4 01 greek temples

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4 01 greek temples

  1. 1. GREEK ORDERS , TEMPLES ,THEATERS AND ATHENS
  2. 2. Doric masculine, serious, and dignified Ionic Corinthian feminine, light, delicate and elegant. grandiose Order- in classical architecture, the parts of a building that stand in fixed and constant relation to each other; distinguishable by the capitals.
  3. 3. GREEK ARCHITECTURE – CLASSICAL PERIOD 479-336 BC GREEK ORDERS - DORIC
  4. 4. GREEK ARCHITECTURE – CLASSICAL PERIOD 479-336 BC GREEK ORDERS - DORIC
  5. 5. GREEK ARCHITECTURE – CLASSICAL PERIOD 479-336 BC GREEK ORDERS - DORIC
  6. 6. GREEK ARCHITECTURE – GREEK ORDERS - IONIC
  7. 7. GREEK ARCHITECTURE – GREEK ORDERS - IONIC
  8. 8. GREEK ARCHITECTURE – GREEK ORDERS - CORINTHIAN
  9. 9. GREEK ARCHITECTURE – GREEK ORDERS - CORINTHIAN
  10. 10. Orders of Greek Architecture a. Doric Order b. Ionic Order c. Corinthian Order
  11. 11. IONIC ENTABLATUR E IONIC BASE
  12. 12. GREEK TEMPLES Origins   Early temples had massive pillars as architects worried about their ability to support the weight above. Later temples appear more elegant. Temple of Hera, Paestum Hephaistion, Athens
  13. 13. Classification of temples  Classification is based on - the number of columns on the entrance front Type of collonade surrounding the noas Type Of Portico - -
  14. 14. Characteristics of a Greek temple  OREINTED TOWARDS THE EAST  CREPIDOMA (Crepidoma is an architectural term related to ancient Greek buildings. The crepidoma is the platform on which the superstructure of the building is erected. The crepidoma is usually, three levels. The levels typically decrease in size incrementally, forming a series of steps along all or some sides of the building. The crepidoma rests on the euthynteria (foundation), which is normally constructed of locally available stone for the sake of economy.The topmost level of the crepidoma is termed the stylobate, because it is the platform for the columns. The lower levels of the crepidoma are termed the “stereobate”.)
  15. 15. Characteristics of a Greek temple  NAOS ( it refers to the Cella, i.e. the inner chamber of a temple which houses a cult figure)  PRONAOS ( is the inner area of the portico of a Greek or Roman temple, situated between the portico's colonnade or walls and the entrance to the cella, or shrine)  AND EPINAOS (OPISTHODODMOS) - a room in the rear of the cella of an ancient Greek temple  SURROUNDED BY OPEN COLONNADE
  16. 16. Characteristics of a Greek temple       ENTRANCE DOORS on the east and west walls WINDOWS WERE RARE PEDIMENT TYMPANUM TIMBER ROOFS covered with MARBLE OR TERRACOTTA TILES ANTIFIXAE ORNAMENT at the end of the roof tiles
  17. 17. Parts of a Greek Temple  There are four distinct parts to a greek temple.  The bottom, horizontal part is the steps. Most Greek temples had three of them. CREPIDOMA (Crepidoma is an architectural term related to ancient Greek buildings. The crepidoma is the platform on which the superstructure of the building is erected. The crepidoma is usually, three levels. The levels typically decrease in size incrementally, forming a series of steps along all or some sides of the building. The crepidoma rests on the euthynteria (foundation), which is normally constructed of locally available stone for the sake of economy.The topmost level of the crepidoma is termed the stylobate, because it is the platform for the columns. The lower levels of the crepidoma are termed the “stereobate”.)
  18. 18. Parts of a Greek Temple  The next section is vertical and is the column.  Most columns had a base (though not the Doric), at the bottom, a shaft in the middle, and a capital at the top.  The shaft may be smooth or fluted.
  19. 19. Parts of a Greek Temple  Above the column is the entablature. If the column is the leg, think of this as the tabletop.  It has 3 parts: the architrave, a kind of base.  The frieze, a decorated part  The cornice the top.
  20. 20. Parts of a Greek Temple  The top section is angled and is called the pediment.  The sloping top part is called the sloping cornice.  The triangular part below is called the tympanum. This is often carved and decorated.  Sometimes there are caved features sticking up from the room. These are called antifixae or acroterions.
  21. 21. Greek Temples
  22. 22. Epinaos naos / CHARACTERISTICS OF TEMPLE – Parthenon plan
  23. 23. ANTIFIXAE ORNAMENT TYMPANUM PEDIMENT CREPIDOMA CHARACTERISTICS OF TEMPLE –Parthenon elevation
  24. 24. Temple of Parthenon, Athens (447-432 B.C)
  25. 25. Acropolis, Athens Temple of Parthenon, Athens (447-432 B.C)
  26. 26. Temple of Parthenon, Plan
  27. 27. Temple of Parthenon, sectional views
  28. 28. Temple of Parthenon, Recontructed views
  29. 29. Reconstruction of the Parthenon in Nashville. Temple of Parthenon, Athens (447-432 B.C)
  30. 30. Pediment carving details
  31. 31. Temple of Parthenon, optical corrections
  32. 32. A slight curvature is given to the stylobate, entablature and the cornices with an upward rising of 6omm on the shorter sides and 120mm on the longer sides .which if straight in reality could have appeared to sag of drop in the middle The intermediate columns were 1.8m dia. And the corner columns were 1.9m in dia., Thus made shorter and stouter ,which otherwise would have looked thin and flimsy. Temple of Parthenon, Athens (447-432 B.C)
  33. 33. ANTIFIXAE ORNAMENT LION HEAD SPOUTS COFFERED MARBLE CEILING SUPPORTED ON MARBLE BEAMS Temple of Parthenon, Athens (447-432 B.C)
  34. 34. The Parthenos statue was about forty feet tall and constructed from a wooden core covered over with shaped bronze plates. Gold plates were laid over top. Ivory surfaces were used for the goddess’ face and arms. Temple of Parthenon, naos
  35. 35. entasis, the outward bulging in the middle of Greek columns serves as a countermeasure to an optical illusion, that is created by numerous straight lines that appear to be slightly concave . Temple of Parthenon, optical corrections
  36. 36. The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  37. 37. Reconstructed West Elevation The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  38. 38. Plan The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  39. 39. Plan The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  40. 40. Caryatid porch The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  41. 41. West elevation & East Elevation South elevation & North Elevation The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  42. 42. East portico The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  43. 43. PLAN OF EPIDAURUS
  44. 44.   Seating & Entrance view
  45. 45. Plan of Athens

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