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Education for 21st Century

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Education for 21st Century

  1. 1. Vision of Education for 21st Century B y M. S. Rahman Principal Radiant International School, Patna E-mail ID: principal.msr@gmail.com Contact: 7541806969
  2. 2. Enjoy & Embrace Change “Change is the law of life. And those who look away to the past or present are certain to miss the future.” -John F. Kennedy.
  3. 3. Global Education • Successful education systems are student-centered and individually tailored. • Technology is a driver and enabler of education. • Networks are essential to level the playing field for all. • Leading by influence is essential in a complex system. • Data must be captured and used to drive decision-making. • Education systems must work beyond boundaries to involve all groups that influence learning, including partners, parents, and the local community.
  4. 4. 21st Century Education • It is bold. It breaks the mold. It is flexible, creative, challenging, and complex. It addresses a rapidly changing world filled with fantastic new problems as well as exciting new possibilities.
  5. 5. 21st Century Skills • 21st Century Schools, we recognize the critical need for developing 21st century skills. However, we believe that authentic education addresses the “whole child”, the “whole person”, and does not limit our professional development and curriculum design to workplace readiness. • 21st century skills learned through our curriculum, which is interdisciplinary, integrated, project-based, and more, include and are learned within a project-based curriculum by:
  6. 6. 21st Century Skills contd… • Collaboration – the ability to work in teams • Critical thinking – taking on complex problems • Oral communications – presenting • Written communications – writing • Technology – use technology • Citizenship – take on civic and global issues; service learning • Learn about careers – through internships • Content – conduct research and do all of the above.
  7. 7. Students : iKids in the New Millennium • One of our goals is to help students become iKids and truly global citizens. • today’s students are referred to as “digital natives”, and today’s educators as “digital immigrants”. • Today’s students are digital learners – they literally take in the world via the filter of computing devices: the cellular phones, handheld gaming devices, PDAs, and laptops they take everywhere, plus the computers, TVs, and game consoles at home.
  8. 8. 21st Century Schools • "Schools" will go “from ‘buildings’ to nerve centers, with walls that are porous and transparent, connecting teachers, students and the community to the wealth of knowledge that exists in the world.” • The 21st century will require knowledge generation, not just information delivery, and schools will need to create a “culture of inquiry”. 
  9. 9. 21st Century Curriculum • Schools in the 21st century will be laced with a project-based curriculum for life aimed at engaging students in addressing real-world problems, issues important to humanity, and questions that matter. • This is a dramatic departure from the factory-model education of the past. It is abandonment, finally, of textbook-driven, teacher-centered, paper and pencil schooling. It means a new way of understanding the concept of “knowledge”, a new definition of the “educated person”. A new way of designing and delivering the curriculum is required.
  10. 10. 21st Century Learner
  11. 11. 21st Century Teacher • “Teacher” - • From primary role as a dispenser of information to orchestrator of learning and helping students turn information into knowledge, and knowledge into wisdom. 
  12. 12. 20th Century Classroom vs 21st Century Classroom
  13. 13. 20th Century Classroom vs 21st Century Classroom contd… USA 1960’s typical classroom – teacher-centered, fragmented curriculum, students working in isolation, memorizing facts. school providing internships for high school students. A perfect example of real-life, relevant, project-based 21st century education. Time-based Outcome-based Focus: memorization of discrete facts Focus: what students Know, Can Do and Are Like after all the details are forgotten. Lessons focus on the lower level of Bloom’s Taxonomy – knowledge, comprehension and application. Learning is designed on upper levels of Blooms’ – synthesis, analysis and evaluation (and include lower levels as curriculum is designed down from the top.) Textbook-driven Research-driven Passive learning Active Learning Learners work in isolation – classroom within 4 walls Learners work collaboratively with classmates and others around the world – the Global Classroom Teacher-centered: teacher is center of attention and provider of information Student-centered: teacher is facilitator/coach Little to no student freedom Great deal of student freedom
  14. 14. 20th Century Classroom vs 21st Century Classroom contd… “Discipline problems – educators do not trust students and vice versa. No student motivation. No “discipline problems” – students and teaches have mutually respectful relationship as co-learners; students are highly motivated. Fragmented curriculum Integrated and Interdisciplinary curriculum Grades averaged Grades based on what was learned Low expectations High expectations – “If it isn’t good it isn’t done.” We expect, and ensure, that all students succeed in learning at high levels. Some may go higher – we get out of their way to let them do that. Teacher is judge. No one else sees student work. Self, Peer and Other assessments. Public audience, authentic assessments. Curriculum/School is irrelevant and meaningless to the students. Curriculum is connected to students’ interests, experiences, talents and the real world. Print is the primary vehicle of learning and assessment. Performances, projects and multiple forms of media are used for learning and assessment Diversity in students is ignored. Curriculum and instruction address student diversity
  15. 15. 20th Century Classroom vs 21st Century Classroom contd… Literacy is the 3 R’s – reading, writing and math Multiple literacies of the 21st century – aligned to living and working in a globalized new millennium. Factory model, based upon the needs of employers for the Industrial Age of the 19th century. Scientific management. Driven by the NCLB and standardized testing mania.
  16. 16. Multiple Intelligences
  17. 17. Multiple Literacies for the 21st Century The Arts and Creativity Financial Literacy Media Literacy Social/Emotional Literacies Globalisation & Multicultural Literacy Physical Fitness and Health Literacies Cyberliteracy Ecoliteracy
  18. 18. 21st Century Learning
  19. 19. Which one describes your Classroom or School? 20th Century Classrooms  21st Century Classrooms
  20. 20. Which one Describes your Classroom or School? 20th Century Classrooms 21st Century Classrooms Time-based Outcome-base Focus: memorization of discrete facts Focus: what students Know, Can Do and Are Like after all the details are forgotten Lessons focus on the lower level of Bloom’s Taxonomy – knowledge, comprehension and application Learning is designed on upper levels of Blooms’ – synthesis, analysis and evaluation (and include lower levels as curriculum is designed down from the top) Textbook-driven Research-driven Passive learning Active Learning Learners work in isolation – classroom within 4 walls Learners work collaboratively with classmates and others around the world – the Global Classroom Teacher-centered: teacher is center of attention and provider of information Student-centered: teacher is facilitator/coach
  21. 21. Which one Describes your Classroom or School? Fragmented curriculum Integrated and Interdisciplinary curriculum Teacher is judge , no one else sees student work Self, Peer and Authentic assessments Curriculum/School is irrelevant and meaningless to the students Curriculum is connected to students’ interests, experiences, talents and the real world. Print is the primary vehicle of learning and assessment Performances, projects and multiple forms of media are used for learning and assessment Diversity in students is ignored Curriculum and instruction address student diversity Literacy is the 3 R’s – reading, writing and math Multiple literacies of the 21st century – aligned to living and working in a globalized new millennium Factory model, based upon the needs of employers for the Industrial Age of the 19th century. Scientific management Driven by the NCLB and standardized testing mania.
  22. 22. In the 21st century classroom students have access to rich information and global communication where teachers support, facilitate, encourage, and collaborate with their students We see technology. He sees information.
  23. 23. Impact on Schools • Huge impact: 1.New vistas of growth and opportunity. 2. Simultaneously widening of disparities. • Schools can not remain static. • No more stereotypes/repetitiveness. • Integration of knowledge and development of competencies. • In this context, let us look at the following quote of Prof. John Abbot, a renowned educationist from USA. He observes: “No curricular overhaul, no instructional innovation, no change in School organisation, no toughening of standards, no rethinking of teacher training or compensation will succeed if students do not come to school interested in , and committed to learning. We need to look, not at what goes on inside the classroom, but at students’ lives outside the classroom, but at students’ outside the school’s walls.”
  24. 24. Seamless World In today’s seamless world-- 1. Countries have greater understanding of how different systems of education function. 2. More and more international players are entering the scene. 3. There is greater mobility of students across borders for higher education and jobs. 4. There is wider access to alternative systems of School Education. In this scenario, systems that fail to reinvent themselves for creating excellence face the risk of getting marginalised.
  25. 25. Parameters of Quality in Education • Unlike most of the other sectors, education poses a serious challenge when we try to identify the common core parameters of quality. • It is because education is a complex activity that depends as much on the processes as the products. • Since education does not constitute an assembly line, theories of quality that apply to manufacturing sector and other services can not apply to education.
  26. 26. A Broad Framework of Quality • The framework of quality in school education should go beyond the extrinsic and instrumental goals of education. • The framework will include the following five dimensions: 1. Content. 2. People. 3. Processes. 4. Technology 5. System.
  27. 27. Key Institutional Shifts Schools all over are witnessing key shifts today. There is a growing interest in reinventing school education through institutional changes. They are: 1.From delivering content to building capacity • Shifting the focus from instruction to developing generic skills in learners. • The trend is to create: -a learning community. -anywhere, anytime and life time learning. -autonomous learners and accountable institution culture.
  28. 28. Key Institutional Shifts (contd.) 2.From stand-alone institutions to value-adding networks. • Schools are increasingly realising that they can not function in isolation , insulting themselves from the socio-cultural milieu. • Net working of communities of practice is leading to value addition and enrichment of curriculum design and curriculum transaction. • Local Area Network (LAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) are broadband internet connectivity are facilitating interconnectedness among schools. • School website based interaction is bringing the community and parents closer to the school.
  29. 29. Key Institutional Shifts (contd.) 3.From Setting and Delivering Curriculum to Co-creating Curriculum. • Top-Down, prescriptive model of curriculum policy making is giving way to consultative, non- linear approach. • Schools and teachers are encouraged to create and enrich curriculum through consultations and negotiations. • Innovative practices and experimentation in school education are encouraged. • Greater autonomy is provided to schools to make them partners with Boards of Education.
  30. 30. Key Institutional Shifts (contd.) 4.From Standard Operating Procedures to creative adaptations. • Mechanical routines are replaced by continuous improvement in schools. • This has resulted in a shift from MOTS (Most Of The Same) to HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills). • Transformative learning is resulting in -better retention. -increased engagement. -improved student learning outcomes. -innovations and new ways of doing things.
  31. 31. How can Schools Respond to this Shift? • The power of real life. • The power of demonstration. • The power of question. • The power of technology. • The power of going beyond books.
  32. 32. In Need of Freedom “It is in fact, nothing short of miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of enquiry; for this delicate little plant, aside from stimulation, stands mainly in need of freedom…it is a grave mistake to think that the enjoyment of seeing and searching can be promoted by means of coercion and sense of duty.” - Albert Einstein
  33. 33. Different Types of Thinking Skills 1. Critical Thinking This is convergent thinking. It assesses the worth and validity of something existent. It involves precise, persistent, objective analysis. When teachers try to get several learners to think convergently, they try to help them develop common understanding. 2. Creative Thinking This is divergent thinking. It generates something new or different. It involves having a different idea that works as well or better than previous ideas. 3. Convergent Thinking This type of thinking is cognitive processing of information around a common point, an attempt to bring thoughts from different direction into a union or common conclusion. 4. Divergent Thinking This type of thinking starts from a common point and moves outward into a variety of perspectives. When fostering divergent thinking, teachers use the content as a vehicle to prompt diverse or unique thinking among students rather than a common view. 5. Inductive Thinking This is the process of reasoning from parts to the whole, from example to generalizations. 6. Deductive Thinking This type of reasoning moves from the whole to its parts, from generalizations to underlying concepts to examples.
  34. 34. Key Shift in Curriculum Design • Broad based curriculum wider choices for learners. • Effective process of updating the curriculum due to obsolescence. • Space for value addition by users. • Making curriculum technologically compatible. • Fine tuning the design. • Integrating pedagogy with curriculum design.
  35. 35. Bloom’s Taxonomy 1950 Evaluation judges the value of information Synthesis builds a pattern from diverse elements Analysis separates information into part for better understanding Application applying knowledge to a new situation Comprehension understanding information Knowledge recall of data
  36. 36. Anderson & Krathwohl 2001 Anderson and Krathwohl also list specific verbs that can be used when writing objectives for each column of the cognitive process dimension. • Remember: Recognizing, Recalling • Understand: Interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, explaining • Apply: Executing, implementing • Analyze: Differentiating, organizing, attributing • Evaluate: checking, critiquing • Create: generating, planning, producing
  37. 37. Knowledge Triangle
  38. 38. Your ‘mantra’ Should be 3 I’s
  39. 39. Genesis • Education cannot function in isolation. • Care and share. Rise together. • Period of uncertainty is over. • Competent- 30 years • Committed- 40 years. • Interconnectedness, interdependence. • Technical revolution. • Learning – a coalition force.
  40. 40. Will the School Change? • Corporate culture permeated. • Corporate culture has created island of excellence in education where quality comes sometime at exorbitantly high cost. • Global India International School – Hong Kong (Hqrs.) • Nothing fails like success. • Success has lead to complacency, inefficiency and arrogance. • When world outside the school is dynamic, school cannot be static. • Overcome inertia with extraordinary process of change • Develop a thinking School. A centre of excellence.
  41. 41. Dimensions of Effective Technology Enhanced Learning Environments: • Task-Oriented • Challenging • Collaborative • Constructionist • Conversational • Responsive • Reflective • Formative
  42. 42. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy
  43. 43. Instructional System Design Concept Map
  44. 44. Learning Concept Map
  45. 45. The Continuum of Understanding
  46. 46. Performance Typology Map
  47. 47. Constructivism as a Paradigm to Teaching Learning Traditional Classroom Constructivist Classroom Curriculum begins with the parts of the whole. Emphasizes basic skills. Curriculum emphasizes big concepts, beginning with the whole and expanding to include the parts. Strict adherence to fixed curriculum is highly valued. Pursuit of student questions and interests is valued. Materials are primarily textbooks and workbooks. Materials include primary sources of material and manipulative materials. Learning is based on repetition. Learning is interactive, building on what the student already knows. Teachers disseminate information to students; students are recipients of knowledge. Teachers have a dialogue with students, helping students construct their own knowledge. Teacher's role is directive, rooted in authority. Teacher's role is interactive, rooted in negotiation. Assessment is through testing, correct answers. Assessment includes student works, observations, and points of view, as well as tests. Process is as important as product. Knowledge is seen as inert. Knowledge is seen as dynamic, ever changing with our experiences. Students work primarily alone. Students work primarily in groups.
  48. 48. Five Guiding Principles of Constructivism Jacqueline Grennon Brooks and Martin G. Brooks offer five key principles of constructivist learning theory. You can use them to guide curriculum structure and lesson planning. • Pose problems of emerging relevance to students. • Structure learning around primary concepts. • Seek and value students' points of view. • Adapt instruction to address student suppositions. • Assess student learning in the context of teaching.
  49. 49. 1.Constructivism: Learning Cycle The Learning Cycle is a three-step design that can be used as a general framework for many kinds of constructivist activities. 1. Discovery Phase: The teacher encourages students to generate questions and hypotheses from working with various materials. 2. Concept Introduction Phase: The teacher focuses the students' questions and helps them create hypotheses and design experiments. 3. “Concept Application Phase: Students work on new problems that reconsider the concepts studied in the first two steps. You may find this cycle repeating many times throughout a lesson or unit.
  50. 50. 2. Constructivist Learning Design Another constructivist learning design was developed by George W. Gagnon. Jr., and Michelle Collay. In this model, teachers implement a number of steps in their teaching structure. They: • develop a situation for students to explain • select a process for groupings of materials and students • build a bridge between what students already know and what the teachers want them to learn • anticipate questions to ask and answer without giving away an explanation • encourage students to exhibit a record of their thinking by sharing it with others, and • solicit students' reflections about their learning.
  51. 51. 3. Constructivism Learning Design Robert O. McClintock1 and John B. Black2 of Columbia University Teachers College derived yet another design model from several computer technology-supported learning environments at the Dalton School in New York. The Information Construction (ICON) model contains seven stages: 1.Observation: Students make observations of primary source materials embedded in their natural context or simulations thereof. 2.Interpretation Construction: Students interpret their observations and explain their reasoning. 3. Contextualization: Students construct contexts for their explanations. 4. Cognitive Apprenticeship: Teachers help student apprentices master observation, interpretation, and contextualization. 5. Collaboration: Students collaborate in observation, interpretation, and contextualization. 6. Multiple Interpretations: Students gain cognitive flexibility by being exposed to multiple interpretations from other students and from expert examples. 7. Multiple Manifestations: Students gain transferability by seeing multiple manifestations of the same interpretations.
  52. 52. What are the “Life Skills” ? • Problem-Solving • Decision Making • Critical Thinking • Creative Thinking • Communication Skills • Self-Awareness • Stress Management • Empathy • Interpersonal Relationship
  53. 53. Values in School Context 1. Care and Compassion 2. Doing Your Best 3. Fair Go 4. Freedom 5. Honesty and Trustworthiness 6. Integrity 7. Respect 8. Responsibility 9. Understanding, Tolerance and Inclusion Caution! Value education is a part of hidden curriculum in Schools because it is not taught rather inculcated.
  54. 54. Value Education H³ Eight Great Traits 1. Care and Compassion 1. Caring for others 2. Doing Your Best 2. Planning and decision making 3. Fair Go 3.Problem Solving 4. Freedom 4.Citizenship 5. Honesty and Trustworthiness 5.Honesty 6. Integrity 6.Integrity 7. Respect 7.Responsibility 8. Responsibility 8.Respect for others 9. Understanding, Tolerance and Inclusion 9. Respect for others
  55. 55. 3 H
  56. 56. Effective Schools
  57. 57. Framework of Student Support Services Students are better prepared for learning when they are healthy, safe and happy, therefore, student welfare is the responsibility of all staff working in a whole school context. Student learning cannot be separated from welfare.
  58. 58. A Whole School Approach to Enhancing Resilience
  59. 59. How to Develop Student Resilience?
  60. 60. Steps in Value Education • Inculcation • Moral Development • Analysis • Value Clarification • Action Learning – last step of value education
  61. 61. Action Learning A problem-solving/decision making model (Huitt, 1992): Input Phase Processing Phase Output Phase Review Phase o Derived from a perspective that it is important to move beyond thinking and feeling to acting. o Related to the efforts of some social studies educators to emphasize community-based rather than classroom-based learning experiences
  62. 62. Purpose of education and development • Human being is “a mine rich in gems of inestimable value. Education can, alone, cause it to reveal its treasures.” Bahá’u’lláh • “Education should be recognised as a process by which human beings and societies can reach their fullest potential.” Agenda 21: Chapter 36.3 • “the real purpose of development … is the cultivation of the limitless potentialities latent in human consciousness.” BIC, 1998
  63. 63. Child friendly Schools and Quality Education • Quality learners: healthy, well-nourished, ready to learn, and supported by their family and community • Quality content: curricula and materials for literacy, numeracy, knowledge, attitudes, and skills for life • Quality teaching-learning processes: child- centered; (life) skills-based approaches, technology • Quality learning environments: policies and practices, facilities (classrooms, water, sanitation), services (safety, physical and psycho-social health) • Quality outcomes: knowledge, attitudes and skills; suitable assessment, at classroom and national levels
  64. 64. What is Quality? • Quality is usually perceived as the application’s ability to fulfill the reasonable expectations and needs set by the developer or the end user. By this definition, quality is subjective, depending on who is assessing the quality and in what context. In addition, quality can be assessed from an objective point of view: by following the statistics provided by testing, for example.
  65. 65. What is Quality? Quality includes following aspects- • Reliability • Functionality • Usability • Efficiency and Performance • Portability • Maintainability
  66. 66. Learning Cycle: Sciences The learning cycle is a research-supported method for education, particularly in science. The learning cycle has five overlapping phases: • Engage: in which a student's interest is captured and the topic is established. • Explore: in which the student is allowed to construct knowledge in the topic through facilitated questioning and observation. • Explain: in which students are asked to explain what they have discovered, and the instructor leads a discussion of the topic to refine the students' understanding. • Extend: in which students are asked to apply what they have learned in different but similar situations, and the instructor guides the students toward the next discussion topic. • Evaluate: in which the instructor observes each student's knowledge and understanding, and leads students to assess whether what they have learned is true. Evaluation should take place throughout the cycle, not within its own set phase.
  67. 67. Methods of implementing the "learning cycle" 1. Engage: Use of anecdotes that relate to subject. 2. Explore: Allow discussion that students discover answers instead of just hearing answers. 3. Explain: Students are required to reword what they have learned to demonstrate their knowledge. 4. Extend: Take the principles taught and have students apply the knowledge in another area or facet of the subject. 5. Evaluate: Observe and correct each student individually to perfect their "working" knowledge of the subject.
  68. 68. Kolb’s 1984 (revised in 2006) Learning Style
  69. 69. Kolb’s Learning Style
  70. 70. VAK learning styles Learning style Description Visual seeing and reading Auditory listening and speaking Kinesthetic *N.B. Kinesthetic style is also referred to as 'Physical', or 'Tactile', or 'Touchy-Feely'. touching and doing
  71. 71. Learning Curve
  72. 72. Learning Curve
  73. 73. Learning Curve
  74. 74. Competencies: LSRW In languages, the basic competencies are- • Listening • Speaking • Reading • Writing
  75. 75. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  76. 76. Maria Montessori “Scientific observation has established that education is not what the teacher gives; education is a natural process spontaneously carried out by the human individual, and is acquired not by listening to words but by experiences upon the environment. The task of the teacher becomes that of preparing a series of motives of cultural activity, spread over a specially prepared environment, and then refraining from obtrusive interference. Human teachers can only help the great work that is being done, as servants help the master. Doing so, they will be witnesses to the unfolding of the human soul and to the rising of a New Man who will not be a victim of events, but will have the clarity of vision to direct and shape the future of human society”. -Maria Montessori
  77. 77. Piaget's Key Ideas Adaptation What it says: adapting to the world through assimilation and accommodation Assimilation The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit. Accommodation The difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of assimilation. Note that assimilation and accommodation go together: you can't have one without the other. Classification The ability to group objects together on the basis of common features. Class Inclusion The understanding, more advanced than simple classification, that some classes or sets of objects are also sub-sets of a larger class. (E.g. there is a class of objects called dogs. There is also a class called animals. But all dogs are also animals, so the class of animals includes that of dogs) Conservation The realisation that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different. Decentration The ability to move away from one system of classification to another one as appropriate. Egocentrism The belief that you are the centre of the universe and everything revolves around you: the corresponding inability to see the world as someone else does and adapt to it. Not moral "selfishness", just an early stage of psychological development. Operation The process of working something out in your head. Young children (in the sensorimotor and pre- operational stages) have to act, and try things out in the real world, to work things out (like count on fingers): older children and adults can do more in their heads. Schema (or scheme) The representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, ideas, and/or actions, which go together. Stage A period in a child's development in which he or she is capable of understanding some things but not others
  78. 78. Stages of Cognitive Development Stage Characterised by Sensori-motor (Birth-2 yrs) Differentiates self from objects Recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise Achieves object permanence: realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense (pace Bishop Berkeley) Pre-operational (2-7 years) Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour Concrete operational (7-11 years) Can think logically about objects and events Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9) Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size. Formal operational (11 years and up) Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems
  79. 79. Factors in Educational Achievement
  80. 80. Is Multi-Tasking Holding Our Kids Back? • Most pundits say that kids multi-tasking -- doing homework with the TV on, for example -- is just the way things are now, and indeed they may be right. But in the new Atlantic author Walter Kirn says that students' and teachers' and indeed human beings' brains were not made for such things. According to Kirn, our brains lose their ability to retain information if asked to do too many things at once. The implications for schooling are clear: "The next generation, presumably, is the hardest-hit...A recent study from the Kaiser Family Foundation found that 53 percent of students in grades seven through 12 report consuming some other form of media while watching television; 58 percent multitask while reading; 62 percent while using the computer; and 63 percent while listening to music....This is the great irony of multitasking—that its overall goal, getting more done in less time, turns out to be chimerical. In reality, multitasking slows our thinking." • PS: This post was written while I was on the phone and watching TV.
  81. 81. Freud’s Psychoanalysis
  82. 82. Brain-Compatible Teaching Constructivist teaching is based on recent research about the human brain and what is known about how learning occurs. Caine and Caine (1991) suggest that brain-compatible teaching is based on 12 principles: 1. "The brain is a parallel processor" . It simultaneously processes many different types of information, including thoughts, emotions, and cultural knowledge. Effective teaching employs a variety of learning strategies. 2. "Learning engages the entire physiology" . Teachers can't address just the intellect. 3. "The search for meaning is innate". Effective teaching recognizes that meaning is personal and unique, and that students' understandings are based on their own unique experiences. 4. "The search for meaning occurs through 'patterning' ". Effective teaching connects isolated ideas and information with global concepts and themes. 5. "Emotions are critical to patterning". Learning is influenced by emotions, feelings, and attitudes. 6. "The brain processes parts and wholes simultaneously". People have difficulty learning when either parts or wholes are overlooked. 7. "Learning involves both focused attention and peripheral perception" . Learning is influenced by the environment, culture, and climate. 8. "Learning always involves conscious and unconscious processes" . Students need time to process 'how' as well as 'what' they've learned. 9. "We have at least two different types of memory: a spatial memory system, and a set of systems for rote learning" . Teaching that heavily emphasizes rote learning does not promote spatial, experienced learning and can inhibit understanding. 10. "We understand and remember best when facts and skills are embedded in natural, spatial memory" . Experiential learning is most effective. 11. "Learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat". The classroom climate should be challenging but not threatening to students. 12. "Each brain is unique" . Teaching must be multifaceted to allow students to express preferences.
  83. 83. Customer Care
  84. 84. Quality Education
  85. 85. Thought Alignment
  86. 86. Focus the Learning
  87. 87. Innovation : Change Change More?……..Different?…………..or Better?
  88. 88. Innovation: the Creative Continuum Innovation Replication Formulation Innovation Origination The Creative Continuum
  89. 89. Traits of Creative People Powers of observation Curiosity: want to learn Ability to identify issues others missed Talent for generating large numbers of ideas Persistent questioning of the norm Ability to see established structure in new ways Perseverance through abjection
  90. 90. Organization Culture Vision Mission Goals & Objectives Strategies Structure Culture Behaviour Performance
  91. 91. The Shift in Teaching and Learning Traditional Methods  Teacher centered  Content coverage  Memorizing information  Teacher  Whole group configuration  Single instructional and learning modality  Memorization and recall  Single discipline  Isolated  Textbook dependent  Teachers teaching one learning style  Learning content  Learning isolated skills and factoids 21st Century Methods  Learner centered  Learning by doing  Using information  Facilitator  Flexible grouping configuration  Multiple instructional and learning modalities to include all students  Higher order thinking skills - creativity Interdisciplinary Collaborative Multiple sources of information Teachers addressing multiple learning styles  Learning how to learn  Completing authentic projects
  92. 92. The Need to Redefine / Reinvent: • Schools • Students • Teachers • Learning • Curriculum • Pedagogy • Assessment
  93. 93. Eight steps for managing change • Establish a sense of urgency • Form a powerful guiding coalition • Create a vision • Communicate the vision • Empower others to act on the vision • Plan for and create short-term wins • Consolidate improvements and produce still more change • Institutionalize new approaches
  94. 94. What Students want from Teachers 1. Fairness in treatment (82%) 2. Positive feedback (timeliness) (77%) 3. Appreciation of different learning styles (70%) 4. Understanding of the concept (34%) 5. Ability to communicate (33%) Source: British Council study of 6220 students across 800 schools in South Asia
  95. 95. What Parents want from Schools 1. Continuous communication with parents (88%) 2. Nurture skills and talents (58%) 3. Develop communication skills (55%) 4. Motivate students to study (55%) 5. Superior teaching and coaching (55%) 6. All-round personality development (50%) 7. Superior infrastructure (11%) Source: British Council study of 6220 students across 800 schools in South Asia
  96. 96. What Students want from Principals? 1. Fairness in treatment (61%) 2. Ability to communicate and inspire (60%) 3. Positive feedback to parents (51%) 4. Appreciation of multiple skills – sports and arts (50%) 5. Superior teacher (11%) Source: British Council study of 6220 students across 800 schools in South Asia
  97. 97. The Learning Cycle as a Tool for Planning Science Instruction
  98. 98. How do YOU learn? • We learn: • 10% of what we read • 20% of what we hear • 30% of what we see • 50% of what we both see and hear • 70% of what is discussed with others • 80% of what we experience personally • 90% of what we TEACH to someone else
  99. 99. Concept Map
  100. 100. Learning Types: VAK We are not all the same type of learner. Learning types can be simply divided into Visual (learn best by "seeing"), Auditory (learn best by "hearing" or Kinesthetic (learn best by "doing"). We may learn better using one, or a combination of these types of learning.
  101. 101. Thinking Classroom Philosophy  What?  • Teach learners how to learn • Teach learners how to think • Discover, value and use thinking skills • Discover, value and use learning styles • Discover, value and use multiple intelligences profiles • Infuse the best new educational practices with the best traditional ones
  102. 102. Thinking Classroom Philosophy Why?  • Because 21st Century learners/workers need skills more than knowledge • Because future economic success depends on skills and creativity • Because some traditional educational practices are not working • Because other traditional educational practices are working yet need updating • Literacy
  103. 103. Thinking Classroom Philosophy How? • By matching teaching styles to learning styles • By valuing each learner for what they do well • By educating for skills, attitudes and values as well as knowledge • By preparing learners for their futures not our pasts • By valuing, supporting and resourcing all educators
  104. 104. Learning = Access + Process + Express 1. Learning Styles which describes the initial 'Accessing' part of learning: the unique preferences that we all have for how we experience new information and ideas (visual, auditory, together, alone, outside, inside etc.) 2. Thinking Skills which explains how we 'Process' ideas once we've experienced them: how do we assimilate, evaluate, organize, play around with and plan to use what we've found out? 3. Multiple Intelligences which shows the many different ways in which we can 'Express' what we've just accessed and processed: do we prefer to write it down or talk about it? Sing it or dance it? Draw it or paint it? There are more ways to demonstrate your learning than through a written exam. Learning = Access + Process + Express
  105. 105. Vision 2010: Roadmap for 21st Century Education
  106. 106. Skills for the 21st Century contd.. • communication acquiring and processing information • synthesizing knowledge • integrating knowledge from different disciplines • leadership: team management, dealing with uncertainty, conflict handling • failure management • commercial awareness (market, IPR) • research management • creative thinking (discovery, imaging solutions)
  107. 107. Skills for the 21st Century contd..  negotiation  understanding of business environment  user requirement consciousness  coping with conflicting demands  analytical skills  methodological knowledge and skills  communication and presentation skills  management skills  international, intercultural experience and competence working in such environments
  108. 108. Skills for the 21st Century  language skills  people and relationship management skills  computer science skills  hard science knowledge (to a certain degree), e.g. statistics  interdisciplinary skills and knowledge - broader picture and understanding of the world  entrepreneurship  social skills in different context (in different socio-economic environments)  creative thinking, innovation  ethics  problem solving
  109. 109. Spoken English
  110. 110. Aspects of Change: A Time of Learning
  111. 111. 21st Century Teaching 20th Century 21st Century
  112. 112. 6 Ws + 1 H • What? • When? • Why? • How? • Where? • Who? • Whose?
  113. 113. Six Sigma • Define • Measure • Analyze • Improve • Control • Define • Measure • Analyze • Design • Verify
  114. 114. Quality Improvement Cycle Quality Improvement Cycle
  115. 115. “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read or write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn.” --Alvin Toffler, American writer and futurist (1928- )

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