INTRODUCTION• “The most beautiful things in the worldcannot be seen or touched, they are feltwith the heart.”― Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, The LittlePrince• “A rock pile ceases to be a rock pile themoment a single man contemplates it,bearing within him the image of acathedral.”― Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, The LittlePrince
INTERACTIVE READINGMODEL• An attempt to combine the twomodels, the top-down and thebottom-up.• It selects the strong points of bothmodels and integrates them inlearning to read.
Researchers’ view aboutthe model• Emerald DechantMeaning is constructed by theselective use of information fromvarious sources, without relying onany set order. these sources may begraphemic, phonemic, morphemic,syntax and semantics. All levels ofprocessing are used although thereader can rely on one source at agiven time.
• Kenneth GoodmanReading is understood at onceas both a perceptual and cognitiveprocess.Researchers’ view aboutthe model
• To be able to accomplish the taskof reading, a skilled reader mustbe able to usesensory, syntactic, semantic, andpragmatic situation.• During the process ofreading, various sources ofinformation may interact in manyResearchers’ view aboutthe model
REFLECTIONWhen giving interpretation to what one hasread, one should not only focus on the textnor the reader. Giving meaning to the textcould also be done by combining theessential feature of he bottom-up and thetop-down model. We should alwaysremember that there are some text thatwas not meant to be taken literally as itswords suggest. We should also not derivesolely the meaning of what we read basedonly from our own prior knowledge of thetopic. We should learn to incorporate alittle bit of those two (reader, text).
INTRODUCTION• Literature tells you many things. Ittells you the stories of real people whograpple with problems that the urgencyin today’s living brings. It recounts theexperiences of ordinary country folkwho delight at the simple joys of life. itnarrates the exploits or adventures ofthe immortals and the supernaturalbeings who thrill us with theirincredible powers.
• Literature relates all these thingsthrough its elements such aspoetic language, tone and mood,character, setting, plot andtheme.LITERARY APPRECIATIONSKILLS
1. POETIC LANGUAGE Words or phrases that conjure upvivid pictures in your mind, thatappeal to your emotions, or thatcommunicate ideas beyond the literalmeanings of the words Images appeal to the senses ofsight, touch, and hearing althoughthe majority of images are visual.LITERARY APPRECIATIONSKILLS
2. TONE AND MOODThe attitude that a writer takestoward a subject is tone. It maybe angry, bitter, humorous,nostalgic or serious.LITERARY APPRECIATIONSKILLS
2. TONE AND MOODThe feeling or atmosphere thatthe writer creates for the readeris mood. It may be joyful, quiet,optimistic, or sad. Figurativelanguage, images, details andsetting convey mood.LITERARY APPRECIATIONSKILLS
3. CHARACTERThe people or animals who takepart in the action of fiction andeven poetry are characters.LITERARY APPRECIATIONSKILLS
3. CHARACTERThe writer’s use of characterizationtechniques helps in giving you animpression of the characters. Thesetechniques may be physicaldescription, the words and actions ofthe characters, the reactions of theother characters to the individual, andthe character’s expression of her ownthoughts and feelings.LITERARY APPRECIATIONSKILLS
4. SETTINGThe time and place of the actioncomprise the setting of a literarywork. In most stories, it serves asa backdrop in which thecharacters interact. In others, it isused to reveal character, helpdevelop plot, and create mood.LITERARY APPRECIATIONSKILLS
5. PLOTthe arrangement of events in ashort storyIts most important elements includethe conflict, the climax, and theresolution. Conflict is the point atwhich the conflict is greatest. Theresolution is the outcome of theconflict.LITERARY APPRECIATIONSKILLS
6. THEMEthe main idea of a literary workTo determine the theme, you need toconsider all the elements of literaturealthough most writers reveal thetheme through characters.LITERARY APPRECIATIONSKILLS
ACTIVITYHow can you say the following usingpoetic language?o You are beautiful.o You smell nice/fragrant.o It is too noisy.o I love you.
REFLECTIONLiterature has already been a part of our lives,not only in the academic but also in the personalsense. We gain a lot of things from literature:knowledge about other people’s cultures, novel ideas,thoughts about the mysteries of life, and some formof escape from the struggles that we encounter in ourmodern world. With these in mind, we should learnto appreciate literature and its wonders. We shouldunderstand its value and give importance to the partthat it has played all through the years. And most ofall, we should learn to esteem, honor, respect andadmire the beauty and complexity of literature.
LEARNING TASK 9A. Which model/theory is easier to apply: bottom-up, top-bottom, or interactive theory? Explain.B. Search for Edgar Allan Poe’s poem, Annabel Leeand identify the following elements:• Poetic Language (give at least 3 examples)• Tone and mood• Characters• Setting• Summary or plot• Theme• Reflection