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Roman Architecture

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Roman Architecture

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Roman Architecture

  1. 1. Abhishek K. Venkitaraman Assistant Professor HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE LECTURE 5 Roman Architecture
  2. 2. Rome was not built in a day !!!
  3. 3. POLITICAL POWER AND ORGANIZATION
  4. 4. The Senate
  5. 5. ANCIENT ROME ** URBAN DESIGN • Greek : sense of the finite • Romans : political power and organization USE OF SCALE • Greek use of scale is based on human measurements • Romans used proportions that would relate parts of building instead of human measure
  6. 6. ANCIENT ROME ** MODULE • Greek use of house as module for town planning • Roman use of street pattern as module  to achieve a sense of overpowering grandeur  made for military government THE STREET • Greeks : as a leftover space for circulation • Romans: street are built first; buildings came later PLACE OF ASSEMBLY • Greeks: market (agora) • Romans: forum, market, theater, and arena
  7. 7. Rome: Urban Form Components A‐Palatine B‐The Republican Wall (367‐352BC) C‐Aurelian Wall‐280 AD D‐The Colosseum E‐The Panthenon • Town grew beyond the defensive walls of the hills and spread on the lower areas; • Intrinsic natural deficiencies: Flooding, Disease, River pollution, drinking water problem, poor bearing capacity, hilly topography etc. • Man induced constraints: Large scale sewer, aqueduct system; Urban Form Components • Recreation • Fortifications • Street Systems • Housing • Markets • City Centre F‐Baths of Diocletian G‐Baths of Caracalla H‐Mausoleum of Hadrian; J‐St. Peters built 1506‐1626
  8. 8. Ancient Rome
  9. 9. Plan
  10. 10. The Etruscans were the early settlers of west-central part of Italy, but later Romans occupied it. The ancient capital of Rome was near river Tiber surrounded by 7 hills. Coastline is simple No natural harbours. The romans conquered by war and ruled by law Unlike the Greeks who used stone and marble, the Romans obtained earth to make terracotta and bricks. The most important building that helped make the huge roman buildings was lime concrete. It was largely used for vaults, domes, walls and roads. The concrete was made of bricks and rubble and pozzolana(a volcanic earth) and lime. In important buildings the face was covered with plaster. The Etruscans and General characteristics:
  11. 11. Elements of Roman architecture show very significant Greek influence. However, Roman functional needs sometimes differed, resulting in interesting innovations. The Romans were less attached to “ideal” forms and extended Greek ideas to make them more functional. Romans needed interior space for worship, whereas the Greeks worshipped outside. Their solution was to extend the walls outward, creating engaged columns, while maintaining the same basic shape. Greek Influence
  12. 12. Construction Techniques • Building systems: • Lintelled: • Copied from the Greeks • Spaces are closed by straight lines • Vaulted • Use of arches • Barrel vaults • Use of domes • Strong walls so that they do not use external supports Materials: Limestone Concrete Mortar Arches: They used half point or semicircular arches They could use lintels above these arches Pediments were combined with them
  13. 13. Material combinations in walls: Construction Techniques
  14. 14. Construction Techniques Please read through this link : http://www.romeartlover.it/Costroma.html
  15. 15. • Greek shapes assimilation: • Architectonical orders were used more in a decorative than in a practical way • The use of orders linked to the wall created a decorative element • They used the classical orders and two more: • Composite • Tuscan Construction Techniques
  16. 16. Columnar and trabeated style of Greeks combined with Etruscan’s arch and vault. The various vaults used were: Semi Circular Vault, Cross Vault, Cupolas or Hemispherical domes. Capacity to span over large spaces. Lime concrete and lime plaster was used. Construction Techniques
  17. 17. Construction Techniques: Vaulting The vaulting technique of the Etruscans was absorbed by the Romans the development of a mature vaulting system. The Romans created vaults of perfect rigidity, devoid of external thrust, and requiring no buttresses. Thus vaults and domes could be easily erected over vast spaces, producing impressive and complex thermae, amphitheaters, and basilicas. Roman vaults were the basis on which more complex and varied forms were developed in the Middle Ages. The tunnel (or barrel) vault spans between two walls, like a continuous arch. The cross, or groined, vault is formed by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults, producing a surface that has arched openings for its four sides and concentration of load at the four corner points of the square or rectangle. Roman vault was the type used for covering square or rectangular compartments.
  18. 18. Roman Doric From Theatre of Marcellus at Rome. Column This order has a base unlike the Greek order (1/2D). The column shaft is circular and tapers to 3/4 to 2/3 rds to the top. Its divided into 16-20 flutes. Capital-½ D high. Entablature2D high. Architrave-½ D high. It has a Taenia at top with regula below it with six guttae under each triglyph. Frieze is ¾ D high and has triglyph and metopes. Cornice is ¾ D high and contains either mutules or dentils
  19. 19. Roman Ionic Taken from the Temple of Fortuna Virilis Column Base is ½ high. 20 flutes The shaft diminishes to 5/6that the top. Inter column is 3D. Volute Capital. Entablature 2 ¼ D high. Architrave is 5/8 diameter ; heavy and richly decorated. Frieze is ¾ D high, Flat and sculptural. Cornice is 7/8 D high and ornamented.
  20. 20. Roman Corinthian Taken from Temple of Castor and Pollux at Rome (7 B.C -6 A.D). Column Base is ½ D high. 24 flutes separated by fillets. Tapers to 5/6 D at top inter columniation is 2 2/3 D Capital-1 1/6 D high. Entablature : 2 ½ D Architrave: ¾ D, three facias, separated by ornamental moldings. Frieze: ¾ D high. Enriched with sculptures. Cornice-1 D high The cornice has dentils and is supported by a series of beam like brackets called modillions. It was a favorite order of the Romans and were largely used.
  21. 21. Roman composite It was used in Triumphal Arches It has an attic base ( upper and lower torus moldings separated by scotia and fillets) 24 flutes separated by fillets. The capital is combination of volutes of Ionic and Acanthus leaves of Corinthian. Entablature Architrave is ¾ D high Frieze is ¾ D high Cornice is 1 D high, supported by dentils.
  22. 22. Roman Tuscan Invented by Etruscans. Named after Tuscany, taken from the famous colonnade which reaches to the St. Peter. Column - 7D high. Capital is ½ D high. Unfluted shaft Base is ½ D - plain square block and simple torus. Entablature 1 ¾ D - Plain with no ornamentation Architrave - ½ D Frieze - ½ D Cornice - ¾ D.
  23. 23. • 2nd Century AD 175,000 people received public assistance from the city • Increased number of annual holidays 169 to 200 annually and high proportion of holidays were devoted to games; • Recreation centre like Circus Maximus attained dimension of 1962 feet by 654 feet provided seating for 385,000 • The colosseum was designed to accommodate about 50,000 spectators • Baths including shops, stadia, rest rooms, library, museums and numerous other facilities were present for public amusement Recreational buildings
  24. 24. Model of Rome in the 4th century AD, by Paul Bigot. The Circus lies between the Aventine (left) and Palatine (right); the oval structure to the far right is the Colosseum
  25. 25. Circus Maximus As reconstructed in the movie Ben Hur
  26. 26. Recreational buildings The Colosseum
  27. 27. The Colosseum The Colosseum was the largest and most important amphitheatre in the world, and the kinds of spectacles staged there were costlier and more impressive than those held anywhere else. There are even accounts of the Colosseum being flooded so that naval battles could be staged before an audience of tens of thousands, although some scholars have doubted that the arena could be made watertight or that ships could manoeuvre in the space available.
  28. 28. THE PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION The exterior The interior seating
  29. 29. 189 meters long 156 meters wide 24,000 square meters (6 acres)
  30. 30. The central arena 87 meters long 55 meters wide an oval
  31. 31. Stones Concrete Bricks More than 1.1 million erect this massive structure. 240 mast corbels
  32. 32. about 80 entrances accommodate 50,000 spectators
  33. 33. The most important Romans The Equites & knights Wealthy plebeians Poor plebeians Women & Slaves
  34. 34. General Features • Construction was initiated by the Emperor Vespasian around 72 AD. His son Titus reigned over its completion and the official opening ceremonies, about 8 years later, in 80 AD. • It got its popular name, the Colosseum, because of Nero's colossus (120 ft. high) statue of himself. • The huge theatre was originally built encompassing four floors. The first three had arched entrances, while the fourth floor utilized rectangular doorways. • The floors each measured between 10.5-13.9 meters in height. • The total height of the construction was approximately 48 meters • The arena measured 79 x 45 meters and consisted of wood and sand. • The Colloseum had a total spectator capacity of 45,000-55,000. • The Amphitheatre is built of travertine outside, and of tufa and brick in the interior. • 100,000 cubic meters of marble • It has a total of 76 entrances and 4 additional entrances for the emperor, other VIPs and the gladiators • the entire audience could exit the building in five minutes • The interior was divided into three parts: the arena, the podium, and the cavea.
  35. 35. Gladiator Problems !!!!!!
  36. 36. Details A free standing structure having an Elliptical plan –189m X 156m Structure height -48 m Elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow. Area covered –24,000 square metres(6 acres) Accommodated 87,000 people at a time. 80 arches on each of the first three levels, Outer wall material –travertine stone which were set without mortar; they were held together by 300 tons of iron clamps. Columns used: Doric order in 1st storey-12.4m high Ionic order in the 2nd storey, -11.8m high Corinthian order in the 3rdstorey, -11.8 m high
  37. 37. Other features: • 240 mast corbels were positioned around the top of the attic. They originally supported the velarium(retractable awning), that kept the sun and rain off spectators. • 80 entrances at ground level, 76 of which were used by ordinary spectators. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. The northern main entrance was reserved for the Roman Emperor and his aides, whilst the other three axial entrances were most likely used by the elite. All 4 axial entrances were richly decorated with painted stucco reliefs, of which fragments survive. Many of the original outer entrances have disappeared (collapsed due to earthquake). • Spectators accessed to their seats via vomitoria (passageways that opened into a tier of seats from below or behind)
  38. 38. Arena and hypogeum • The central arena (oval shaped) is 87m X 55m , surrounded by a wall 5m high, above which rose tiers of seating. • Arena is Covering an elaborate underground structure called the hypogeum. • A two-level subterranean network of tunnels and cages beneath the arena where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. vertical shafts provided instant access to the arena for caged animals. • Substantial quantities of machinery also existed in the hypogeum. Elevators and pulleys raised and lowered scenery and props, as well as lifting caged animals to the surface for release. There is evidence for the existence of major hydraulic mechanisms and according to ancient accounts, it was possible to flood the arena rapidly, presumably via a connection to a nearby aqueduct. Arenahypogeum
  39. 39. Recreational buildings Public Baths http://soula- classicalarcheology.weebly.com/roman- baths.html
  40. 40. • Roman bathing, which consisted of the Roman baths (or thermae) and also balneum • Early Romans used baths, but seldom, and only then for heath and cleanliness • Existence in 25 BC with the first thermae built by the Emperor Argippa • Most Romans bathed in local neighborhood balneum, with an average of 5 bath houses per block • Popularity of these balneum led to the creation of the thermae • Each emperor tried to improve upon the design, grandeur, and popularity of the ones before him • In order to create popularity, the fees to bath were practically nonexistent • The best and most grand bath complexes were found within Rome, as it served as the capital of the empire • The success of the bath complexes owes much to the technological advances of the Greeks and early Roman • The improvement of the aqueduct, the architectural usage of vaulted ceilings, and the hypocaust heating system allowed these great complexes to be as magnificent as they were Public Baths
  41. 41. • Romans were able to achieve this by heating the marble floor, which was raised on small columns or stacks of tiles to allow hot air from a fire to circulate underneath • Walls were also heated by earthenware pipes in the walls to ensure a hot and steamy environment • Bathers had to wear special shoes to prevent their feet from getting blisters from the floor • It took two to three days to heat a thermae, but as the baths were kept in constant use, the fire was never allowed to die • The baths in Rome served as an entertainment center, holding sports centers, swimming pools, gardens, libraries, areas for poetry and musical performances, restaurants, and sleeping quarters for visitors • The baths were opened daily from sunrise to sunset and open to all . The thermae could seat 1,600 bathers at one time • Most commoners went only once a day, but the Emperors or luxury bathe as many as 7-8 times daily • Typical Roman would start out with some easy exercise in the palaestra (exercise yard), attend to the bathing, anoint themselves with oil, and then eat some food • At the baths, even in the most corrupt of their civilization, the Romans tried to live up to the old maxim: "mens sana in corpore sano’ – a healthy mind in a healthy body Public Baths
  42. 42. Thermae: Public bath (larger than a private bath) with a men's section and a woman's secetion, which is why there are two separate hypocausts ( E, F, G: underground heating system) A) atrium: principle entrance, promenade and where the bath keeper (balneator) was located B) apodyterium: room for undressing C) frigidarium: cold bath D) tepidarium: warm room E) caldarium: hot bath F) thermal chamber G & H) women's bath K) servants atrium
  43. 43. Hypocaust: underground heating system
  44. 44. Baths of Caracalla
  45. 45. Baths of Caracalla 27 acres complex (11 hectares). Accommodate up to 2000 people per time. Main building at the center and covered by a thick wall consists of libraries and gym and also gardens. 6 feet height for loading purpose. Main building have upper level for service and heating and lower level for water drainage. Heating reservoir by Aque Marcia Aqueduct. The bath was known because of the rich interiors of marble seats, mosaic walls and floors as well as fountain and statue.
  46. 46. Baths of Caracalla :building dimensions and materials Principal dimensions Precinct maximum: 412x393 m Internal: 323x323 m Central Block overall: 218x112 m Swimming Pool: 54x23 m Frigidarium: 59x24 m, height . 41 m Caldarium: 35M diameter height . 44 m Quantities of materials Pozzolanna: 341,000 m³ Quick lime: 35,000 m³ Tuff: 341,000 m³ Basalt for foundations: 150,000 m³ Brick pieces for facing: 17.5 million Large Bricks: 520,000 Marble columns in Central block: 252 Marble for columns and decorations: 6,300 m³
  47. 47. Bath Of Caracalla_______________________SECTION GROINS THREE ROUND ARCH ARCHIVOLTS (Ornamental molding following the curve on the underside of an arch) JAMB COLUMN JAMB FIGURE COLONNETTE PIERS (A small, relatively thin column, often used for decoration or to support an arcade.)
  48. 48. Recreational buildings Basilicashttp://www.crystalinks.com/romanbasilica.html
  49. 49. Basilicas Halls of justice and commercial exchanges •Basilikos–kingly, royal etc. •Emphasise on importance of law and business in Old Rome •Link between Classic and Christian architecture •Nave roof was raised to accommodate windows •Knowledge of roof truss Such buildings usually contained interior colonnades that divided the space, giving aisles or arcaded spaces at one or both sides, with an apse at one end (or less often at each end), where the magistrates sat, often on a slightly raised dais. The central aisle tended to be wide and was higher than the flanking aisles, so that light could penetrate through the clerestory windows. One can determine a basilica apart from other structures by its dome. The oldest known basilica, the Basilica Porcia, was built in Rome in 184 BC by Cato the Elder during the time he was censor. Other early examples include the one at Pompeii (late 2nd century BC).
  50. 50. Basilica of Trajan
  51. 51. Basilica of Trajan : Main features The Basilica Ulpia was composed of a great central nave with four side aisles with clerestory windows to let light into the space divided by rows of columns and two semicircular apse, one at each of the ends with the entry to the basilica located on the longitudinal side. The columns and the walls were of precious marbles; the 50 meter (164 ft) high roof was covered by gilded bronze tiles. It was the largest in Rome measuring 117 by 55 meters (385 x 182 ft) The many rows of columns separating the side aisles are a traditional means of structure for basilicas. This method of structure can be traced back to Egyptian hypostyle Halls Later, it was used as the architectural prototype by Constantine as the basis for the layout of the new Christian churches. The Basilica Ulpia was used as to model for Constantine completion of the Basilica of Maxentiu
  52. 52. • There were two basic types of housing found in the city: • domus– single family occupation; • building blocks divided up to number of flats (cenacula); • Around 400 AD, 1797 domus against 46,602 flats were recorded; • Domus were built with a courtyard with a series of rooms facing towards it; • Possible hazard was fire • Use of tiles in the roof as incombustible roof material and open space provision between buildings of around 2’ feet 4”inches was mandatory; Housing • Royal palaces were built on high grounds and separate working class districts were planned on downstream banks of river;
  53. 53. Domus
  54. 54. • Flats were built up to 3 floors; • Height restriction for flats was imposed to limit of 70ft. And further reduced to 60 ft. • Flats were open to the outside, formed a quadrilateral around a central court , had doors, windows, staircases opening both to the outside and inside; • Running water was not supplied to the upper floors; Housing
  55. 55. • Elevated Aqueduct • Fresh Water Reservoir • Cloaca Maxima‐the first of the great open sewers built in 578 BC later covered with 11ft dia. semicircular stone vault in 184 BC • Water supply depended on River Tiber • Aqueducts and reservoirs were built to overcome the problem of river water pollution due huge sewer discharge • Water supply was limited to 94 gallons/per/day due to rising population Sewers and Water Supply
  56. 56. Circus Maximus
  57. 57. In Popular culture
  58. 58. A Still from Ben Hur
  59. 59. Thank you

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