History of architecture

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  • GROUP V
  • THE THREE ORDERS OF GREEK ARCHITECTURE
  • History of architecture

    1. 1. GROUP V MARK KEVIN AGPAOA JULIUS RAFAEL YANOS
    2. 2. THE THREE ORDERS OF GREEK ARCHITECTURE
    3. 3.  Doric columns are the simplest.  They have a CAPITAL (the top or the crown) made of a circle topped by a square.  The SHAFT is plain and has 20 sides (the tall part of the column)  BASE is not present in Doric order  Works well horizontally on a building, that‟s why it was so good with the long rectangular buildings made by the Greeks. The area above the column, called the frieze (pronounced “FREEZE”), had simple patterns. Above the columns are the METOPE AND TRIGLYPHS)  METOPE pronounced “met-o-pee” is a plain, smooth stone section between TRIGYLPHS. Sometimes the METOPEE is a statue of heroes and gods on them.  TRIGLYPHS are pattern of 3 vertical lines between METOPEE
    4. 4. SOME DORIC TEMPLES IN GREECE: AGRIGENTUMAPOLLO, DELPHIAPOLLO, CORINTHPARTHENON, ATHENS
    5. 5.  Ionic shaft is taller than Doric  They also had flutes, which are lines carved into them from top to bottom. The shafts also had a special characteristic: ENTESIS, which is a little bulge in the columns make the columns look straight, even at a distance [because since you would see the narrower as they rise, so this bulge makes up for that – so it looks straight to your eye but it really isn‟t  The FRIEZE is plain.  The BASES were large and looked like a set of stacked rings.  CAPITALS consist of a scrolls above the shaft,  It is more decorative than the doric.
    6. 6.  Entesis – a swelling or curving outwards along the outline of a column shaft, designed to counteract the optical illusion which gives a shaft bounded by lines the appearance of curving inwards.
    7. 7. EXAMPLES of IONIC TEMPLES in GREECE: ILLISSUSNIKE, APTEROSERECHTHEION
    8. 8.  Is the most decorative and usually the one most modern people like best.  It uses also ENTASIS  Its CAPITAL have flowers and leaves below the scroll  The SHAFT has flutes and the base like the lonian
    9. 9. The cornice is the uppermost section of moldings along the top of a wall or just below a roof. EXAMPLES of CORINTHIAN TEMPLES APOPLLO EPICURIUS THE CHORAGIC MONUMENT OF LYSICRATES, ATHENS
    10. 10.  Very plain  With a plain SHAFT  A simple CAPITAL and BASE  Plain frieze
    11. 11.  ECHINUS Also called cymatium. the circular molding, u sually carved with an egg-and- dart pattern, forming part of an Ionic capital between the volutes and under t he balteus.  BALTEUS the horizontal band connecting the volutes on either side.
    12. 12. COMOPISTE - Is the combination of IONIC and CORINTHIAN order CAULICULOUS-In the Corinthian capital, one o f the eight stalks rising out of the lower leafage and terminating in leaves which seem to support the volutes.
    13. 13. Pediment – a triangular piece of wall above the entablature enclosed by raking cornices. •Roofs were constructed of timber members, boarded and covered with tierra-cotta or marble tiles overlapping one. Another finished off the caves with antifixae
    14. 14. •MUTULES – PREJECTING INCLINED BLOCKS IN DORIC CORNICES, DERIVES FROM THE ENDS OF WOODEN BEAMS. •ACRETERION – BLOCKS RESTING ON THE VERTEX AND LOWER EXTREMITIES OF THE PEDIMENT TO SUPPORT STATURAY OR ORNAMENTS. •TYMPANUM – THE TRIANGULAR SURFACE BOUNDED BY THE SLOPING AND HORIZONTAL CORNICES OF THE PEDIMENT. •FRIEZE – THE MIDDLE DIVISION OF THE CLASSIC ENTABLATURE. •CORNICE – IS THE CROWNING OR UPPER PORTION OF THE ENTABLATURE, ALSO USED FOR ANY CROWNING PROJECTION. •ARCITRAVE – THE BEAM OR LOWERST DIVISION OF THE ENTABLATURE, WHICH EXTENDS FROM COLUMN TO COLUMN. ALSO A MOULDED FRAME AROUND A DOOR OR A WINDOW. •CAPITAL - THE CROWNING FEATURES OF A COLUMN OR PILASTER •SHAFT – THE PORTION OF A COLUMN BETWEEM BASE AND CAPITAL. •STYLOBATE – THE UPPER STEP FORMING THE BASE OF A COLUMNED GREEK TEMPLE (3 STEPS) •TRIGLYHP – BLOCKS WITH VERTICAL CHANNELS WHICH FORM A DISTINGUISHING FEATURE IN THE FRIEZE OF THE DORIC ENTABLATURE. •METOPE – THE SPACE BETWEEN DORIC TIGLLYPHS, SOMETIMES LEFT OPEN IN ANCIENT EXAMPLES, AFTERWARDS APPLIED TO THE CARVED SLAB. •TENIA –A FLAT PROJECTING BAND CAPPING THE ARCHITRAVE OF A DORIC ENTABLATURE. •GUTTA – SMALL CONES UNDER THE TRIGLYPHS AND MUTULES OF THE DORIC ENTABLATURE. •REGULA – THE SHORT BAND, UNDER THE TRIGLYPHS, BENEATH THE TENIA OF THE DORIC ENTABLATURE AND TO WHICH WHERE THE GUTTAE ARE ATTACHED. •ANNULETS - A SMALL FLAT FILLET ENCIRCLING A COLUMN. IT IS SEVERAL TIMES REPEATED UNDER THE OVOLO HYPOTRACHELION. •HYPOTHRACHELION - THE NECK OF A GREEK DORIC COLUMN, BETWEEN THE ANNULETS AND THE GROMES OR CAPITAL AND SHAFT OF A COLUMN. •COLUMN- A VERTICAL SUPOORT, GENERALLY CONSISTING OF BASE, CIRCULAR SHAFT, AND SPREADING CAPITAL.
    15. 15.  Examples:  „Temenos‟ or the sacred enclosure, as at Delphi: often topography allowed this to be a citadel too,  Acropolis or upper city, where the principal sacred buildings might stand, both for dignity and safety,  The PROPYLAEA, ATHENS, erected under Pericles by the architect Mnesicles, forms the imposing entrance to the Acropolis, approached by a steep ascent from the plain below. The front and rear Hexastyle Doric porticoes areon different levels, and give access to a covered hall with a wide central passage flanked by ionic columns and with and eastern wall with five doorways of different heights. The projecting wings on either side if the western front has three columns.  TEMPLES : Temples were the chief of building in the hellenic period.
    16. 16. PLAN
    17. 17. SECTION THRU Y-Y
    18. 18. PLAN
    19. 19. Opisthodomos (epidnaos) parthenon naos pronaos 8 columns A. Henostyle- 1column • Distyle- 2 columns • Tristyle- 3 columns • Tetrastyle- 4 columns • Pentastlye- 5 columns • Hexastyle- 6 columns • Heptastyle-7 columns • Octastyle- 8 columns • Enneastyle- 9 columns • Decastyle- 10 columns • Dodecastyle- twelve columns
    20. 20. A. “In antis” temple have one to four column between antae at the front • DISTYLE IN ANTIS B.“AMPHI-ANTIS” Temples have from one to four columns between antae at front and rear. Two is the usual number •AMPHI-ANTIS DISTYLE C.“PROSTYLE” – temples have a portico of columns at the front. “PROSTYLE” D.“AMPHI- PROSTYLE” – temples have a portico of columns at the front and rear. “AMPHI- PROSTYLE” E.“PERIPTERAL” – temples have a single line of columns surrounding the naos “PERIPTERAL” F. “DIPTERAL” – temples have a double line of columns surrounding the naos. “DIPTERAL” G. “PSEUDO- DIPTERAL” – temples are like the last, but inner range of columns is omitted on the flanks of the naos. PSEUDO- DIPTERAL H.“MONOPTERAL ”- temples having circular columniation MONOPTEREAL/ THOLOS J.“PSEUDO- PERIPTERAL”- temples have flank columns attached to the naos wall. PSEUDOPERIPTER AL
    21. 21.  The Greek theatre, an open-air structure, was geneally hollowed out if the slope of a hillside, in or near a city, and received definitive architectural form only in the 4th century B.C.. The developed form consisted of three independent elements.  3 independent elements: 1. Auditorium or Cavea- in tiers of stone seats arranged in a horseshoe shape around the circular paved space (orchestra) used by the chorus Stage(skene) for actors. The skene was a structure, tangental to orchestra, affording a backing for simple stage décor. The orchestra was the focal point, for on it the churos enacted the action of the drama and around it, greater than a semicircle, was organized the arrangement of the seating. The tiers of seats partially enclosing the orchestra to a point beyond its diameter in retaining wall, along the face of which was a passage(parados) leading to the skene
    22. 22.  Theatre at Epidaurus ◦ The most famous Greek theatre ◦ Recognized for its amazing acoustics  A pin dropped at the center of the theatre can be heard in the farthest seats ◦ Set against a beautiful Greek landscape THEATRE @ EPIDAURUS
    23. 23. THEATER @ DELPHI
    24. 24. ANCIENT PLAN OF AGORA OR TOWN SQUARE, WAS THE CENTRE OF SOCIAL AND BUSINESS LIFE, AROUND OR NEAR WHICH WERE STOAS OR COLONNADED PORTICOES, TEMPLES, ADMINISTRATIVE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS, MARKETS PLACES OF ENTERTAINMENT, MONUMENTS AND SHRINES.
    25. 25. A LONG COLONNADED BUILDING, SERVED MANY PURPOSES. STOAS WERE USED AROUND PUBLIC PLACES AND AS SHELTERS AT RELIGIOUS SHRINES.
    26. 26.  SERVED AS SENATE HOUSE FOR THE CHIEF DIGNITARIES OF THE CITY AND AS A PLACE WHERE DISTINGUISHED VISITORS AND CITIZENS MIGHT BE ENTERTAINED. IT CONTAINED THE OFFICIAL BANQUETING ROOM AND ALSO THE SYMBOLIC COMMUNAL HEARTH ON WHICH A FIRE „BURNT‟ PERPETUALLY, ASSOCIATED WITH THE CULT OF HESTIA GODDES OF HEARTH
    27. 27.  OR COUNCIL HOUSE WAS A COVERED MEETING PLACE FOR THE DEMOCRATICALL Y-ELECTED COUNCILS. SMALL AND WITH MANY COLUMNS
    28. 28.  FOR CITIZENS IN GENERAL, WERE SEMILAR, BUT NEEDED TO BE LARGER PUBLIC BUILDINGS ODEION A KINDERED TYPE TO THE THEATRE, WAS A BUILDING IN WHICH MUSICIAN PERFROMED THEIR WORKS FOR THE APPROVAL OF THE PUBLIC AND COMPETED FOR PRIZES.
    29. 29. The stadium was built in 329 BC from the orator and governor Lykourgos to host the sports contests of Panathinaea, the biggest celebration of Athens in honor of Goddess Athena. In mid 2nd century BC Herodes Atticus covers the stadium with marble. In 1894-96 the stadium is covered in marble once more with the grant of Georgios Averof and designs of Anastasios Metaxas. The stadium is inaugurated in 1896 with the first contemporary Olympic Games. WAS THE FOOT RACECOURSE IN CITIES WHERE GAMES CELEBRATED, AND HAD A LENGTH OF ABOUT 183M (600 FT) BETWEEN BANKS OF SEATS FOUNDED ON CONVENIENT NATURAL GROUND OR ON THE SPOIL FROM EXCAVATION OF FLAT SITES. THE STARTING END IS CIRCULAR AND THE OTHER SEMI- CIRLCE.
    30. 30.  HIPPODROME – WAS A SIMILAR THOUGH LONGER TYPE IF BUILDING FOR HORSE AND CHARIOT RACING & WAS THE PROTOTYPE OF THE ROMAN CIRCUS  PALAESTRA – WAS A WRESTLING-SCHOOL, BUT THE TERM IS USUALLY USED INTERCHANGEABLY WITH GYMNASIUM , A PLACE FOR PHYSICAL EXERCISES OF ALL KINDS  NAVAL BUILDING – INCLUDED SHIP-SHEDS AND STORES (@ THIS TIME, PRINCIPLE OF ROOF TRUSS NOT YET UNDERSTOOD.
    31. 31.  NEREID MONUMENT – (XANTHOS) TYPIFIES IONIAN SCULPTURAL LUXURIANCE AND THE USE IN GREEK ASIA MINOR OF A TEMPLE FORM OF TOM, ELEVATED ONE HIGH PODIUM. NEIRD MONUMENT
    32. 32.  TAKEN FROM A TOMB CHAMBER, OF THE ORNAMENTAL TREATMENT GIVEN TO A STONE COFFIN HEWN OUT OF ONE BLOCK OF MARBLE AND WITH SCULPTURES OF A LATE PERIOD. HEWN - CUT OR SHAPED WITH HARD BLOWS OF A HEAVY CUTTING INSTRUMENT LIKE AN AX AND CHISEL.
    33. 33.  HELICARNASOS  THE MOST FAMUOS OF ALL TOMBS AND ONE OF THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD, WAS ERECTED TO KING MAUSOLOS BY HIS WIDOW, ARTEMISIA.
    34. 34.  THE GREEK LIVED MUCH OF THEIR WAKING LIFE IN THE PUBLIC AND SACRED PARTS OF THE CITY, AND THEIR HOUSES WERE AT FIRST MODEST IN SCOPE AND MATERIALS. THE ROOMS LOOKED TOWARDS A SMALL COURT, THE CHIEF APARTMENTS BEING ON THE NORTH SIDE FACING THE WINTER SUN, WITH OTHERS ON THE EAST AND WEST SIDES. CARYATID CARYATID – SCULTURED FEMALE FIGURES USED AS COLUMS OR SUPPORTS.
    35. 35. SCULPTURED FEMALE FIGURINES BEARING BASKETS ON THEIR HEADS.

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