Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Classical Greek Architecture   Introduction To Art History I       Professor Will Adams          Valencia College
The Origin ofArchitecture
The Origin of Architecture   Our word “architecture”    comes from the Greek    architecton, which means    “master carpe...
The Origin of Architecture   Greek temples, like the    earlier Egyptian hypostyle    halls that their designs are    bas...
Petrified Architecture
Petrified Architecture              However, by the 6th Century               BCE, stone had replaced               wood ...
Petrified Architecture   In fact, the three-barred design of the triglyph, which alternates with the square,       sculpt...
Petrified Architecture              In moving from wood to               stone, builders had to adapt               to th...
Petrified Architecture   As a result, the Greeks    designed temples that could    have towering, widely-spaced    column...
Petrified Architecture              Some experts feel that the               entasis, the outward bulging in             ...
Petrified Architecture   Early temples had massive    pillars, as architects worried    about their ability to support   ...
The Purpose of a     Temple
The Purpose of a Temple   Unlike modern churches or    mosques, Greek temples’    interiors were not meant to be    meeti...
The Purpose of a Temple              In the mild climate of               Greece, ceremonies honoring               the t...
The Anatomy of a   Greek Temple
The Anatomy of a            Greek Temple   There are four distinct parts, or    sections, that are used to    construct a...
The Anatomy of a   Greek Temple                   The next section is the vertical,      Capital                    heigh...
The Anatomy of a             Greek Temple   Above that, supported by the    column, is the entablature.   The entablatur...
The Anatomy of a   Greek Temple           The angled top section that            forms the roof is called the            ...
The GreekArchitectural orders
The Greek Architectural        orders              Greek temples, like Egyptian               temples, tended to follow s...
The Greek Architectural        orders   In order of chronological    development, the three    classical Greek orders    ...
The Doric Order          The Doric order’s columns are –           by comparison – the shortest and           widest, mak...
The Doric Capital   As stated, the capitals of    the Doric order’s columns    consist of three separate    elements.   ...
The Temple of Zeus c. 470 – 456 BCE; Olympia, Greece
The Ionic Order          Temples of the second Greek           order, the Ionic, appear more           elegant than the D...
The Ionic Capital   As with the Doric order,    Ionic order capitals also    have three component    elements.   From to...
The Temple of Artemis    c. 323 BCE; Ephesus, Turkey
The Corinthian Order             Of the three ancient Greek              temple orders, the Corinthian              order...
The Corinthian Order   Like the earlier Doric &    Ionic orders’ capitals, the    Corinthian also have three    component...
The Temple of Caesar     c. 42 BCE; Rome, Italy
Column Refinement                                  Entasis   Columns of all Greek orders    feature a swelling of the sha...
The Plans of Greek      Temples
The Plans of Greek               Temples   The grandeur and evident    expense of a temple can be    determined by the nu...
The Plans of Early  Greek TemplesTemple In Antis       Prostyle         Amphiprostyle Simple naos, no   A naos with a     ...
The Plans of Greek               Temples   Later, grander temples, like    the Parthenon in Athens, had    both a front a...
The Parthenon c. 427 BCE; Athens, Greece
The Plans of Greek               Temples   Grandest of all, and    generally constructed during    the late Greek period ...
The Temple of Apollo    c. 300 BCE; Didyma, Turkey
The Acropolis                         c. 450 BCE; Athens, Greece   Perhaps the greatest concentrated    collection of Gre...
The Parthenon                    c. 427 BCE; Athens, Greece   This building is the culmination    of Classical Greek arch...
Optical Tricks of the     Parthenon
The Greek Legacy   The forms and designs of    ancient Greek architecture    had a lasting impact on the    world.   The...
The Greek Legacy           As a result, the Greek forms            of Greek architecture have            become an integr...
Homework for Next          Class   Identify a building in the local area that uses the Greek architectural    language th...
Telos
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×
Upcoming SlideShare
Truth and Dare - Out of the echochamber into the fire
Next

Share

Arh2050 classical greek architecture

  • Be the first to like this

Arh2050 classical greek architecture

  1. 1. Classical Greek Architecture Introduction To Art History I Professor Will Adams Valencia College
  2. 2. The Origin ofArchitecture
  3. 3. The Origin of Architecture Our word “architecture” comes from the Greek architecton, which means “master carpenter.” Early Greek architecture therefore employed wood, not stone. These early structures, as well as those of mud-brick, have not survived.
  4. 4. The Origin of Architecture Greek temples, like the earlier Egyptian hypostyle halls that their designs are based upon, used basic post-and-lintel construction. This type of design – which is based on right angles and not curves – is sometimes referred to as trabeated architecture.
  5. 5. Petrified Architecture
  6. 6. Petrified Architecture  However, by the 6th Century BCE, stone had replaced wood in the construction of important temples.  This transformation in material from wood to stone is referred to as petrification.  Designs still reflected their origins in wood, however.
  7. 7. Petrified Architecture In fact, the three-barred design of the triglyph, which alternates with the square, sculpted metope, was designed to mimic the grooves of a wooden truss’s end .
  8. 8. Petrified Architecture  In moving from wood to stone, builders had to adapt to the differing properties of their building materials.  Stone has greater compressive strength (resistance to crushing) than wood, but lacks wood’s tensile strength (tolerance of bending or twisting).
  9. 9. Petrified Architecture As a result, the Greeks designed temples that could have towering, widely-spaced columns, but their superstructures (the parts of the building held up by the columns) had to be solid, unified masses capable of being held together by multiple columns. This part must be solid. This part can have open space.
  10. 10. Petrified Architecture  Some experts feel that the entasis, the outward bulging in the middle of Greek columns, may originally have been an imitation of the effect of great compression on the wooden posts of early Greek temples.  It also serves as a kind of correction to an optical illusion, however, as will be discussed later.
  11. 11. Petrified Architecture Early temples had massive pillars, as architects worried about their ability to support the weight above. As a result, the earliest Greek temples, like the Temple of Hera I at Paestum, look low & wide. Later Greek temples, like the Temple of Hera II at Paestum, appear taller & more elegant.
  12. 12. The Purpose of a Temple
  13. 13. The Purpose of a Temple Unlike modern churches or mosques, Greek temples’ interiors were not meant to be meeting places for worship. They were seen as earthly homes for the community’s god or goddess and a place to keep offerings. A cult image was centrally located within the naos, or central interior space.
  14. 14. The Purpose of a Temple  In the mild climate of Greece, ceremonies honoring the temple’s god or goddess generally took place outdoors.  Even the altar, upon which animal sacrifices were made, were outside the temple structure, usually proceeding the temple’s façade or front.
  15. 15. The Anatomy of a Greek Temple
  16. 16. The Anatomy of a Greek Temple There are four distinct parts, or sections, that are used to construct a Greek temple. The lowest, horizontal part of the temple is its foundation, which looks like steps. Most Greek temples had three of these “steps”. Collectively, this section is called the stylobate.
  17. 17. The Anatomy of a Greek Temple  The next section is the vertical, Capital height-building section that is referred to as the column.  Most columns had a base (though not the Doric), at the Shaft bottom, a shaft in the middle, and a capital at the top.  The shaft may also be smooth or fluted (a series of grooves that run the length of the Base shaft).
  18. 18. The Anatomy of a Greek Temple Above that, supported by the column, is the entablature. The entablature forms the ceiling of the temple. If the column is like a table leg, think of this as the tabletop. It has three parts:  Architrave: the beam that rests on the capital.  Frieze: A sculpted band.  Cornice: A crowning trim.
  19. 19. The Anatomy of a Greek Temple  The angled top section that forms the roof is called the pediment.  The angled beam at the top is called the sloping cornice.  The triangular part below is called the tympanum; this is often carved and decorated.  Sometimes there are carved features attached to the roof; these are called antefixes (2D on roof edges) & acroterion (3D, on corners).
  20. 20. The GreekArchitectural orders
  21. 21. The Greek Architectural orders  Greek temples, like Egyptian temples, tended to follow set design patterns, which were regarded as unchangeable, ideal forms.  Resultantly, design variations are few in any given period.  Instead, the architects choice of a particular Greek order (decorative detail style), expressed his creativity.
  22. 22. The Greek Architectural orders In order of chronological development, the three classical Greek orders are:  The Doric  The Ionic  The Corinthian
  23. 23. The Doric Order  The Doric order’s columns are – by comparison – the shortest and widest, making these temples the heaviest in appearance.  The tripartite capital is plainly carved.  Doric columns have thick shafts (though it loses some of its mass over time) that are constructed with cylindrical blocks called drums.  The columns are baseless.
  24. 24. The Doric Capital As stated, the capitals of the Doric order’s columns consist of three separate elements. From top to bottom, they are:  The Abacus  The Echinus  The Necking
  25. 25. The Temple of Zeus c. 470 – 456 BCE; Olympia, Greece
  26. 26. The Ionic Order  Temples of the second Greek order, the Ionic, appear more elegant than the Doric.  Besides basic proportion, the Ionic is distinguishable from the Doric order by its capital’s distinctive scroll-like volutes.  The columns that they surmount also have shafts that are thinner and taller than the Doric.  Finally, the Ionic order adds a base to the column.
  27. 27. The Ionic Capital As with the Doric order, Ionic order capitals also have three component elements. From top to bottom they are:  The Abacus  The Volute  The Necking
  28. 28. The Temple of Artemis c. 323 BCE; Ephesus, Turkey
  29. 29. The Corinthian Order  Of the three ancient Greek temple orders, the Corinthian order temples are by far the tallest, most elegant, and most majestic in their appearance.  Their towering columns are topped by foliated capitals that are delineated by acanthus leaf carvings.  As with the Ionic order, column bases are also employed.
  30. 30. The Corinthian Order Like the earlier Doric & Ionic orders’ capitals, the Corinthian also have three component elements. From top to bottom they are:  The Abacus  The Acanthus Leaves  The Necking
  31. 31. The Temple of Caesar c. 42 BCE; Rome, Italy
  32. 32. Column Refinement Entasis Columns of all Greek orders feature a swelling of the shaft called entasis. Entasis counteracts the eye’s tendency to reach upward & forces it to look both ways. Also, columns that are straight appear thinner in the middle when seen against harsh light, making them appear flimsy. The shaft’s middle bulge visually counteracts this.
  33. 33. The Plans of Greek Temples
  34. 34. The Plans of Greek Temples The grandeur and evident expense of a temple can be determined by the number of columns that were used to construct it. Simple, early temples were only blank walls surrounding the naos. Later, an open area or porch was added in front, called a pronaos, supported with either two or four columns.
  35. 35. The Plans of Early Greek TemplesTemple In Antis Prostyle Amphiprostyle Simple naos, no A naos with a A naos with a pronaos pronaos in front pronaos at either end
  36. 36. The Plans of Greek Temples Later, grander temples, like the Parthenon in Athens, had both a front and back pronaos (like an amphiprostyle temple), but added a colonnade that surrounded the entire structure called a peristyle. A structure with this type of floor plan is referred to as a peripteral temple.
  37. 37. The Parthenon c. 427 BCE; Athens, Greece
  38. 38. The Plans of Greek Temples Grandest of all, and generally constructed during the late Greek period (what is known as the Hellenistic Age), are dipteral temples. These are essentially peripteral temples, but with a second colonnade surrounding them, creating a double peristyle.
  39. 39. The Temple of Apollo c. 300 BCE; Didyma, Turkey
  40. 40. The Acropolis c. 450 BCE; Athens, Greece Perhaps the greatest concentrated collection of Greek architecture sits atop the Acropolis, the sacred sanctuary of Athena in Athens. This sanctuary’s collection of buildings includes:  The Propylaia: The gatehouse  The Temple of Athena Nike: The temple dedicated to victory.  The Parthenon: The temple of Athena as patron goddess of Athens  The Erechtheum: The temple dedicated to the early kings of Athens & the god Poseidon
  41. 41. The Parthenon c. 427 BCE; Athens, Greece This building is the culmination of Classical Greek architecture, and is the template that many other structures would go on to emulate. To create this temple, the architects (Kallikrates & Iktinos) included many subtle optical refinements. The result is a building that reflects the Greek concept of arete, visual perfection.
  42. 42. Optical Tricks of the Parthenon
  43. 43. The Greek Legacy The forms and designs of ancient Greek architecture had a lasting impact on the world. The Romans went on to adopt its plans and orders as ideals, but would modify them to meet their more pragmatic building requirements, creating structures like the Pantheon in Rome.
  44. 44. The Greek Legacy  As a result, the Greek forms of Greek architecture have become an integral part of the vocabulary of world architecture.  In fact, the architecture of Rome would strongly influence the development of the United States’ federal architectural language, centuries after the Classical era.
  45. 45. Homework for Next Class Identify a building in the local area that uses the Greek architectural language that we learned in class today.  Hint: Prime suspects for your building include banks, churches, and government buildings. Using a piece of graph paper & a pencil, sketch the façade, or front, of the building. Then, trace over your pencil sketch in black ink pen. Next, identify and label all of the Greek architectural elements from today’s lecture that you can in your sketch of that building’s façade. On the back of your sketch, please write your name, the name of the building, and its physical address. Your sketch will be due at the beginning of next class.
  46. 46. Telos

Views

Total views

3,299

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

2,581

Actions

Downloads

0

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

0

×