIC BOOKS• ELECTRONIC BOOKS provide textual information for reading, supplemented by other types of multimedia information (sounds, spoken words, pictures, animation). These are useful for learning reading, spelling and word skills
CONCLUSION The computer is a tutor in thisnew age of learning. It does notreplace the teacher , although itassumes certain roles previouslyassigned to teachers who now hasto take the new role of facilitatorand guide.
CONCLUSION Integrating computer exercisesis the new task of the teacher whocan find in the computer andcomputer software an alternativemedium to the traditional classroompractice of delivering informationand supporting learning activities.
CONCLUSION In the years ahead, we shall thecomputers in schools as a commontool for the enhancement of thestudent’s thinking, communication andcollaboration skills. Computer willbecome an integral component of thefuture classroom and not a meremachine that can deliver routine drillsand exercises.