21st century skills
Shifts in assessment
“Assessment for learning”
and “assessment of
Alternative forms of
DEFINITION OF ASSESSMENT (AFT,
NCME, NEA, 1990)
Assessment is defined as a process
of obtaining information that is used
to make educational decisions about
students, to give feedback to
students about his or her
progress, strengths and
weaknesses, to judge instructional
effectiveness and curricular
adequacy, and to inform policy.
21ST CENTURY SKILLS
Learning and innovation skills
Creativity and Innovation
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Communication and Collaboration
Information, media, and technology skills
ICT (Information, Communications and Technology) Literacy
Life and career skills
Flexibility and Adaptability
Initiative and Self-Direction
Social and Cross-Cultural Skills
Productivity and Accountability
Leadership and Responsibility
Partnership for the 21st century skills
ASSESSMENT COMPETENCIES FOR
Constructed by the AFT, NCME, NEA:
Teachers should be skilled in:
1. choosing assessment methods appropriate
for instructional decisions.
2. Administering, scoring, and interpreting the
results of both externally produced and
teacher produced assessment methods.
3. Using assessment results when making
decisions about individual
students, planning teaching, and developing
curriculum and school improvement.
American Federation of Teachers, National Council on Measurement and Evaluation,
and National Education Association in the United States of America.
ASSESSMENT COMPETENCIES FOR
4. Developing valid pupil grading procedures that
use pupil assessment.
5. Communicating assessment results to students,
parents, other lay audiences, and other
6. Recognizing unethical, illegal, and otherwise
inappropriate assessment methods and uses of
SHIFTS IN ASSESSMENT
Testing Alternative assessment
Paper and pencil Performance assessment
Multiple choice Supply
Single correct answer Many correct answer
Outcome only Process and Outcome
Skill focused Task-based
Isolated facts Application of knowledge
Decontextualized task Contextualized task
ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT
Assessment of Learning
How much have students
learned as of a particular point
Assessment for Learning
How can we use assessment to
help students learn more?
ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT
Effect of Previous
Practices: rank students
on achievement by
New Expectation: Assure
competence in Math,
Reading, Writing, etc.
Assessment and grading
procedures should help
ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING
We need to close the gap between
standards and students competencies
Risk: our society will be unable to
productively evolve in social and economic
Assessment is a tool to ensure student
mastery of essential standards.
ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING
Mistaken beliefs about how to use
assessment to support school
1. High-stakes tests are good for all
students because they motivate
2. If I threaten to fail you, it will cause
you to try harder
3. If a little intimidation doesn’t work, use
a lot of intimidation
4. The way to maximize learning is to maximize
5. It is the adults who use assessment results to
make the most important instructional decision.
Teachers and leaders don’t need to understand
sound assessment practices – the testing people
will take care of us.
They do need to understand sound assessment
ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF ASSESSMENT
Performance based assessment
1. Distinguish performance-based
assessment with the traditional paper and
2. Construct tasks that are performance
Design a rubric to assess a performance
Changes are taking
place in assessment
Assessment should measure what is really
important in the curriculum.
Assessment should look more like instructional
activities than like tests.
Educational assessment should approximate the
learning tasks of interest, so that, when students
practice for the assessment, some useful learning
WHAT IS PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT?
Testing that requires a student to create an answer
or a product that demonstrates his/her knowledge
or skills (Rudner & Boston, 1991).
FEATURES OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
Intended to assess what it is that students know
and can do with the emphasis on doing.
Have a high degree of realism about them.
Involve: (a) activities for which there is no correct
answer, (b) assessing groups rather than
individuals, (c) testing that would continue over an
extended period of time, (d) self-evaluation of
Likely use open-ended tasks aimed at assessing
higher level cognitive skills.
PUSH ON PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
Bring testing methods more in line with instruction.
Assessment should approximate closely what it is
students should know and be able to do.
EMPHASIS OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
Should assess higher level cognitive skills rather
than narrow and lower level discreet skills.
Direct measures of skills of interest.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PERFORMANCE-BASED
Students perform, create, construct, produce, or do
Deep understanding and/or reasoning skills are needed and
Involves sustained work, often days and weeks.
Calls on students to explain, justify, and defend.
Performance is directly observable.
Involves engaging in ideas of importance and substance.
Relies on trained assessor’s judgments for scoring
Multiple criteria and standards are prespecified and public
There is no single correct answer.
If authentic, the performance is grounded in real world
contexts and constraints.
VARIATION OF AUTHENTICITY
Relatively authentic Somewhat authentic Authentic
Indicate which parts of
a garden design are
Design a garden Create a garden
Write a paper on
Write a proposal to
Write a proposal to
present to city council
to change zoning laws
Explain what would
you teach to students
Show how to perform
basketball skills in
Play a basketball
CONSTRUCTING PERFORMANCE BASED
1. Identify the performance task in which students
will be engaged
2. Develop descriptions of the task and the context in
which the performance is to be conducted.
3. Write the specific question, prompt, or problem
that the student will receive.
• Structure: Individual or group?
• Content: Specific or integrated?
• Complexity: Restricted or extended?
COMPLEXITY OF TASK
Narrowly defined and require brief responses
Task is structured and specific
Construct a bar graph from data provided
Demonstrate a shorter conversation in French about what is
on a menu
Read an article from the newspaper and answer questions
Flip a coin ten times. Predict what the next ten flips of the coin
will be, and explain why.
Listen to the evening news on television and explain if you
believe the stories are biased.
Construct a circle, square, and triangle from provided materials
that have the same circumference.
Complex, elaborate, and time-consuming.
Often include collaborative work with small group of
Requires the use of a variety of information
Design a playhouse and estimate cost of materials and labor
Plan a trip to another country: Include the budget and
itinerary, and justify why you want to visit certain places
Conduct a historical reenactment (e. g. impeachment trial of
Diagnose and repair a car problem
Design an advertising campaign for a new or existing product
IDENTIFYING PERFORMANCE TASK
Prepare a task description
Listing of specifications to ensure that essential if
criteria are met
Includes the ff.:
Content and skill targets to be assessed
Description of student activities
Group or individual
PERFORMANCE-BASED TASK QUESTION
Task prompts and questions will be based on the
Clearly identifies the outcomes, outlines what the
students are encourage dot do, explains criteria for
What you look for in student responses to evaluate
their progress toward meeting the learning target.
Dimensions of traits in performance that are used to
illustrate understanding, reasoning, and proficiency.
Start with identifying the most important dimensions
of the performance
What distinguishes an adequate to an inadequate
demonstration of the target?
EXAMPLE OF CRITERIA
Students will be able to write a persuasive paper to
encourage the reader to accept a specific course of
action or point of view.
Appropriateness of language for the audience
Plausibility and relevance of supporting arguments.
Level of detail presented
Evidence of creative, innovative thinking
Clarity of expression
Organization of ideas
Indicate the degree to which a particular dimension
Three kinds: Numerical, qualitative, combined
Numbers of a continuum to indicate different level of
proficiency in terms of frequency or quality
No Understanding 1 2 3 4 5 Complete
No organization 1 2 3 4 5 Clear organization
Emergent reader 1 2 3 4 5 Fluent reader
Uses verbal descriptions to indicate student
Provides a way to check the whether each dimension
Type A: Indicate different gradations of the dimension
Type B: Checklist
Example of Type A:
Minimal, partial, complete
Never, seldom, occasionally, frequently, always
Consistent, sporadically, rarely
None, some, complete
Novice, intermediate, advance, superior
Inadequate, needs improvement, good excellent
Excellent, proficient, needs improvement
Absent, developing, adequate, fully developed
Limited, partial, thorough
Emerging, developing, achieving
Not there yet, shows growth, proficient
Excellent, good, fair, poor
The category of the scale contains several
criteria, yielding a single score that gives an overall
impression or rating
level 4: Sophisticated understanding of text
indicated with constructed meaning
level 3: Solid understanding of text indicated with
some constructed meaning
level 2: Partial understanding of text indicated with
tenuous constructed meaning
level 1: superficial understanding of text with little or
no constructed meaning
One in which each criterion receives a separate score.
Relevance of detail
Variety in words and
When scoring criteria are combined with a rating scale,
a complete scoring guideline is produced or rubric.
A scoring guide that uses criteria to differentiate
between levels of student proficiency.
GUIDELINES IN CREATING A RUBRIC
1. Be sure the criteria focus on important aspects of
2. Match the type of rating with the purpose of the
3. The descriptions of the criteria should be directly
4. The criteria should be written so that students,
parents, and others understand them.
5. The characteristics and traits used in the scale
should be clearly and specifically defined.
6. Take appropriate steps to minimize scoring frame
PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT: EXPLORATION
Have you ever done a portfolio?
Tell me about this experience. Did you
What elements did you include in your
Are the materials placed in the portfolio
Watch video on Portfolio
WHAT ARE PORTFOLIOS?
Purposeful, systematic process of collecting and
evaluating student products to document progress
toward the attainment of learning targets or show
evidence that a learning target has been achieved.
Includes student participation in the selection and
“A collection of artifacts accompanied by a reflective
narrative that not only helps the learner to
understand and extend learning, but invites the
reader of the portfolio to gain insight about learning
and the learner (Porter & Cleland, 1995)
CHARACTERISTICS OF PORTFOLIO
Clearly defined purpose and learning targets
Systematic and organized collection of student
Preestablished guidelines for what will be included
Student selection of some works that will be
Student self-reflection and self-evaluation
Progress documented with specific products and/or
Portfolio conferences between students and
PURPOSE OF PORTFOLIO
Showcase portfolio: Selection of best works. Student
chooses work, profile are accomplishments and
individual profile emerges.
Documentation portfolio: Like a scrapbook of
information and examples. Includes
observations, tests, checklists, and rating scales.
Evaluation portfolio: More standardized. Assess
student learning with self-reflection. Examples are
selected by teachers and predetermined.
ADVANTAGES OF PORTFOLIO
Students are actively involved in self-evaluation and
Involves collaborative assessment
Ongoing process where students demonstrate
performance, evaluate , revise , and produce quality
Focus on self-improvement rather than comparison with
Students become more engaged in learning because
both instruction and assessment shift from teacher
controlled to mix of internal and external control.
Products help teachers diagnose learning difficulties
clarify reasons for evaluation