ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTURE
Submitted By - Submitted To -
Harshita Mishra Priya Mam
I N T R O D U C T I O N
• The civilization of Ancient Greece was one that spanned
many years and in this time, many the greeks excelled
various fields, such as art, music, government, economy,
leadership, science, mathematics, astronomy and much
• This architecture and engineers was advanced and this
empire was flourished in so many aspects the greek time
• Ancient is distinguished by its highly formalised
characteristics, both of structure and decoration.
O R I G I N .
• Our word “architecture” comes from the Greek architect
on , which means “master carpenter”.
• Early Greek Architecture therefore employed wood, not
• These early structure, as well as those of mud brick,
have not survived wood features in stone.
• By the 6th century BC, stone replaced wood in the
construction of important temples.
• Design still reflected their origins in wood however.
H I S T O R Y
• The History of the AncientGreek Civilization is divided into two eras..
T H E H E L L E N I C A N D T H E H E L L E N I S T I C P E R I O D
• The Hellenic period commented circa 900BC (with substanial works of
architecture appering from about 600 BC) and ended with the death of
Alexander the great in 323 BC.
• During the Hellenistic period, 323 BC – AD 30,Hellenic culture and
spread widely, firstly throughout lands conquered by Alexander, and
then by the Roman Empire which absorbed much of Greek culture.
G E O G R A P H I C A L L O C A T I O N
• The geographical location of Ancient
Greece has a major influence on the
architecture of the time, the place
was comprised of large peninsula
expanding towards Mediterranean
Sea and many islands Ionian and
Aegean Sea.Sea.Sea. Unlike Egypt, it
has long coastline with many bays
and inlets bound fertile lands with tall
C L I MAT I C FAC TO RS .
• The Peninsula of ancient greece had
a Mediterranean climate. Its summer
were hot and dry.
• Temperatures averaged about 24
degree Celsius in summer.
• The Mediterranean waters and a
northwesterly breeze, known as the
R E L I G I O U S B E L I E F
• Religious played a key role in ancient greek
architecture. Many of the famous structures, such
as the parthrnon and the acropolis, were influenced
by a particular Greek god or goddess.
• Although many of the buildings only purpose was to
serve as a temple of god or goddess in which they
were constructed for the structures still stand today
as symbols of the advanced time in which the
ancient greek people lived.
• The beauty and elegance of these temples was
inspired by powerful greek gods and can still be
seen in the ruin of the structures today.
LOCALITY AVAILABLE MATERIAL .
• The ready availability of the material Mare was an
important factor affecing the architecture of greece.
• Magnificient while color and texture with the flexibility of
cutting into crisp and sharp edges made marble the key
material for the land.
• The people Living in the peninsula and islands naturally
got attracted towards overseas business and searching of
metals and other materials.
T H E G R E E K P E R I O D .
The Archaic Period.
• It is the time of formation.
• Art evovled from extraction to expression nuralism.
The Classical Period.
• It is peak of this Art.
• Every art manifestation reached its Zenath.
• It is the period of Democracy.
• It is the period of political, economic and cultural
The Hellenistic Period
• Greek cultural suffered a deep
• Alexander the great expanded the Greek
• The art expanded too. (the aristic forms
and technical solution).
G R E E K E L E M E N T S .
• Doric order
• Ionic order
• Corinthian order
D O R I C O R D E R .
• The Greek Doric column was so simple columns. They was
fluted on smooth Surfaced columns and had no base
dropping straight into the stylobate or platform on which the
temple or other building stood.
• The capital was a simple circular form, with some
mouldings, under a square cushion that is very wide in early
versions, but later more retrained.
• Above a plaim architecture, the complexity comes in the
frieze, where the two features originally unique to the doric,
the triglyph and guttae, are skeuomorphic memories of the
beams and retaining begs of the wooden constructions that
preceded stone Doric temples.
• In stone they are purely ornamental.
I O N I C O R D E R .
• The Ionic order originated in the mid 6th century
BC in ionia, the southwestern coastland and
islands of Asia minor settled by Ionian greeks,
where an Ionian dialect was spoken.
• The ionic order column was being practiced in
mainland greece in the 5th century BC.
• The ionic columns normally stand on a base
which separates the shaft of the column from the
stylobate or platform ; The cap is usually enriched
with the egg and dart.
C O R I N T H I A N O R D E R .
• The Corinthian order is stated to be
the most ornate of the orders,
characterized by slender fluted
columns and elaborate capitals
decorated with acanthus leaves and
P A R T H E N O N .
• IT is the temple of Athena.
• It was built in 5th century BC.
• It is the symbol of democracy of Athens.
• It was designed by architect Iktinos and
• Phidias was the sculptor of Athena Pallada
• The materialused was the limestone.
I N T E R I O R
Plan of parthenon
• CELLA -the inner most chamber of the
• PRONAOS-it is the porch or the entrance hall
• OPISTHODOMOS-it is the porch at the rear of
The statue of AtHENA PARTHENON.
The cella on the west was dedicated to
athena parthenos from which the
whole building got the name Parthenon
It islikely that the western cella was
used as treasury. Its doors were
properly reinforced with bronze bars.
E R E C H T H E I O N
• The temple was built between 421 and 406
• Its architect may have been Mnesicles.
• The sculptor and mason of the structure was
Phidias, who was employed by Pericles to
build both the Erechtheum and the Parthenon.
• The entire temple is on a slope, so the west
and north sides are about 3 m (9 ft) lower
than the south and east sides. It was built
entirely of marble from Mount Pentelikon,
with friezes of black limestone from Eleusis
which bore sculptures executed in relief in
• On the north side, there is another large porch with
six Ionic columns, and on the south, the famous
"Porch of the Maidens", with six draped female
figures (caryatids) as supporting columns.
• The porch was built to conceal the giant 15-ft beam
needed to support the southwest corner over the
Kekropion, after the building was drastically
reduced in size and budget following the onset of
the Peloponnesian war.
P O S E I D O N ( T H E G O D O F S E A )ZESUS (THE GOD OF SKY)
P O L I S .
• Polis means city in greek. It can also
mean a body of citizens. In modern
historiography, polis is normally used to
indicate the ancient greek city states,
like classical Athens and its
contemporaries and thus is often
translated as “city- state”.
• Athens was one of hundreds of greek
city states called a polis, meaning not
only city state but commonwealth.
• By 750 BCE, greek polis were the
center of civilion life, unlike the tax
collecting or imperial merchant cities of
the fertile cresent.
• The included the city and
surrounding countryside and perhaps
a few towns.
• The city served as the center of the
• Here people met for political, sociql
and religious activities.
• The main gathering placed on a
fortified hill. Called an acropolis,
which also had public buildings and
A C R P O L I S .
• The acropolis was the city of temples.
• It is the location where all the major
temples of a city are located.
• It was built to glorify the gods.
• The acropolis were usually located on
the highest ground.
• Greek considered high placed to be
important and sacred.
• Other puvlic buildings such as gymnasia
stadia and theaters were usually
regarded as part of religious rituals.
A G O R A .
• The Ancient Agora of classical Ahens is
the best known example of an ancient
greek agora located to the Northwest of
the Acropolis and bounded on the south by
the hill of the aseopagus and on the west
by the hill known as Agoraios kolonos, also
called market hill.
• The middle stoa which was the most
extensive monument built during the 100s
• A small known temple was added in front
of the middle stoa.
• An altar of zeus Agoraios was added
just to the east of the monument of the
• The temple of Ares, dedicated to Ares,
the god of war, was added in the north
half agora, just south of the Altar of the
• The odeon of Agrippa and
accompanying gymnasium were added
on the centre of the agora.
• The substanial stoa of Attalos was built
along the eastern edge of Agora.
• A collection of buildings were added to the south east corner
:the east stoa, the library of pantainos, the Nymphaeum and a
• There is evidence of a synagogue in the Agora of Athens in the
• A statue of the Roman emperor, Hadrian was located near the
• The temple of Zeus Phratrios and Athena Phratria dated to the
300 BCE and is located near the temple of Apollo Patroos.
• The south end of what it is believed to be a Basilica has been
uncovered near hadrian street and is dated to the mid 100s
• The Monopteros was located south of the Basilica and also
Dated to the mid 100s CE. It had no walls, was a dome
supported by columns and was about 8 meters in diameter.
• The Bema was a speakers platform and was located near the
stoa of Attalos.
STOA OF ATTALOS
• The Stoa, on the east side of the Ancient Agora, was the gift of Attalos II, King of
• The stoa is identified as a gift to the city of Athens for the education that Attalos
• A dedicatory inscription on the architrave is engraved as built by Attalos II ruler of
Pergamon from 159 BC to 138 BC
• The building is 120 m wide and 20 m deep and had two floors with a second
series of columns on the interior and 21 shops at the back of both floors.
• The building is similar in its basic design to the Stoa that Attalos’ brother, and
predecessor as king, Eumenes II had erected on the south slope of the Acropolis
next to the theatre of Dionysus.
• The main difference is that Attalos’ stoa had a row of rooms at the rear on the
ground floor that have been interpreted as shops.
M U S I U M
• The main difference is that Attalos’ stoa had a row of
rooms at the rear on the ground floor that have been
interpreted as shops.
• Its exhibits are mostly connected with the Athenian
• The collection of the museum includes clay, bronze
and glass objects, sculptures, coins and inscriptions
from the 7th to the 5th century BC, as well as pottery
of the Byzantine period and the Turkish conquest.
Theatre mask, dating
from the 4th/3rd
Casserole and brazier
(6th/4th century BC)
Acroterial statue of Winged Nike,
flying to the right (4th BC)
Bust of the Roman
emperor Antoninus Pius
O P E N T H E AT R E .
• The earliest Greek theatres can be traced back to the
Minoan civilization on Crete where a large open space with
stepped seating can still be seen today at the site of
• According to 5th-4th century BCE Greek pottery decoration
the stage was built around one metre above the ground and
had steps at the front.
• The stage scene could also have a top platform from which
actors could play gods speaking down upon the audience
and actors alike.
• A wheeled platform (ekkylema) was pushed out of the
doorway and used to dramatically reveal new scenery, and a
crane (mechane) was situated to the right of the stage and
used to lift actors who were playing gods or heroes.
• The Orchestra was the almost circular place, situated in front of the
scene (stage) facing the audience.
• At the center of the orchestra was situated the Thymeli, which at the
early years was meant to be an altar and later on, a place, where the
leader of the chorus (koryphaios) was standing.
• The scene had one or three entrances for the actors. The sides of the
Scene facing the audience, served for background as were decorated
as a Palace or a Temple.
• Between the scene and the seats, there were two more entrances,
called Parodoi, one on the right and one on the left, from which the
chorus and the persons coming from the outside.
• At the back of the scene one could find two buildings with doors, that
let on the Proscenio and as far as their decoration is concerned, they
might extend the theme of the scene or even present another theme.
• The front seats were called Proedria and were reserved for officials
• The Koilon (or Theatron) was the auditorium of the greek theater,
where the spectators sat. It was called koilon because of its shape.
Its shape was semi-circular, built around the orchestra. It was divided
in two Diazoma, the upper and the lower.