Doric columns are the simplest.
They have a CAPITAL (the top or the crown) made of a circle
topped by a square.
The SHAFT is plain and has 20 sides (the tall part of the
BASE is not present in Doric order
Works well horizontally on a building, that‟s why it was so
good with the long rectangular buildings made by the Greeks.
The area above the column, called the frieze (pronounced
“FREEZE”), had simple patterns. Above the columns are the
METOPE AND TRIGLYPHS)
METOPE pronounced “met-o-pee” is a plain, smooth stone
section between TRIGYLPHS. Sometimes the METOPEE is a
statue of heroes and gods on them.
TRIGLYPHS are pattern of 3 vertical lines between METOPEE
SOME DORIC TEMPLES
AGRIGENTUMAPOLLO, DELPHIAPOLLO, CORINTHPARTHENON, ATHENS
Ionic shaft is taller than Doric
They also had flutes, which are lines carved into them
from top to bottom. The shafts also had a special
characteristic: ENTESIS, which is a little bulge in the
columns make the columns look straight, even at a
distance [because since you would see the narrower
as they rise, so this bulge makes up for that – so it
looks straight to your eye but it really isn‟t
The FRIEZE is plain.
The BASES were large and looked like a set of stacked
CAPITALS consist of a scrolls above the shaft,
It is more decorative than the doric.
Entesis – a swelling or
along the outline of a
counteract the optical
illusion which gives a
shaft bounded by
lines the appearance
of curving inwards.
EXAMPLES of IONIC
TEMPLES in GREECE:
Is the most decorative and usually the one
most modern people like best.
It uses also ENTASIS
Its CAPITAL have flowers and leaves below the
The SHAFT has flutes and the base like the
The cornice is the
of moldings along
the top of a wall or
just below a roof.
EXAMPLES of CORINTHIAN
THE CHORAGIC MONUMENT
OF LYSICRATES, ATHENS
With a plain SHAFT
A simple CAPITAL and BASE
Also called cymatium. the circular molding, u
sually carved with an egg-and-
dart pattern, forming part of an
Ionic capital between the volutes and under t
the horizontal band connecting the
volutes on either side.
Corinthian capital, one o
f the eight stalks rising
out of the lower
leafage and terminating
in leaves which seem to
support the volutes.
Pediment – a triangular piece of wall above the
entablature enclosed by raking cornices.
off the caves with
•MUTULES – PREJECTING INCLINED BLOCKS IN DORIC
CORNICES, DERIVES FROM THE ENDS OF WOODEN BEAMS.
•ACRETERION – BLOCKS RESTING ON THE VERTEX AND
LOWER EXTREMITIES OF THE PEDIMENT TO SUPPORT
STATURAY OR ORNAMENTS.
•TYMPANUM – THE TRIANGULAR SURFACE BOUNDED BY THE
SLOPING AND HORIZONTAL CORNICES OF THE PEDIMENT.
•FRIEZE – THE MIDDLE DIVISION OF THE CLASSIC
•CORNICE – IS THE CROWNING OR UPPER PORTION OF THE
ENTABLATURE, ALSO USED FOR ANY CROWNING
•ARCITRAVE – THE BEAM OR LOWERST DIVISION OF THE
ENTABLATURE, WHICH EXTENDS FROM COLUMN TO
COLUMN. ALSO A MOULDED FRAME AROUND A DOOR OR A
•CAPITAL - THE CROWNING FEATURES OF A COLUMN OR
•SHAFT – THE PORTION OF A COLUMN BETWEEM BASE AND
•STYLOBATE – THE UPPER STEP FORMING THE BASE OF A
COLUMNED GREEK TEMPLE (3 STEPS)
•TRIGLYHP – BLOCKS WITH VERTICAL CHANNELS WHICH
FORM A DISTINGUISHING FEATURE IN THE FRIEZE OF THE
•METOPE – THE SPACE BETWEEN DORIC TIGLLYPHS,
SOMETIMES LEFT OPEN IN ANCIENT EXAMPLES,
AFTERWARDS APPLIED TO THE CARVED SLAB.
•TENIA –A FLAT PROJECTING BAND CAPPING THE
ARCHITRAVE OF A DORIC ENTABLATURE.
•GUTTA – SMALL CONES UNDER THE TRIGLYPHS AND
MUTULES OF THE DORIC ENTABLATURE.
•REGULA – THE SHORT BAND, UNDER THE TRIGLYPHS, BENEATH
THE TENIA OF THE DORIC ENTABLATURE AND TO WHICH WHERE
THE GUTTAE ARE ATTACHED.
•ANNULETS - A SMALL FLAT FILLET ENCIRCLING A COLUMN. IT
IS SEVERAL TIMES REPEATED UNDER THE OVOLO
•HYPOTHRACHELION - THE NECK OF A GREEK DORIC COLUMN,
BETWEEN THE ANNULETS AND THE GROMES OR CAPITAL AND
SHAFT OF A COLUMN.
•COLUMN- A VERTICAL SUPOORT, GENERALLY CONSISTING OF
BASE, CIRCULAR SHAFT, AND SPREADING CAPITAL.
„Temenos‟ or the sacred enclosure, as at Delphi: often
topography allowed this to be a citadel too,
Acropolis or upper city, where the principal sacred
buildings might stand, both for dignity and safety,
The PROPYLAEA, ATHENS, erected under Pericles by the
architect Mnesicles, forms the imposing entrance to the
Acropolis, approached by a steep ascent from the plain
below. The front and rear Hexastyle Doric porticoes areon
different levels, and give access to a covered hall with a
wide central passage flanked by ionic columns and with
and eastern wall with five doorways of different heights.
The projecting wings on either side if the western front
has three columns.
TEMPLES : Temples were the chief of building in the
A. “In antis”
one to four
antae at the
• DISTYLE IN
from one to four
between antae at
front and rear.
Two is the usual
temples have a
columns at the
temples have a
columns at the
front and rear.
temples have a
single line of
F. “DIPTERAL” –
temples have a
double line of
temples are like
the last, but
inner range of
omitted on the
flanks of the
attached to the
The Greek theatre, an open-air structure, was
geneally hollowed out if the slope of a hillside,
in or near a city, and received definitive
architectural form only in the 4th century B.C..
The developed form consisted of three
1. Auditorium or
Cavea- in tiers of
arranged in a
around the circular
(orchestra) used by
Stage(skene) for actors. The skene was a
structure, tangental to orchestra, affording
a backing for simple stage décor. The
orchestra was the focal point, for on it the
churos enacted the action of the drama and
around it, greater than a semicircle, was
organized the arrangement of the seating.
The tiers of seats partially enclosing the
orchestra to a point beyond its diameter in
retaining wall, along the face of which was
a passage(parados) leading to the skene
◦ The most famous
◦ Recognized for its
A pin dropped at the
center of the theatre
can be heard in the
◦ Set against a
THEATRE @ EPIDAURUS
OR TOWN SQUARE, WAS THE CENTRE OF SOCIAL AND
BUSINESS LIFE, AROUND OR NEAR WHICH WERE
STOAS OR COLONNADED PORTICOES, TEMPLES,
ADMINISTRATIVE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS, MARKETS
PLACES OF ENTERTAINMENT, MONUMENTS AND
A LONG COLONNADED BUILDING, SERVED MANY
PURPOSES. STOAS WERE USED AROUND PUBLIC PLACES
AND AS SHELTERS AT RELIGIOUS SHRINES.
SERVED AS SENATE HOUSE FOR THE CHIEF
DIGNITARIES OF THE CITY AND AS A PLACE WHERE
DISTINGUISHED VISITORS AND CITIZENS MIGHT BE
ENTERTAINED. IT CONTAINED THE OFFICIAL
BANQUETING ROOM AND ALSO THE SYMBOLIC
COMMUNAL HEARTH ON WHICH A FIRE „BURNT‟
PERPETUALLY, ASSOCIATED WITH THE CULT OF
HESTIA GODDES OF HEARTH
HOUSE WAS A
SMALL AND WITH
FOR CITIZENS IN GENERAL, WERE SEMILAR,
BUT NEEDED TO BE LARGER
A KINDERED TYPE TO THE THEATRE, WAS A
BUILDING IN WHICH MUSICIAN PERFROMED
THEIR WORKS FOR THE APPROVAL OF THE
PUBLIC AND COMPETED FOR PRIZES.
The stadium was built in 329 BC
from the orator and governor
Lykourgos to host the sports
contests of Panathinaea, the
biggest celebration of Athens in
honor of Goddess Athena. In mid
2nd century BC Herodes Atticus
covers the stadium with marble. In
1894-96 the stadium is covered in
marble once more with the grant
of Georgios Averof and designs of
Anastasios Metaxas. The stadium
is inaugurated in 1896 with the
first contemporary Olympic
WAS THE FOOT
RACECOURSE IN CITIES
CELEBRATED, AND HAD
A LENGTH OF ABOUT
183M (600 FT) BETWEEN
BANKS OF SEATS
GROUND OR ON THE
EXCAVATION OF FLAT
SITES. THE STARTING
END IS CIRCULAR AND
THE OTHER SEMI-
HIPPODROME – WAS A SIMILAR THOUGH LONGER
TYPE IF BUILDING FOR HORSE AND CHARIOT
RACING & WAS THE PROTOTYPE OF THE ROMAN
PALAESTRA – WAS A WRESTLING-SCHOOL, BUT
THE TERM IS USUALLY USED INTERCHANGEABLY
WITH GYMNASIUM , A PLACE FOR PHYSICAL
EXERCISES OF ALL KINDS
NAVAL BUILDING – INCLUDED SHIP-SHEDS AND
STORES (@ THIS TIME, PRINCIPLE OF ROOF TRUSS
NOT YET UNDERSTOOD.
NEREID MONUMENT –
THE USE IN GREEK
ASIA MINOR OF A
TEMPLE FORM OF
TOM, ELEVATED ONE
TAKEN FROM A TOMB CHAMBER, OF THE
ORNAMENTAL TREATMENT GIVEN TO A
STONE COFFIN HEWN OUT OF ONE BLOCK OF
MARBLE AND WITH SCULPTURES OF A LATE
- CUT OR SHAPED
WITH HARD BLOWS OF
A HEAVY CUTTING
INSTRUMENT LIKE AN
AX AND CHISEL.
FAMUOS OF ALL
TOMBS AND ONE
OF THE SEVEN
WONDERS OF THE
ERECTED TO KING
MAUSOLOS BY HIS
THE GREEK LIVED MUCH OF THEIR WAKING
LIFE IN THE PUBLIC AND SACRED PARTS OF
THE CITY, AND THEIR HOUSES WERE AT FIRST
MODEST IN SCOPE AND MATERIALS. THE
ROOMS LOOKED TOWARDS A SMALL COURT,
THE CHIEF APARTMENTS BEING ON THE
NORTH SIDE FACING THE WINTER SUN, WITH
OTHERS ON THE EAST AND WEST SIDES.
CARYATID – SCULTURED
FEMALE FIGURES USED
AS COLUMS OR