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ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTURE
Submitted By - Submitted To -
Harshita Mishra Priya Mam
I N T R O D U C T I O N
• The civilization of Ancient Greece was one that spanned
many years and in this time, many the gr...
O R I G I N .
• Our word “architecture” comes from the Greek architect
on , which means “master carpenter”.
• Early Greek ...
H I S T O R Y
• The History of the AncientGreek Civilization is divided into two eras..
T H E H E L L E N I C A N D T H E ...
G E O G R A P H I C A L L O C A T I O N
• The geographical location of Ancient
Greece has a major influence on the
archite...
C L I MAT I C FAC TO RS .
• The Peninsula of ancient greece had
a Mediterranean climate. Its summer
were hot and dry.
• Te...
R E L I G I O U S B E L I E F
• Religious played a key role in ancient greek
architecture. Many of the famous structures, ...
LOCALITY AVAILABLE MATERIAL .
• The ready availability of the material Mare was an
important factor affecing the architect...
T H E G R E E K P E R I O D .
The Archaic Period.
• It is the time of formation.
• Art evovled from extraction to expressi...
The Hellenistic Period
• Greek cultural suffered a deep
transformation.
• Alexander the great expanded the Greek
culture.
...
G R E E K E L E M E N T S .
Classical Orders.
• Doric order
• Ionic order
• Corinthian order
D O R I C O R D E R .
• The Greek Doric column was so simple columns. They was
fluted on smooth Surfaced columns and had n...
D O R I C O R D E R
I O N I C O R D E R .
• The Ionic order originated in the mid 6th century
BC in ionia, the southwestern coastland and
isla...
I O N I C O R D E R .
C O R I N T H I A N O R D E R .
• The Corinthian order is stated to be
the most ornate of the orders,
characterized by sle...
C O R I N T H I A N O R D E R .
P A R T H E N O N .
ABOUT
• IT is the temple of Athena.
• It was built in 5th century BC.
• It is the symbol of democracy ...
I N T E R I O R
Plan of parthenon
• CELLA -the inner most chamber of the
temple.
• PRONAOS-it is the porch or the entrance...
E R E C H T H E I O N
• The temple was built between 421 and 406
BCE
• Its architect may have been Mnesicles.
• The sculpt...
• On the north side, there is another large porch with
six Ionic columns, and on the south, the famous
"Porch of the Maide...
P O L I S .
• Polis means city in greek. It can also
mean a body of citizens. In modern
historiography, polis is normally ...
• The included the city and
surrounding countryside and perhaps
a few towns.
• The city served as the center of the
polis....
A C R P O L I S .
• The acropolis was the city of temples.
• It is the location where all the major
temples of a city are ...
A C R O P O L I S .
A G O R A .
• The Ancient Agora of classical Ahens is
the best known example of an ancient
greek agora located to the Nort...
• An altar of zeus Agoraios was added
just to the east of the monument of the
Eponymous Heroes.
• The temple of Ares, dedi...
• A collection of buildings were added to the south east corner
:the east stoa, the library of pantainos, the Nymphaeum an...
A G O R A .
STOA OF ATTALOS
• The Stoa, on the east side of the Ancient Agora, was the gift of Attalos II, King of
Pergamon,
• The sto...
M U S I U M
• The main difference is that Attalos’ stoa had a row of
rooms at the rear on the ground floor that have been
...
O P E N T H E AT R E .
• The earliest Greek theatres can be traced back to the
Minoan civilization on Crete where a large ...
• The Orchestra was the almost circular place, situated in front of the
scene (stage) facing the audience.
• At the center...
T H A N K Y O U
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Greek architecture by ID Harshita mishra

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Illustration of ancient greek architecture style and belief.

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Greek architecture by ID Harshita mishra

  1. 1. ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTURE Submitted By - Submitted To - Harshita Mishra Priya Mam
  2. 2. I N T R O D U C T I O N • The civilization of Ancient Greece was one that spanned many years and in this time, many the greeks excelled various fields, such as art, music, government, economy, leadership, science, mathematics, astronomy and much more. • This architecture and engineers was advanced and this empire was flourished in so many aspects the greek time period 525-480BC. • Ancient is distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics, both of structure and decoration.
  3. 3. O R I G I N . • Our word “architecture” comes from the Greek architect on , which means “master carpenter”. • Early Greek Architecture therefore employed wood, not stone. • These early structure, as well as those of mud brick, have not survived wood features in stone. • By the 6th century BC, stone replaced wood in the construction of important temples. • Design still reflected their origins in wood however.
  4. 4. H I S T O R Y • The History of the AncientGreek Civilization is divided into two eras.. T H E H E L L E N I C A N D T H E H E L L E N I S T I C P E R I O D • The Hellenic period commented circa 900BC (with substanial works of architecture appering from about 600 BC) and ended with the death of Alexander the great in 323 BC. • During the Hellenistic period, 323 BC – AD 30,Hellenic culture and spread widely, firstly throughout lands conquered by Alexander, and then by the Roman Empire which absorbed much of Greek culture.
  5. 5. G E O G R A P H I C A L L O C A T I O N • The geographical location of Ancient Greece has a major influence on the architecture of the time, the place was comprised of large peninsula expanding towards Mediterranean Sea and many islands Ionian and Aegean Sea.Sea.Sea. Unlike Egypt, it has long coastline with many bays and inlets bound fertile lands with tall mountains surrounded.
  6. 6. C L I MAT I C FAC TO RS . • The Peninsula of ancient greece had a Mediterranean climate. Its summer were hot and dry. • Temperatures averaged about 24 degree Celsius in summer. • The Mediterranean waters and a northwesterly breeze, known as the Etesian.
  7. 7. R E L I G I O U S B E L I E F • Religious played a key role in ancient greek architecture. Many of the famous structures, such as the parthrnon and the acropolis, were influenced by a particular Greek god or goddess. • Although many of the buildings only purpose was to serve as a temple of god or goddess in which they were constructed for the structures still stand today as symbols of the advanced time in which the ancient greek people lived. • The beauty and elegance of these temples was inspired by powerful greek gods and can still be seen in the ruin of the structures today.
  8. 8. LOCALITY AVAILABLE MATERIAL . • The ready availability of the material Mare was an important factor affecing the architecture of greece. • Magnificient while color and texture with the flexibility of cutting into crisp and sharp edges made marble the key material for the land. • The people Living in the peninsula and islands naturally got attracted towards overseas business and searching of metals and other materials.
  9. 9. T H E G R E E K P E R I O D . The Archaic Period. • It is the time of formation. • Art evovled from extraction to expression nuralism. The Classical Period. • It is peak of this Art. • Every art manifestation reached its Zenath. • It is the period of Democracy. • It is the period of political, economic and cultural expansion.
  10. 10. The Hellenistic Period • Greek cultural suffered a deep transformation. • Alexander the great expanded the Greek culture. • The art expanded too. (the aristic forms and technical solution).
  11. 11. G R E E K E L E M E N T S . Classical Orders. • Doric order • Ionic order • Corinthian order
  12. 12. D O R I C O R D E R . • The Greek Doric column was so simple columns. They was fluted on smooth Surfaced columns and had no base dropping straight into the stylobate or platform on which the temple or other building stood. • The capital was a simple circular form, with some mouldings, under a square cushion that is very wide in early versions, but later more retrained. • Above a plaim architecture, the complexity comes in the frieze, where the two features originally unique to the doric, the triglyph and guttae, are skeuomorphic memories of the beams and retaining begs of the wooden constructions that preceded stone Doric temples. • In stone they are purely ornamental.
  13. 13. D O R I C O R D E R
  14. 14. I O N I C O R D E R . • The Ionic order originated in the mid 6th century BC in ionia, the southwestern coastland and islands of Asia minor settled by Ionian greeks, where an Ionian dialect was spoken. • The ionic order column was being practiced in mainland greece in the 5th century BC. • The ionic columns normally stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform ; The cap is usually enriched with the egg and dart.
  15. 15. I O N I C O R D E R .
  16. 16. C O R I N T H I A N O R D E R . • The Corinthian order is stated to be the most ornate of the orders, characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls.
  17. 17. C O R I N T H I A N O R D E R .
  18. 18. P A R T H E N O N . ABOUT • IT is the temple of Athena. • It was built in 5th century BC. • It is the symbol of democracy of Athens. • It was designed by architect Iktinos and Kallikratis' • Phidias was the sculptor of Athena Pallada statue. • The materialused was the limestone.
  19. 19. I N T E R I O R Plan of parthenon • CELLA -the inner most chamber of the temple. • PRONAOS-it is the porch or the entrance hall tothe temple. • OPISTHODOMOS-it is the porch at the rear of the cella The statue of AtHENA PARTHENON. The cella on the west was dedicated to athena parthenos from which the whole building got the name Parthenon . It islikely that the western cella was used as treasury. Its doors were properly reinforced with bronze bars.
  20. 20. E R E C H T H E I O N • The temple was built between 421 and 406 BCE • Its architect may have been Mnesicles. • The sculptor and mason of the structure was Phidias, who was employed by Pericles to build both the Erechtheum and the Parthenon. • The entire temple is on a slope, so the west and north sides are about 3 m (9 ft) lower than the south and east sides. It was built entirely of marble from Mount Pentelikon, with friezes of black limestone from Eleusis which bore sculptures executed in relief in white marble.
  21. 21. • On the north side, there is another large porch with six Ionic columns, and on the south, the famous "Porch of the Maidens", with six draped female figures (caryatids) as supporting columns. • The porch was built to conceal the giant 15-ft beam needed to support the southwest corner over the Kekropion, after the building was drastically reduced in size and budget following the onset of the Peloponnesian war. P O S E I D O N ( T H E G O D O F S E A )ZESUS (THE GOD OF SKY)
  22. 22. P O L I S . • Polis means city in greek. It can also mean a body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient greek city states, like classical Athens and its contemporaries and thus is often translated as “city- state”. • Athens was one of hundreds of greek city states called a polis, meaning not only city state but commonwealth. • By 750 BCE, greek polis were the center of civilion life, unlike the tax collecting or imperial merchant cities of the fertile cresent.
  23. 23. • The included the city and surrounding countryside and perhaps a few towns. • The city served as the center of the polis. • Here people met for political, sociql and religious activities. • The main gathering placed on a fortified hill. Called an acropolis, which also had public buildings and temples.
  24. 24. A C R P O L I S . • The acropolis was the city of temples. • It is the location where all the major temples of a city are located. • It was built to glorify the gods. • The acropolis were usually located on the highest ground. • Greek considered high placed to be important and sacred. • Other puvlic buildings such as gymnasia stadia and theaters were usually regarded as part of religious rituals.
  25. 25. A C R O P O L I S .
  26. 26. A G O R A . • The Ancient Agora of classical Ahens is the best known example of an ancient greek agora located to the Northwest of the Acropolis and bounded on the south by the hill of the aseopagus and on the west by the hill known as Agoraios kolonos, also called market hill. • The middle stoa which was the most extensive monument built during the 100s BCE. • A small known temple was added in front of the middle stoa.
  27. 27. • An altar of zeus Agoraios was added just to the east of the monument of the Eponymous Heroes. • The temple of Ares, dedicated to Ares, the god of war, was added in the north half agora, just south of the Altar of the tweleve gods. • The odeon of Agrippa and accompanying gymnasium were added on the centre of the agora. • The substanial stoa of Attalos was built along the eastern edge of Agora.
  28. 28. • A collection of buildings were added to the south east corner :the east stoa, the library of pantainos, the Nymphaeum and a templr. • There is evidence of a synagogue in the Agora of Athens in the 3rd century. • A statue of the Roman emperor, Hadrian was located near the metroon. • The temple of Zeus Phratrios and Athena Phratria dated to the 300 BCE and is located near the temple of Apollo Patroos. • The south end of what it is believed to be a Basilica has been uncovered near hadrian street and is dated to the mid 100s CE. • The Monopteros was located south of the Basilica and also Dated to the mid 100s CE. It had no walls, was a dome supported by columns and was about 8 meters in diameter. • The Bema was a speakers platform and was located near the stoa of Attalos.
  29. 29. A G O R A .
  30. 30. STOA OF ATTALOS • The Stoa, on the east side of the Ancient Agora, was the gift of Attalos II, King of Pergamon, • The stoa is identified as a gift to the city of Athens for the education that Attalos received there. • A dedicatory inscription on the architrave is engraved as built by Attalos II ruler of Pergamon from 159 BC to 138 BC • The building is 120 m wide and 20 m deep and had two floors with a second series of columns on the interior and 21 shops at the back of both floors. • The building is similar in its basic design to the Stoa that Attalos’ brother, and predecessor as king, Eumenes II had erected on the south slope of the Acropolis next to the theatre of Dionysus. • The main difference is that Attalos’ stoa had a row of rooms at the rear on the ground floor that have been interpreted as shops.
  31. 31. M U S I U M • The main difference is that Attalos’ stoa had a row of rooms at the rear on the ground floor that have been interpreted as shops. • Its exhibits are mostly connected with the Athenian democracy. • The collection of the museum includes clay, bronze and glass objects, sculptures, coins and inscriptions from the 7th to the 5th century BC, as well as pottery of the Byzantine period and the Turkish conquest. Theatre mask, dating from the 4th/3rd century BC Casserole and brazier (6th/4th century BC) Acroterial statue of Winged Nike, flying to the right (4th BC) Bust of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius
  32. 32. O P E N T H E AT R E . • The earliest Greek theatres can be traced back to the Minoan civilization on Crete where a large open space with stepped seating can still be seen today at the site of Phaistos. • According to 5th-4th century BCE Greek pottery decoration the stage was built around one metre above the ground and had steps at the front. • The stage scene could also have a top platform from which actors could play gods speaking down upon the audience and actors alike. • A wheeled platform (ekkylema) was pushed out of the doorway and used to dramatically reveal new scenery, and a crane (mechane) was situated to the right of the stage and used to lift actors who were playing gods or heroes.
  33. 33. • The Orchestra was the almost circular place, situated in front of the scene (stage) facing the audience. • At the center of the orchestra was situated the Thymeli, which at the early years was meant to be an altar and later on, a place, where the leader of the chorus (koryphaios) was standing. • The scene had one or three entrances for the actors. The sides of the Scene facing the audience, served for background as were decorated as a Palace or a Temple. • Between the scene and the seats, there were two more entrances, called Parodoi, one on the right and one on the left, from which the chorus and the persons coming from the outside. • At the back of the scene one could find two buildings with doors, that let on the Proscenio and as far as their decoration is concerned, they might extend the theme of the scene or even present another theme. • The front seats were called Proedria and were reserved for officials and priests. • The Koilon (or Theatron) was the auditorium of the greek theater, where the spectators sat. It was called koilon because of its shape. Its shape was semi-circular, built around the orchestra. It was divided in two Diazoma, the upper and the lower.
  34. 34. T H A N K Y O U

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